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shores, but on our ships, our lives, our rights, our future. For two years and more we held to a neutrality that made us apologists for things which outraged man's common sense of fair play and humanity... At each new offense 5 the invasion of Belgium, the killing of civilian Belgians, the attacks on Scarborough and other defenseless towns, the laying of mines in neutral waters, the fencing off of the

- and on and through the months said: “This is war

archaic, uncivilized war, but war! All rules 10 have been thrown away: all nobility; man has come down

to the primitive brute. And while we cannot justify we will not intervene. It is not our war."

Then why are we in? Because we could not keep out. The invasion of Belgium which opened the war, led to the 15 invasion of the United States by slow, steady, logical

steps. Our sympathies evolved into a conviction of selfinterest. Our love of fair play ripened into alarm at our own peril.

We talked in the language and in the spirit of good 20 faith and sincerity, as honest men should talk, until we

discovered that our talk was construed as cowardice. And Mexico was called upon to invade us. We talked as men would talk who cared alone for peace and the advance

ment of their own material interests, until we discovered 25 that we were thought to be a nation of mere money makers,

devoid of all character until, indeed, we were told that we could not walk the highways of the world without permission of a Prussian soldier; that our ships might not

sail without wearing a striped uniform of humiliation upon 30 a narrow path of national subservience. We talked as

men talk who hope for honest agreement, not for war, until we found that the treaty torn to pieces at Liège was but the symbol of a policy that made agreements worthless against a purpose that knew no word but success.

And so we came into this war for ourselves. It is a war to save America - to preserve self-respect, to justify our

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right to live as we have lived, not as some one else wishes us to live. In the name of freedom we challenge with ships and men, money, and an undaunted spirit, that word “Verboten” which Germany has written upon the sea and upon the land. For America is not the name of so much 5 territory. It is a living spirit, born in travail, grown in the rough school of bitter experiences, a living spirit which has purpose and pride, and conscience — knows why it wishes to live and to what end, knows how it comes to be respected of the world, and hopes to retain that respect by living on 10 with the light of Lincoln's love of man as its Old and New Testament. It is more precious that this America should live than that we Americans should live. And this America, as we now see, has been challenged from the first of this war by the strong arm of a power that has no sympathy 15 with our purpose and will not hesitate to destroy us if the law that we respect, the rights that are to us sacred, or the spirit that we have, stand across her set will to make this world bow before her policies, backed by her organized and scientific military system. The world of Christ a neg- 20 lected but not a rejected Christ - has come again face to face with the world of Mahomet, who willed to win by force.

With this background of history and in this sense, then, we fight Germany.

Because of Belgium - invaded, outraged, enslaved, impoverished Belgium. We cannot forget Liège, Louvain, and Cardinal Mercier. Translated into terms of American history, these names stand for Bunker Hill, Lexington, and Patrick Henry.

Because of France -- invaded, desecrated France, a million of whose heroic sons have died to save the land of Lafayette. Glorious golden France, the preserver of the arts, the land of noble spirit the first land to follow our lead into republican liberty.

Because of England – from whom came the laws, tradi

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tions, standards of life, and inherent love of liberty which we call Anglo-Saxon civilization. We defeated her once upon the land and once upon the sea. But Australia, New Zealand, Africa, and Canada are free because of what we 5 did. And they are with us in the fight for the freedom of the seas.

Because of Russia — New Russia. She must not be overwhelmed now. Not now, surely, when she is just born

into freedom. Her peasants must have their chance; they 10 must go to school to Washington, to Jefferson, and to Lin

coln until they know their way about in this new, strange world of government by the popular will.

Because of other peoples, with their rising hope that the world may be freed from government by the soldier. 15 We are fighting Germany because she sought to terrorize

us and then to fool us. We could not believe that Germany would do what she said she would do upon the seas.

We still hear the piteous cries of children coming up out of the sea where the Lusitania went down. And Germany 20 has never asked forgiveness of the world.

We saw the Sussex sunk, crowded with the sons and daughters of neutral nations.

We saw ship after ship sent to the bottom ships of mercy bound out of America for the Belgian starving; 25 ships carrying the Red Cross and laden with the wounded

of all nations; ships carrying food and clothing to friendly, harmless, terrorized peoples; ships flying the Stars and Stripes — sent to the bottom hundreds of miles from shore,

manned by American seamen, murdered against all law, 30 without warning.

We believed Germany's promise that she would respect the neutral flag and the rights of neutrals, and we held our anger and outrage in check. But now we see that she was

holding us off with fair promises until she could build her 35 huge fleet of submarines. For when spring came she blew

her promise into the air, just as at the beginning she had

torn up that "scrap of paper.” Then we saw clearly that there was but one law for Germany - her will to rule.

We are fighting Germany because she violated our confidence. Paid German spies filled our cities. Officials of her Government, received as the guests of this Nation, 5 lived with us to bribe and terrorize, defying our law and the law of nations.

We are fighting Germany because while we were yet her friends the only great power that still held hands off she sent the Zimmermann note, calling to her aid Mexico, 10 our southern neighbor, and hoping to lure Japan, our western neighbor, into war against this Nation of peace.

The nation that would do these things proclaims the gospel that government has no conscience. And this doctrine cannot live, or else democracy must die. For the 15 nations of the world must keep faith. There can be no living for us in a world where the state has no conscience, no reverence for the things of the spirit, no respect for international law, no mercy for those who fall before its force. What an unordered world! Anarchy! The anarchy of 20 rival wolf packs!

We are fighting Germany because in this war feudalism is making its last stand against on-coming democracy. We see it now. This is a war against an old spirit, an ancient, outworn spirit. It is a war against feudalism — the 25 right of the castle on the hill to rule the village below. It is a war for democracy the right of all to be their own masters. Let Germany be feudal if she will, but she must not spread her system over the world that has outgrown it. Feudalism plus science, thirteenth century plus twen- 30 tieth - this is the religion of the mistaken Germany that has linked itself with the Turk; that has, too, adopted the method of Mahomet. “The state has no conscience." “The state can do no wrong. With the spirit of the fanatic she believes this gospel and that it is her duty to spread 35 it by force. With poison gas that makes living a hell,

with submarines that sneak through the seas to slyly murder noncombatants, with dirigibles that bombard men and women while they sleep, with a perfected system of terrorization that the modern world first heard of when German 5 troops entered China, German feudalism is making war upon mankind. Let this old spirit of evil have its way and no man will live in America without paying toll to it in manhood and money. This spirit might demand Canada

from a defeated, navyless England, and then our dream of 10 peace on the north would be at an end. We would live, as France has lived for forty years, in haunting terror.

America speaks for the world in fighting Germany. Mark on a map those countries which are Germany's allies

and you will mark but four, running from the Baltic through 15 Austria and Bulgaria to Turkey. All the other nations

the whole globe around are in arms against her or are unable to move. There is deep meaning in this. We fight with the world for an honest world in which nations

keep their word, for a world in which nations do not 20 live by swagger or by threat, for a world in which men

think of the ways in which they can conquer the common cruelties of nature instead of inventing more horrible cruelties to inflict upon the spirit and body of

man, for a world in which the ambition or the philosophy 25 of a few shall not make miserable all mankind, for a world

in which the man is held more precious than the machine, the system, or the state.

THE MONROE DOCTRINE OF THE WORLD

By The World's Work. (NOVEMBER, 1917) THERE is a photograph recently published of a column of American soldiers crossing the Thames with the Houses 30 of the British Parliament in the background. These sol

diers are part of the American Army gone to Europe to

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