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ing is general throughout North and South America, and that year by year it has increased until it has become a potent influence over our political and commercial inter

It is the same feeling which, founded on sympa5 thy and mutual interest, exists among the members of a family. It is the tie which draws together the twentyone Republics and makes of them the American Family of Nations.

This feeling, vague at first, has become to-day a definite 10 and certain force. We term it the "Pan-American spirit,"

from which springs the international policy of Pan-Americanism. It is that policy which is responsible for this great gathering of distinguished men, who represent the best and

most advanced thought of the Americas. It is a policy 15 which this Government has unhesitatingly adopted and which it will do all in its power to foster and promote.

When we attempt to analyze Pan-Americanism we find that the essential qualities are those of the family

sympathy, helpfulness and a sincere desire to see another 20 grow in prosperity, absence of covetousness of another's

possessions, absence of jealousy of another's prominence, and, above all, absence of that spirit of intrigue which menaces the domestic peace of a neighbor. Such are the

qualities of the family tie among individuals, and such 25 should be, and I believe are, the qualities which compose the tie which unites the American Family of Nations.

I speak only for the Government of the United States, but in doing so I am sure that I express sentiments which will find an echo in every Republic represented here, when I say that the might of this country will never be exercised in a spirit of greed to wrest from a neighboring state its territory or possessions. The ambitions of this Republic do not lie in the path of conquest but in the

paths of peace and justice. Whenever and wherever we 35 can we will stretch forth a hand to those who need help.

If the sovereignty of a sister Republic is menaced from

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overseas, the power of the United States and, I hope and believe, the united power of the American Republics will constitute a bulwark which will protect the independence and integrity of their neighbor from unjust invasion or aggression. The American Family of Nations might s well take for its motto that of Dumas' famous musketeers, “One for all; all for one."

If I have correctly interpreted Pan-Americanism from the standpoint of the relations of our Governments with those beyond the seas, it is in entire harmony with the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine is a national policy of the United States. Pan-Americanism is an international policy of the Americas. The motives are to an extent different; the ends sought are the same. Both can exist without impairing the force of either. And 15 both do exist and, I trust, will ever exist in all their vigor.

But Pan-Americanism extends beyond the sphere of politics and finds its application in the varied fields of human enterprise. Bearing in mind that the essential idea manifests itself in coöperation, it becomes necessary 20 for effective coöperation that we should know each other better than we do now. We must not only be neighbors, but friends; not only friends, but intimates. We must understand one another. We must comprehend our several needs. We must study the phases of material and 25 intellectual development which enter into the varied problems of national progress. We should, therefore, when opportunity offers, come together and familiarize ourselves with each other's processes of thought in dealing with legal, economic, and educational questions.

Commerce and industry, science and art, public and private law, government and education, all those great fields which invite the intellectual thought of man, fall within the province of the deliberations of this Congress. In the exchange of ideas and comparison of experiences we will come to know one another and to carry to the

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nations which we represent a better and truer knowledge of our neighbors than we have had in the past. I believe that from that wider knowledge a mutual esteem and trust will spring which will unite these Republics more s closely politically, commercially, and intellectually, and will give to the Pan-American spirit an impulse and power which it has never known before.

The present epoch is one which must bring home to every thinking American the wonderful benefits to be 10 gained by trusting our neighbors and by being trusted by

them, by coöperation and helpfulness, by a dignified regard for the rights of all, and by living our national lives in harmony and good will.

Across the thousands of miles of the Atlantic we see 15 Europe convulsed with the most terrible conflict which

this world has ever witnessed; we see the manhood of these great nations shattered, their homes ruined, their productive energies devoted to the one purpose of destroy

ing their fellowmen. When we contemplate the untold 20 misery which these once happy people are enduring and

the heritage which they are transmitting to succeeding generations, we can not but contrast a continent at war and a continent at peace. The spectacle teaches a lesson we can not ignore.

If we seek the dominant ideas in world politics since we became independent nations, we will find that we won our liberties when individualism absorbed men's thoughts and inspired their deeds. This idea was gradually supplanted

by that of nationalism, which found expression in the am30 bitions of conquest and the greed for territory so manifest

in the nineteenth century. Following the impulse of nationalism the idea of internationalism began to develop. It appeared to be an increasing influence throughout the

civilized world, when the present war of Empires, that 35 great manifestation of nationalism, stayed its progress in

Europe and brought discouragement to those who had

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hoped that the new idea would usher in an era of universal peace and justice.

While we are not actual participants in the momentous struggle which is shattering the ideals toward which civilization was moving and is breaking down those s principles on which internationalism is founded, we stand as anxious spectators of this most terrible example of nationalism. Let us hope that it is the final outburst of the cardinal evils of that idea which has for nearly a century spread its baleful influence over the world.

Pan-Americanism is an expression of the idea of internationalism. America has become the guardian of that idea, which will in the end rule the world. Pan-Americanism is the most advanced as well as the most practical form of that idea. It has been made possible because of 15 our geographical isolation, of our similar political institutions, and of our common conception of human rights. Since the European war began other factors have strengthened this natural bond and given impulse to the movement. Never before have our people so fully realized 20 the significance of the words, "Peace" and "Fraternity." Never have the need and benefit of international coöperation in every form of human activity been so evident as they are to-day.

The path of opportunity lies plain before us Americans. 25 The government and people of every Republic should strive to inspire in others confidence and coöperation by exhibiting integrity of purpose and equity in action. Let us as members of this Congress, therefore, meet together on the plane of common interests and together seek the 30 common good. Whatever is of common interest, whatever makes for the common good, whatever demands united effort is a fit subject for applied Pan-Americanism. Fraternal helpfulness is the keystone to the arch. Its pillars are faith and justice.

35 In this great movement this congress will, I believe,

play an exalted part. You, gentlemen, represent powerful intellectual forces in your respective countries. Together you represent the enlightened thought of the con

tinent. The policy of Pan-Americanism is practical. 5 The Pan-American spirit is ideal. It finds its source and being in the minds of thinking men. It is the offspring of the best, the noblest conception of international obligation.

With all earnestness, therefore, I commend to you, 10 gentlemen, the thought of the American Republics, twenty

one sovereign and independent nations, bound together by faith and justice, and firmly cemented by a sympathy which knows no superior and no inferior, but which recognizes only equality and fraternity.

INDIVIDUAL LIBERTY AND THE RESPONSIBILITY

OF THE BAR °

By ELIHU Root. (1916) 15 OUR country is passing in under the shadow of great responsibilities and great dangers to its institutions.

We are no longer isolated. The everflowing stream of ocean which surrounds us is no longer a barrier. We have

grown so great, the bonds that unite us in trade, in influ20 ence, in power, with the rest of the world have become so

strong and compelling that we cannot live unto ourselves alone.

New questions loom up in the horizon which must be met; questions upon which we have little or no precedent 25 to guide us; questions upon the right determination of

which the peace and prosperity of our country will depend. Those questions can be met only by a nation worthy to deal with them. They can be met by a democracy

only as it is prepared for the performance of its duty. 30 . How are we to meet the future, and what is the respon

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