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conscience or honor or capacity for covenanted peace.” But there are other things for which it should be remembered. It makes clear as crystal the issue that confronted the Allies (the United States included) in the Great War. In it he speaks the very thought of the American people. He and they would countenance no compromise to secure peace. Justice and equality of rights must be secured, whatever the cost, for all nations. It shows the necessity of a complete and lasting defeat of a nation whose God is Might, and which knows no law except the law of necessity.
This address was delivered before a joint session of Congress, December 4, 1917, at Washington, D.C.
NATIONAL UNITY (Page 183), AND NATIONAL TRAIN
ING FOR NATIONAL SERVICE (Page 186) The Commercial Club of St. Louis, Missouri, was addressed by Dr. Butler on February 16, 1918. His topic was “A Program of Constructive Progress.” These two selections are from that address.
THE NEWSPAPER (Page 189) Fred Newton Scott (1877– ) is professor of rhetoric in the University of Michigan. From that university he holds the degrees of A.B., A.M., and Ph.D.
He is a well-known writer of books and contributor to magazines.
“The Newspaper" constitutes inscriptions of ideals adopted by the well-known daily, The Detroit News, Detroit, Michigan. The author of the ideals of “The Newspaper" is Professor Fred Newton Scott of the University of Michigan. Of course The Detroit News does not claim to live up completely to these ideals, but the courage to set them forth as its ideals, and the attempt to live up to them, are highly commendable, and indicate the spirit and the function of the American daily. These ideals should be learned by heart by every American citizen and transmuted into character.
FORCE TO THE UTMOST (Page 190) This address by President Wilson, familiarly known as his “Force to the Utmost” speech, was delivered at Baltimore, Maryland, April 6, 1918. He went to Baltimore to discuss the third Liberty Loan. When this address was given, Americans were no longer under an illusion about the Prussian menace. They knew that if Germany should win in Europe, her next attack in her design to dominate the world would be against the United States and South America. Americans had come to feel by this time more than ever that they were fighting to make their own homes safe for their children, as well as to make the world safe for democracy.
THE AMERICAN'S CREED (Page 194) William Tyler Page (1868– ), who is now minority clerk of the House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., was born at Frederick, Maryland, October 19, 1868. He attended the Frederick Academy, and the public schools of Baltimore, and on December 19, 1881, he entered the service of the House of Representatives as a page.. Since then he has served in the House continuously, holding the following positions : file clerk, journal clerk, tally clerk, clerk to the Committee on Accounts, minority clerk of the House. In the 65th Congress he was the Republican nominee for Clerk of the House, and was Republican nominee for Congress from the second district of Maryland in 1902. He is the author of Page's Congressional Handbook, and collaborated in the preparation of the House Manual of Rules and Parliamentary Practice.
“GASSING” THE WORLD's Mind (Page 195) William Thomas Ellis (1873– ) is one of America's well-known writers. He has traveled extensively throughout the world. He was born in Alleghany, Pennsylvania. He has been editorially connected with a number of Philadelphia dailies ; was editor of the International
Christian Endeavor organ, 1894–1897; editor of Forward, a Presbyterian weekly, 1897–1902; Philadelphia Press editor, 1903–1908. He has lectured and made addresses in all parts of the United States, and is the author of a number of volumes dealing particularly with religious topics.
INDEPENDENCE BELL (Page 203) It is not known who wrote these verses entitled “Independence Bell,” but a few facts about the circumstances leading to the writing of this selection can be given. The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, in the State House (Independence Hall) May 10, 1775. On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia moved “That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.' John Adams of Massachusetts seconded the motion. Later a committee of five was appointed to draft the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson drew up the paper, though some changes were made in it by the committee and by Congress. It was adopted on the evening of July 4, 1776. When it was adopted, the event was announced by ringing the old State House bell, which bore the inscription, “Proclaim Liberty Throughout the Land, to All the Inhabitants Thereof !” The venerable bellman had his grandson stand at the door of the hall, to await the announcement of the event by the door keeper. When the grandson was given the signal, he rushed to where he could see his grandfather, and shouted, “Ring, ring; ring!”
Hail, COLUMBIA (Page 205) Joseph Hopkinson (1770-1842), an American jurist, was born in Philadelphia, November 12, 1770. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, 1786, and practiced law in Easton, Pennsylvania, and Philadelphia. He conducted the defense in the impeachment trial of Associate Justice Samuel Chase, and was a Representative in Congress from 1817 to 1819. President J. Q. Adams
appointed him judge for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, 1828–1842. He wrote many addresses and articles as well as “Hail, Columbia.” He died in Philadelphia, January 15, 1842.
THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER (Page 207) Francis Scott Key (1780–1843), lawyer and poet, was born in Frederick County, Maryland, August 9, 1780. He graduated from St. John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, practiced law at Frederick in 1801, and later after going to Washington became district attorney of the District of Columbia. He was buried in Mount Olivet Cemetery, Frederick, Maryland.
Shortly before the close of the War of 1812, the British bombarded Fort McHenry. During this action Key was held a prisoner by the British aboard a small ship. He was in extreme suspense about the outcome of this engagement, and was relieved in the early dawn by the sight of the Stars and Stripes still floating over the fort. Under inspiration of this sight, he wrote on the back of a letter the first draft of “The Star-Spangled Banner.” It became popular almost immediately upon being printed. A large national flag is kept floating over Key's grave.
THE AMERICAN FLAG (Page 208) Joseph Rodman Drake (1795–1820) was a poet and newspaper contributor, who was born in New York City. His father and mother both died when he was very young. From childhood he showed a special talent for writing poetry. He entered business life, but did not like it, and then decided in 1813 to study medicine, which he began to practice three years later. In 1819 he made daily contributions to the New York Evening Post. He died in New York City, September 21, 1820.
AMERICA (Page 210) Samuel Francis Smith (1808–1895) was born in Boston, attended the Boston Latin School, and graduated from Harvard, 1829, and from the Andover Theological Seminary in 1832. He was a Baptist minister, and taught modern languages at Colby University, 1834-1841. He edited several religious periodicals, and besides being the author of “ America,” he wrote many other productions, among which are “The Morning Light is Breaking," and “Rock of Ages.” He died in Boston, November 16, 1895.
CONCORD HYMN (Page 211) Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882), an American philosopher and poet of renown, was born in Boston, May 25, 1803. His father was a preacher. Even in childhood Emerson was fond of writing, and at the age of eleven wrote a version, quite a good one, of a part of Virgil. At the age of fourteen he entered Harvard College, and did remarkable work in Greek, history, declamation, and composition. He was the class poet. He studied theology in Harvard in 1823, and became an ordained minister in 1829. His church was opened to all reformers, since Emerson himself was interested in all public questions. He was a Unitarian early in his ministry. He did considerable lecturing on various subjects. From 1842 to 1844 he was editor of The Dial.
He made many contributions to The Atlantic Monthly, and wrote and lectured a great deal on the abolition of slavery. President Lincoln sought an introduction to Emerson after he had listened to one of Emerson's lectures against slavery. In 1866, Harvard honored him with the degree of LL.D. He is the author of many volumes of essays,
poems, letters, and sketches. He died at Concord, Massachusetts, April 27, 1882.
On April 19, 1836, a monument was dedicated in honor of the patriots who fell in the battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775. This monument was erected at Concord; Emerson wrote this hymn for the occasion.