"The Meaning of the Flag” is an address given by President Wilson in June, 1915, and hence about two years before America entered the World War. It was delivered on June 14, from the south portico of the Treasury Building, Washington, D.C. The President reminds his hearers that “this is Flag Day,” but points out that “there are no days of special patriotism.

A LEAGUE TO ENFORCE PEACE (Page 108) A. Lawrence Lowell (1856– ) is president of Harvard University, and has held that position since May 19, 1909. He practiced law at Boston from 1880 to 1897, and was professor of the science of government at Harvard from 1900 to 1909. He is the author of several books dealing with politics, government, and public opinion. He has been and is a powerful factor in advancing the cause of international democracy by helping on the movement of a League of Nations to Enforce Peace.

The date of this article from the Atlantic Monthly shows that the World War had been going on for over a year when President Lowell wrote it. The League to Enforce Peace was formed in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, June 17, 1915. Dr. A. Lawrence Lowell is Chairman of the Executive Committee, and Ex-President William Howard Taft is President of the League.

PATRIOTISM (Page 117) This selection on patriotism by Dr. Butler was originally given as part of an address by him before the Newport Historical Society, Newport, R. I., August 15, 1915. In 1917 it was copyrighted by Charles Scribner's Sons, and became part of a volume of addresses by Dr. Butler, which bears the title of A World in Ferment. In 1901 President Wilson, then a professor in Princeton University, wrote the following about modern democracy: “As a matter of fact democracy as we know it is no older than the end of the eighteenth century. The doctrines which sustain it can scarcely be said to derive any support at

all from the practices of the classical states. Modern democracy wears a very different aspect, and rests upon principles separated by the whole heaven from those of the Roman or Grecian democrat."

AMERICANISM (Page 119) This selection on Americanism by Mr. Roosevelt is a portion of an address by him delivered before the Knights of Columbus, Carnegie Hall, New York City, October 12, 1915. The World War had been in progress somewhat over a year. In 1916 George H. Doran Company, New York, copyrighted this address along with other addresses, articles, and public statements by Mr. Roosevelt, and put them together in a volume entitled Fear God and Take Your Own Part. Mr. Roosevelt dedicated this book to Julia Ward Howe, who, he says, “was as good a citizen of the Republic as Washington and Lincoln themselves.'' In his introductory note to the book, Colonel Roosevelt says that “the principles set forth in this book are simply the principles of true Americanism within and without our own borders.”

PAN-AMERICANISM (Page 126) Robert Lansing (1864 ), is Secretary of State of the United States. He was born in Watertown, New York, October 17, 1864. He graduated from Amherst College in 1886, and in 1915 was honored by both Amherst and Colgate in being awarded the degree of LL.D. In 1889 he was admitted to the bar, and was a member of the firm of Lansing & Lansing from 1889 to 1907. associate counsel for the United States in the Behring Sea Arbitration, 1892–1893; was solicitor for the United States in the Alaskan Boundary Tribunal in 1903; and served the Federal Government in various legal capacities up to June 23, 1915, when he was made Secretary of State by President Wilson. He is associate editor of the American Journal of International Law.

He was

This address was delivered before the Second PanAmerican Scientific Congress, held at Washington D.C., from December 27, 1915, to January 8, 1916. This Congress considered a multitude of subjects in pursuance of its “high aims and purposes : namely, to increase the knowledge of things American; to disseminate and to make the culture of each American country the heritage of all American republics; to further the advancement of science by disinterested coöperation; to promote industry, inter-American trade and commerce; and to devise ways and means of mutual helpfulness."

The first Pan-American Scientific Congress was held at Santiago in 1908.


(Page 132) The address on Individual Liberty and the Responsibility of the Bar, from which the paragraphs here given were taken, was delivered by Mr. Root at the annual dinner of the New York State Bar Association, January 15, 1916. It is fortunate that the addresses are collected in several volumes, covering the period of his services as Secretary of War, as Secretary of State, and as Senator of the United States, during which time, as he himself once said, his only client was his country. The Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, has published this edition. This address by Mr. Root is from the volume entitled Addresses on Government and Citizenship. The dinner at which this address was given was arranged specially to commemorate Mr. Root's reëntry into the legal profession, after many years of absence from it “because of the engrossing character of duties in the Departments and in the Senate in Washington.” He said: “I have come back to my old friends and my old haunts and taken up the old course of going up and down town daily, as I used to forty or fifty years ago.”

PATRIOTISM (Page 137) Lyman Abbott (1835– ) is a noted editor, author, and preacher. His birthplace is Roxbury, Massachusetts. He graduated from New York University in 1853, was admitted to the New York bar in 1856, and is still a member of it. In 1860 he was ordained to the Congregational ministry, and since then has served as pastor of a number of churches, the most noted of which was the Plymouth Congregational Church, Brooklyn (1869– 1899), where he succeeded the distinguished preacher, Henry Ward Beecher. He was associate editor with Henry Ward Beecher of The Christian Union, and since 1893 he has been editor-in-chief of The Outlook. He has served as political and religious guide to hosts of Americans.

WHAT THE FLAG MEANS (Page 138) In June, 1916, Mr. Hughes, then a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, delivered this address to a graduating class in Washington, D. C.

THE CHALLENGE (Page 142) Why did the United States enter the Great War? The answer is simple and sufficient. America believes in two kinds, and only two kinds, of wars. She believes in a war of self-defense, and in a war of rescue, liberation, emancipation, and freedom. America entered the Great War on the basis of self-defense and of rescue and freedom.

THE GREAT STRUGGLE (Page 155) This is another illustration of Doctor Butler's epigrammatic statements which say so much in so small compass. There are several sentences in this short characterization that are worthy of serious discussion.

THE MENACE (Page 156) This address by President Wilson states in a masterly way the real nature of German intrigue and aggression in this country, both before America entered the war and after she entered it.

THE DELIVERERS (Page 163) The Outlook began its existence in 1869 as The Christian Union, succeeding a small paper known as The Church Union. Its first editor-in-chief was Henry Ward Beecher. Dr. Lyman Abbott became associate editor with Mr. Beecher in 1876 and editor-in-chief in 1881 when Mr. Beecher retired, which position he still holds.

The name of the paper was changed from The Christian Union to The Outlook in 1893.

WHY WE ARE FIGHTING GERMANY (Page 165) Franklin K. Lane (1864 ) was born in Prince Edward Island, Canada. He was appointed Secretary of the Interior by President Wilson, March 5, 1913. In early childhood he moved to California, and graduated from the University of California in 1886. He engaged in newspaper work early in life, and later acted as New York correspondent for western papers. He at one time was part owner and editor of the Tacoma Daily News. In 1889 he was admitted to the California bar and began the practice of law in San Francisco. In 1902 he ran for the governorship of California. From December, 1905, to March 4, 1913, he was a member of the Interstate Commerce Commission. The degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him in 1915 by New York University.

A JUST AND GENEROUS PEACE (Page 172) This address of President Wilson should be remembered and studied, if for nothing else, for his laconic description of the present German Government as “a Thing without

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