better it will be for every good American. The only man who is a good American is the man who is an American and nothing else.

For an American citizen to vote as a German-American, an Irish-American or an English-American is to be a 5 traitor to American institutions; and those hyphenated Americans who terrorize American politicians by threats of the foreign vote are engaged in treason to the American Republic.

Now this is a declaration of principles. How are we in 10 practical fashion to secure the making of these principles part of the very fiber of our national life? First and foremost let us all resolve that in this country hereafter we shall place far less emphasis upon the question of right and much greater emphasis upon the matter of duty. A 15 republic can't succeed and won't succeed in the tremendous international stress of the modern world unless its citizens possess that form of high-minded patriotism which consists in putting devotion to duty before the question of individual rights.

It was recently announced that the Russian government was to rent a house in New York as a national center, to be Russian in faith and patriotism, to foster the Russian language and keep alive the national feeling in immigrants who come hither. Had this been done, it would have been utterly antagonistic to proper American sentiment, whether perpetrated in the name of Germany, of Austria, of Russia, of England, or France or any other country.

The foreign-born population of this country must be an 30 Americanized population no other kind can fight the battles of America either in war or peace. It must talk the language of its native-born fellow citizens, it must possess American citizenship and American ideals — and therefore we native-born citizens must ourselves practice 35 a high and fine idealism, and shun as we would the plague



the sordid materialism, which treats pecuniary profit and gross bodily comfort as the only evidences of success. It must stand firm by its oath of allegiance in word and

deed and must show that in very fact it has renounced 5 allegiance to every prince, potentate or foreign government. It must be maintained on an American standard of living so as to prevent labor disturbances in important plants and at critical times. None of these objects can

be secured as long as we have immigrant colonies, ghettos, 10 and immigrant sections, and above all they cannot be

assured so long as we consider the immigrant only as an industrial asset. The immigrant must not be allowed to drift or to be put at the mercy of the exploiter. Our

object is not to imitate one of the older racial types, but 15 to maintain a new American type and then to secure

loyalty to this type. We cannot secure such loyalty un-. less we make this a country where men shall feel that they have justice and also where they shall feel that they are

required to perform the duties imposed upon them. The 20 policy of “Let alone” which we have hitherto pursued is

thoroughly vicious from two standpoints. By this policy we have permitted the immigrants, and too often the native-born laborers as well, to suffer injustice. More

over, by this policy we have failed to impress upon the 25 immigrant and upon the native-born as well that they are

expected to do justice as well as to receive justice, that they are expected to be heartily and actively and singlemindedly loyal to the flag no less than to benefit by living under it.

We cannot afford to continue to use hundreds of thousands of immigrants merely as industrial assets while they remain social outcasts and menaces any more than fifty years ago we could afford to keep the black man

merely as an industrial asset and not as a human being. 35 We cannot afford to build a big industrial plant and herd

men and women about it without care for their welfare.



We cannot afford to permit squalid overcrowding or the kind of living system which makes impossible the decencies and necessities of life.

All of us, no matter from what land our parents came, no matter in what way we may severally worship our 5 Creator, must stand shoulder to shoulder in a united America for the elimination of race and religious prejudice. We must stand for a reign of equal justice to both big and small. We must insist on the maintenance of the American standard of living. We must stand for an adequate 10 national control which shall secure a better training of our young men in time of peace, both for the work of peace and for the work of war. We must direct every national resource, material and spiritual, to the task not of shirking difficulties, but of training our people to overcome difficulties. Our aim must be, not to make life easy and soft, not to soften soul and body, but to fit us in virile fashion to do a great work for all mankind. This great work can only be done by a mighty democracy, with those qualities of soul, guided by those qualities of mind, which will 20 both make it refuse to do injustice to any other nation, and also enable it to hold its own against aggression by any other nation. In our relations with the outside world, we must abhor wrongdoing, and disdain to commit it, and we must no less disdain the baseness of spirit which 25 tamely submits to wrongdoing. Finally and most important of all, we must strive for the establishment within our own borders of that stern and lofty standard of personal and public morality which shall guarantee to each man his rights, and which shall insist in return upon the full performance by each man of his duties both to his neighbor and to the great nation whose flag must symbolize in the future, as it has symbolized in the past, the highest hopes of all mankind.




It is an especial gratification to me to address you to-day, not only as the officer of the United States who invited you to attend this great Scientific Congress of the Amer

ican Republics, but also as the presiding member of the s Governing Board of the Pan-American Union. In this dual capacity I have the honor and the pleasure to welcome you, gentlemen, to the capital of this country, in the full confidence that your deliberations will be of mu

tual benefit in your various spheres of thought and re10 search, and not only in your individual spheres but in the

all-embracing sphere of Pan-American unity and fraternity which is so near to the hearts of us all.

It is the Pan-American spirit and the policy of PanAmericanism to which I would for a few moments direct 15 your attention at this early meeting of the Congress, since

it is my earnest hope that “Pan-America" will be the keynote which will influence your relations with one another and inspire your thoughts and words.

Nearly a century has passed since President Monroe 20 proclaimed to the world his famous doctrine as the national

policy of the United States. It was founded on the prin-. ciple that the safety of this Republic would be imperiled by the extension of sovereign rights by a European power

over territory in this hemisphere. Conceived in a sus25 picion of monarchical institutions and in a full sympathy

with the republican idea, it was uttered at a time when our neighbors to the south had won their independence and were gradually adapting themselves to the exercise of their newly acquired rights. To those struggling nations the doctrine became a shield against the great


European powers, which in the spirit of the age coveted political control over the rich regions which the new-born States had made their own.

The United States was then a small nation, but a nation which had been tried in the fire; a nation whose indom- 5 itable will had remained unshaken by the dangers through which it had passed. The announcement of the Monroe Doctrine was a manifestation of this will. It was a courageous thing for President Monroe to do. It meant much in those early days, not only to this country but 10 to those nations which were commencing a

new life under the standard of liberty. How much it meant we can never know, since for four decades it remained unchallenged.

During that period the younger Republics of America, 15 giving expression to the virile spirit born of independence and liberal institutions, developed rapidly and set their feet firmly on the path of national progress which has led them to that plane of intellectual and material prosperity which they to-day enjoy.

Within recent years the Government of the United States has found no occasion, with the exception of the Venezuela boundary incident, to remind Europe that the Monroe Doctrine continues unaltered a national policy of this Republic. The Republics of America are no 25 longer children in the great family of nations. They have attained maturity. With enterprise and patriotic fervor they are working out their several destinies.

During this later time, when the American nations have come into a realization of their nationality and conscious of the responsibilities and privileges which are theirs as sovereign and independent States, there has grown up a feeling that the Republics of this hemisphere constitute a group separate and apart from the other nations of the world, a group which is united by common 35 ideals and common aspirations. I believe that this feel


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