THE TYPICAL AMERICAN (Page 89) Nicholas Murray Butler (1862 ) is a noted publicist. He was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey. No less than fifteen educational institutions have bestowed the honorary degree of LL.D. upon him, and in 1905 the University of Oxford conferred upon him the degree of Litt.D. He has been president of Columbia University since January, 1902, and is a member or officer of more than a score of educational, literary, and political organizations, and is the author of a number of volumes dealing with educational, political, and philosophical subjects. He is greatly sought as lecturer and after-dinner speaker. Many of his epigrammatic statements, such as this one and others found in this volume, have been printed and widely circulated in the United States.

Good CITIZENSHIP (Page 90) Grover Cleveland (1837–1908) was born at Caldwell, New Jersey. He was the son of a poor Presbyterian minister, and was of New England descent.

He grew up in western New York, and supported himself as best he could by tending a country store. He taught in an asylum for the blind, and acted as clerk in a lawyer's office in Buffalo. He received his academic education in Clinton, New York. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in Buffalo. In 1881, when he was forty-five years old, he was elected mayor of the city of Buffalo on an independent ticket. From this position he was made governor of New York, and while governor was elected to the presidency of the United States, 1884. In 1888 he was renominated, but defeated. But in 1892 he was returned to the presidency with a democratic majority in both houses of Congress. He was a “self-made man. He died at Princeton, New Jersey.

THE ATTITUDE OF THE INDIVIDUAL (Page 91) Charles Evans Hughes (1862 ) is a well-known American jurist, and political leader. He graduated

from Brown University in 1881. He was admitted to the New York bar in 1884; practiced law in New York, 1884–1891, 1893–1906; became professor of law at Cornell University in 1891, and held that position until 1893; was special lecturer, New York Law School, 1893–1900. He became nationally prominent owing to his investigation of the record of some of the largest insurance companies in New York City, 1905–1906. In 1905 he was nominated for office of mayor of New York City by the Republican Convention, but declined. He became governor of New York, January 1, 1907, and served as governor until he resigned, October 6, 1910. President Taft appointed him associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, May 2, 1910. This position he held until June, 1916, when he resigned, because he was nominated for the presidency of the United States by the Republican party. He is a statesman of administrative political experience and a lawyer of a highly developed judicial mind.

At Yale University each year is given a course of lectures on “The Responsibilities of Citizenship" by “a lecturer of distinguished attainments and high conception of civic responsibilities." The fund which makes possible these annual lectures on this most important topic was given to Yale University about 1900 by Mr. William E. Dodge. In 1910 Mr. Hughes was selected as the lecturer possessing the qualifications set forth by the founder of the fund as quoted above. The Yale University Press has now published more than a dozen volumes of these lectures. This selection from Mr. Hughes is from one of the four lectures in the 1910 series given by him at Yale.

THE SPIRIT OF SELF-GOVERNMENT (Page 96) Elihu Root (1845– ) was born in Clinton, New York. He graduated from Hamilton College in 1864, and taught at Rome Academy after his graduation. He studied law at New York University, receiving his LL.B. in 1867. Honorary degrees have been bestowed upon him by many

American educational institutions, as well as by the University of Buenos Aires, McGill University, the University of Leyden, and Oxford University. He was admitted to the bar in 1867, and practiced law in New York. From 1883 to 1885 he was United States district attorney, Southern District of New York, was Secretary of War in the Cabinet of President McKinley, and Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President Roosevelt. He served as United States Senator from New York from 1909 to 1915; was president of the New York Constitutional Convention in 1915. He was a member of the Alaskan Boundary Tribunal in 1903, and consul for the United States in the North Atlantic Fisheries Arbitration, 1910. In 1910 he became a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague, and in the same year was president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He was president of The Hague Tribunal of Arbitration between Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal concerning church property in 1913. In 1912 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1917 President Wilson appointed him head of a special diplomatic mission to Russia.

“The Spirit of Self-Government” is the title of an address delivered by Elihu Root at the one hundred and forty-fourth anniversary banquet of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, November 21, 1912.

THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE TO RULE (Page 101) Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) from 1901 to 1914 filled the stage of American public life perhaps more completely and conspicuously than did any other American. Honors too numerous to be mentioned in full have been showered upon him. A long list of colleges and universities have bestowed degrees upon him, among them Cambridge University, Oxford University, and the University of Berlin. He was a member of the New York Legislature from 1882 to 1884 at the early age of twentyfour, and was a delegate to the Republican National Con

vention in 1884, where he opposed the nomination of James G. Blaine for the presidency. The next two years he spent on a ranch, roughing it in North Dakota, strengthening his feeble health. He was appointed to the Civil Service Commission by President Harrison in 1889, and . served on it until 1895. Then for two years he was president of the New York Police Board, and became assistant secretary of the navy in 1897, resigning (1898) to organize the First United States Cavalry (commonly spoken of as the Roosevelt Rough Riders) for the SpanishAmerican War. In that year he was made a colonel for bravery in battle in the Spanish War, and, returning to New York as a military hero, was elected governor of the Empire State in the autumn of the same year (1898). He was elected Vice-President of the United States, November 4, 1900, and succeeded to the presidency upon the death of William McKinley, September 14, 1901. On November 8, 1904, he was elected President of the United States by the largest majority, both in the electoral vote (336 to 140) and in the popular vote (7,624,489 to 5,082,754), ever recorded in our history to that time, and by the largest plurality vote (2,545,515), ever given to any President of the United States. In 1912 he was the Progressive Party's candidate for the presidency. The Nobel Peace Prize, consisting of $40,000 and a medal, was awarded to him in 1906.

These paragraphs on “The Right of the People to Rule" are the concluding ones of a speech delivered by Mr. Roosevelt at Carnegie Hall, New York City, under the auspices of the Civic Forum, Wednesday evening, March 20, 1912. In granting permission to reprint these paragraphs, Colonel Roosevelt wrote to the editor the following words: “That contains the sum of the principles for which I was fighting in 1912, for which I am fighting now, and for which I have always fought and always shall fight.” They are well worth very serious study and thought.

POLITICAL ROUTINEER AND INVENTOR (Page 104) Walter Lippmann (1889 ) was born in New York City, September 23, 1889, and took his A.B. degree from Harvard in 1909. He did graduate work in philosophy at Harvard during 1909–1910. Mr. Lippmann is the author of A Preface to Politics, Drift and Mastery, and The Stakes of Diplomacy. He is the editor of The Poems of Paul Mariett.

THE MEANING OF THE FLAG (Page 105) Woodrow Wilson (1856– ) is the twenty-eighth President of the United States. He was born in Staunton, Va., December 28, 1856. His father was a preacher. He is of Scotch-Irish ancestry. He graduated from Princeton College in 1879; graduated in law from the University of Virginia, 1881; practiced law at Atlanta, Georgia, 1882–1883; and did post-graduate work at Johns Hopkins, 1883–1885. He holds the degree of A.B. and A.M. from Princeton; the degree of LL.D. from no less than nine colleges and universities, and the degree of Litt.D. from Yale. He taught history and political economy at Bryn Mawr College from 1885 to 1888, and was professor of the same subjects at Wesleyan University from 1888 to 1890. From 1890 to 1910 he was a professor in Princeton University, and president of Princeton from August 1, 1902, to October 20, 1910. He became governor of New Jersey, January, 1911, and served in that capacity until he resigned in March, 1913. The Democratic National Convention nominated him for President in 1912, to which office he was elected November 4, 1912. His political opponents in the 1912 election were Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive candidate, and William Howard Taft, the Republican candidate. In 1916 he was reölected President. He is the author of numerous books and published addresses. He has become an international figure through his leadership of the United States during the Great War and through his interpretation of the higher purposes of the Allies in this struggle.

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