The principal alterations in the language of the common version of the Scrip

tures, made in this edition, stated and explained.

Who is substituted for which, when it refers Evening for even and even-tide. Gen. 19.1, to persons.

&c. Its is substituted for his, when it refers to E.cpire, generally for give or yield up the plants and things without life.

ghost, Gen. 49. 33, &c. or yield the breath. Job To is used for unlo. This latter word is not 11. 20; 14. 10. found in the Saxon books, and as it is never Custody, in some cases, for ward. Gen. 40. used in our present popular language, it is evi-3, &c. dently a modern compound. The first sylla- Perhaps or it may be, in some cases, for perble un adds nothing to the signification or force adventure. Gen. 27. 12; 31.31, &c. of to; but by increasing the number of unim- Cows for kine. The latter is nearly obsoportant syllables, rather impairs the strength lete, and the former is used in several passages of the whole clause or sentence in which it oc of the version; it is therefore judged expedicurs. It has been rejected by almost every ent to render the language uniform. Gen. 32. writer, for more than a century.

15, &c. Way is substituted for wherefore, when in- Employment or occupation for trade. The quiry is made; as," why do the wicked live ?" latter, as the word is now used, is improper. Job 21. 7.

Gen. 46. 32. 34. Vy and thy are generally substituted for Severe, grievous or distressing, for sore, and miné and lhine, when used as adjectives. The corresponding adverbs, or bitterly for sorely, latter are wholly obsolete.

Gen. 41.56, 57, &c. In some passages, a difWherein, therein, whereon, thereon, and other ferent word is used. See Gen. 19. 9; Judges similar compounds, are not wholly obsolete, 10.9. but are considered, except in technical lan- People or persons, for folk. Gen. 33. 15; guage, inelegant. I have not wholly rejected Mark 6.5, &c. these words, but have reduced the number of Kinsmen for kinsfolk. Job 19. 14; Luke 2. them; substituting in which, in that or this, in 44, &c. it, on which, &c.

Male-child for man-child. Gen. 17. 10, &c. Assemble, collect, or convene, for the tautolo- Interest for usury. Usury originally signigical words gather together. In some cases, fied what is now called interest, or simply a gather is retained and together omitted as su- compensation for the use of money. The Jews perfluous. Collection for gathering together. were not permitted to take interest from their Gen. 1. 10.

brethren for the use of money loaned ; and Knoo or knero, for wist, wit and wot. Ex. when the Levitical law forbids the taking of 16. 15. Gen. 21. 26, &c.

usury, the prohibition intended is that of any Part for deal, as a tenth part of flour. Ex. gain or compensation for the use of money or 29. 40. Deal, in this sense, is wholly antiqua- goods. Hence, usury in the scriptures is what ted.

we call interest. The change of signification Bring for felch, in most cases.

in the word usury, which now denotes unlawSuppose for tro. Luke 17.9.

ful interest, renders it proper to substitute inFalsehood for leasing. Ps. 4. 2; 5. 6. terest for usury. Ex. 22. 25; Lev. 25. 36, &c.

Skillful for cunning, when used of persons ; Hinder for let, Rom. 1. 13: Restrain. 2 and curious for the same word, when applied Thess. 2. 7. to things. Gen. 23. 27; Ex. 26. 1, &c.

Number for tale, when the latter has that Surely or certainly, for, “ of a surety.” The signification. Ex. 5.8, &c. latter word is now used exclusively for securi- Button for tache. Ex. 26. 6, &c. ty against loss, or for the person who gives bail Ale, in many cases, for did eat. Gen. 3. 6; for another. In the phrase of a surety, the 27. 25, &c. word is now improper. Gen. 15. 13, &c. Boiled for sodden. Ex. 12. 9; Lev. 6. 28, &c.

Number for tell, when used in the sense of Strictly for straitly. Gen. 43. 7; Ex. 13. 19; count. Gen. 15. 5, &c.

1 Sam. 14. 28. Sixty for three score, and eighty for four score. Staffs for staves. It seems that staves, in the Tico score and five score are never used. It ap- translation, is nsed for the plural of staf"; an pears to me most eligible to retain but one mode anomaly, I believe, in our language. The conof specifying pambers. Uniformity is prefer-sequence is, in this country, it coincides in orable to diversity. Gen. 25. 26; Ex: 7.7, &c. thography with the plural of stave, a piece of

Go or depari, for get thee, get you, get ye. timber used in making casks, an entirely difGen. 12. 1; 19. 14; 34. 10, &c.

ferent word, in modern usage. I have given the word its regular plural form. Ex. 25. 13; to express the idea, than avoid; for a persod 40.20, &c.

may avoid evil, without intending it; shunim. Capital for chapiter, the top of a column; the plies intention. latter being entirely obsolete. Ex. 36. 38; 38. Plant or herb, for hay. Prov. 27. 25; Is. 15. 28, &c.

6. Hay is dried grass or herbs. The use c: Fortified for fenced and defenced. Fence, hay, therefore, in the passages cited is improfenced, are not now used in the sense which per. What a strange expression must this ar they generally have in the present version of pear to be to a farmer in our country., "TE the scriptures. As applied to cities and towns, hay appeareth, and the tender grass showeth the sense is now expressed by fortify, fortified itself.” Deut. 3.5; Num. 32. 17; Is. 36. 1, &c.

Provision for victual or victuals. In the Repent for repent him. The latter form is singular number, victual is now wholly obsc wholly obsolete. Deut. 32. 36; Ps. 90. 13, &c. lete; and its signification in the plural is much

Invite for bid, when the latier has this sig- more limited than that in which it occurs in nification. Zeph. 1. 7; Matt. 22. 9; Luke 14. several passages of the scriptures, which er. 12, &c.

tends to provisions in general, whether preAdvanced for stricken, in age or years. Gen. pared for eating or not. In present usage, vic18. 11; Josh. 13. 1, &c.

tuals are articles for food dressed or prepared Encamped for pitched, when applied to for the table. When the word, in our version, troops, companies, or armies; but pitched used is not thus limited, I have substituted for it of tents is retained. Ex. 17. 1; Num. 12. 16. provisions. Gen. 14. 11; Josh. 1. 11, &c.

Explore, in some passages, for spy out. Num. Treated for entreated, when it signifies to 13. 16; 21.32.

use, or entertain. Gen. 12. 16; Ex. 5. 22. Profane for pollute, in a few instances. See Aflict, harass, oppress, distress, or a word Is. 56. 2. 6; Jer. 34. 16. To pollute the sab- of like import for vex. This word has sufbath, to pollute the name of God, are expres- fered a material change or limitation, since sions unknown in modern usage.

our version of the scriptures was made. In Melted for molten, when used as a participle. that version, it is equivalent to afflict, harass, Ezek. 24. 11; Micah 1.4.

distress, grieve, in a general or indefinite Cover for shroud. Ezek. 31. 3.

sense; in modern usage, it is nearly synony. Border or limit, for coast. In present usage, mous with irritate, a limited sense, 'I believe, coast is never used to express the border, fron- not intended in any passage of scripture, un. tier, or extremity of a kingdom, or district of less there may be three or four exceptions, in inland territory. Its application is wholly or which I have retained the word. Num. 25. chiefly to land contiguous to the sea. Its ap- 17; 20. 15; 33. 55; Judges 10.8; Lev. 18. plication in the scriptures is, in most cases, to 18, &c. à border of inland territory. For this word I Afflict for plague. Plague, as used in our have therefore substituted, in this sense, border version, comprehends almost any calamily or limit. Deut. 19.8; Ex. 10. 14, &c. Its use that befalls man or beast. But used as a verb, in most passages of scripture is as improper it is now too low or vulgar for a scriptural now, as the coast of Worcester, in Massachu- word. I have therefore used in the place of it, setts, or the coast of Lancaster, in Pennsyl- afflict. Gen. 12. 17; Ex. 32. 35; Ps. 73. 5, 14. vania.

Multiply for increase. Multiply is properly Creeping animal for creeping thing. The applied to numbers; increase to size, dimenword thing signifies an event, as in the phrase, sions, or quantity. Hence, in some passages "after these things.” In popular usage, it is of the present version, it is improperly used, applied to almost any substance, but its appli- and I have substituted for it increase. Deut. cation to an animal is improper, and vulgar. 8. 13. On the other hand, I have, when the Indeed, such application often implies con- sense requires it, inserted multiply for increase. tempt. Besides, this application makes no dis- Hosea 10. 1. tinction between an animal and a plant. A Killed for slew. In Daniel 3. 22, we read creeping thing is more properly a creeping that the flame of the fire slew the men that plant, than a reptile. Gen. 1. 24. 26, &c. threw Shadrach and his companions into the

Food for meat. In the common English ver- fumace. This use of stew is improper, so sion of the scriptures, meat never signifies much so, that the most illiterate man would flesh only, but food in general, provisions or perceive the impropriety of it. Slay is used whatever is eaten by animals for nourishment. Sto denote killing by striking with any weapon Fruits, grass, herbs, as well as flesh are denom- whatever; but we never say a man is slain by inated meat. Gen. 1. 29, 30. But the word is poison, by drowning, or by burning. This disnow used almost exclusively for fesh used or tinction proceeds from the original significaintended for food for mankind. For this wordtion of slay, which was to strike. See Acts I have therefore substituted food, except in a 13. 28. few cases, where the plural is used, food not Diffuse. "The lips of the wise disperse admitting the plural number. But I have re- knowledge." Prov. 15. 7. To disperse is to tained meat-offering, though composed of veg- dissipate or scatter so as to destroy the thing. etable substances. We have no word in use This cannot be the meaning of the author. which can be substituted for it; and it has ac- He meant to say, spread or diffuse knowledge. quired a kind of technical application, so to Careful, carefulness had formerly a more speak, which renders it expedient to retain it. intensive sense, that at present. Carefulness See Gen. 1. 29, 30; Deut. 20. 20; Matt. 3. 4, is now always a virtue; formerly it had the &c.

sense of anxiety, or undue solicitude. Paul Shun for eschew. Job 1. 1.8; 2. 3; 1 Pet. says to the Corinthians, "I would have you 3. 11. Shun seems to be a more correct word) without carefulness." I Cor. 7. 32. But cer

tainly the apostle did not mean to condemn (Job 12. 22; Ezek. 13. 14, &c. Two or three the due caution now expressed by that word. other alterations of this word would have been The distinction in the uses of this word is made, had the propriety of them occured to me clearly marked in Phil. 4. verses 6, 10. In in due season. verse 6th the apostle writes "Be careful for Ask, or inquire, for demand. The French nothing;" yet in verse 10th he commends the original of this word properly signifies simply Philippians for being careful. These appa- to ask; but usage has, in some measure, altered Tent discrepancies are easily removed by sub- its signification in English. In our language, stituting anxious or solicitous for careful, when the word implies right, authority, or claim to it evidently has this signification. See Jer. an answer, or 10 something sought. Thus in 17.8; Ezek. 12. 18, 19; Luke 10.41; 1 Cor. Exodus 5. 14, the inquiry made, implies an au7.32, 33, 34.

thority assumed by the task-masters of Egypt, Furniture for carriage. The word carriage, or a right to know the reason why the Israelin our common version, signifies that which is ites had not performed their tasks. So Daniel carried, or in our present usage, baggage ; 2. 27; Job 38. 3; 40. 7. But in 2 Samuel'l1.7, such things as travelers and armies carry for David did not demand of Uriah, but simply their accommodation. It never signifies a vehi- inquire. In Luke 3. 14, ihe improper use of cle on wheels, although I am convinced that it demanded is more striking. That the soldiers is thus understood by men of good common ed- should demand any thing from Christ is not to ucation. I have substituted for it furniture, be supposed. So Luke 17. 20; Acts 21. 33. judging baggage not to be a suitable word 10 But the most objectionable instance of the use be introduced into the text. I have, however, of demand is in Job 42. 4, where Job, addressinserted an explanatory note in the margin, ing the Supreme Being, says, “I will demand Judges 18. 21; 1 Sam. 17. 22. If the word of thee, and declare thou io me.". I have, in carriages, used Isa. 46. 1, was intended to sig. such instances, used ask or inquire, which is bify vehicles, it is a mistake; it is not the sense the true sense of the original. of the Hebrew. And if intended for loading, Would God, would to God. These phrases then the following

words are improper. occur in several passages in which they are Rerire or virify for quicken. The latter not authorized by the original language, in Ford in scripture signifies to revive, to give which the name of the Supreme Being is not mex life or animate. It is now used in the used; but the insertion of them in the version, sense of accelerate. Quick is sometimes used has given countenance to the practice of inin scripture for living, as the quick and dead. troducing them into discourses and public I have, for the verb, substituted revive or viv- speeches, with a levity that is incompatible ify, and for the adjective, living. Ps. 71. 20; with a due veneration for the name of God. Acts 10.42, &c.

In Job 14. 13, the same Hebrew words are renTerrify or drive away for fray; the latter dered O that, the common mode of expressing being entirely obsolete, and not generally un- an ardent wish; and I have used the same derstood. Deut. 28.26; Jer. 7.33; Zech. 1. 27. words in other passages. See Ex. 16.3; Deut.

Vomit for spew. Lev. 18.28; Rev. 3.16, &c. 28. 67. Arenge for revenge. These words seem to God forbid, is a phrase which may be view. bave been used synonymously in former times;sed in the same light as the foregoing. It is but in modern usage, a distinction between several times used in the version, and without them is, if I mistake not, well established; re- any authority from the original languages, for Tenge implying malice, and avenge expressing the use of the name of God. The Greek just vindication. If so, the use of revenge, as phrase thus rendered in the New Testament, applied to the Supreme Being, is improper. I signifies only “Let it not be," or "I wish it not bare therefore substituted for it avenge. Na- to be.” I cannot think it expedient to suffer the

phrase "God forbid," to stand in the text, for Deride for laugh to scorn. The latter phrase the reason assigned in the foregoing paragraph. is nearly obsolete. 2 Kings 19. 21; Nehem. And it is to be regretted that a practice pre2. 19, &c.

vails of using it in common discourse. I have Fornication. This word, in modern laws followed Macknight in using for these words, and usage, has acquired a technical meaning By no means. more limited than its signification in the scrip- God speed. 2 John 10. 11. This phrase must tures. For which reason among others, I have originally have been "God speed you;" that is, generally substituted for it a word of more God give you welfare or success, or it is a miscomprehensive signification, generally lewd-take for good speed. It could not have been

the first, for then the whole phrase must have Uncover, make bare, open, disclose, reveal, for been, "Bid him God speed you.” The fact discoter

. The original and proper sense of undoubtedly is, the phrase was originally good discover is to uncover, and there are phrases speed. In Saxon, good and God are uniformly in which it is still used in that sense. "But its written alike; god, the adjective, we now write present signification most generally is, to find, good, and we write goodman, Goodwin, alSee, or perceive for the first time. In most pas-though the English write Godwin. In the sages in our version of the scriptures, it has phrase used in scripture, which seems to have the sense of uncover, make bare, or expose to been formerly proverbial, the Saxon god for rico. In Micah 1. 6, the Lord says by the good has continued to be written with a single prophet, "I will discover the foundations" vowel, and the word being mistaken for ihe of Samaria. But surely the all-seeing God name of the Supreme Being, it came to be had nothing to find or see for the first time. written with a capital initial, God. The Greek The sense of the word is to uncover, to lay word is a term of salutation; the same word dare. See Prov. 25. 9; Isa. 3. 17; Lam. 4. 22; is used, Luke 1.28, in the address of the angel


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to Mary, where it is rendered Hail, and in of trouble to water or other substance, in the Matt. 28. 9, All hail. But God speed, as now sense of stirring, is wholly obsolete. John 5. used, is as improper as God welfare, God suc- 4,7; Ezek. 32. 2; Prov. 25. 26. Yet from the cess, or God happiness. In a grammatical point scriptures we retain the phrase "troubled waof view, nothing can be more absurd; it is ters. neither grammar nor sense. And it is to be Travail, with this orthography, is now used regretted, that such an outrage upon propriety only or chiefly for the labor of child-birth. In continues to be used in discourse.

other senses, I have substituted for it labor, or Prevent. This word is many times used in toil. Eccl. 1. 13; 2. 23; 1 Thess. 2. 8. the version, but not in the sense in which it is Hungry for an hungred. Matt. 25. 35, &c. now universally used. Indeed, so different are Convicted for convinced. James 2. 9. See its scriptural uses, that probably very few also John 8. 46; Jude 15. readers of common education understand it. Strain out a gnat. Matt. 23. 24. The words I have had recourse to the ablest expositors, in our version are "strain at a gnat.” It is unEnglish and German, to aid me in expressing accountable that such an obvious error should the sense of the word in the several passages remain uncorrected for more than two centuin which it is used. 2 Sam. 22. 6; Job 3. 12; ries. The Greek signifies to strain out a g nat, and 30. 27; Ps. 18.5, 18; 21. 3; 59. 10; 119. as by passing liquor through a colander or a 147, 148; Isa. 21. 14.

filter. It is not a doubtful point. At may have Take no thought. It is probable that this been a misprint for out, in the first copies. phrase formerly had a more intensive signifi- Foresaw, in Acts 2. 25, is a mis-translation. cation than it has at present. In Matt. 6. 25, The sense is not saw beforehand, but before in 27, 31, 34, the phrase falls far short of the force, place, or in presence. I have omitted the preor real meaning of the original. I have ex-fix, fore. The propriety of this is determined pressed the idea by Be not anxious. So in by the original passage. Ps. 16. 8. Luke 12. 22, 26.

Constrain, for compel. Matt. 5. 41. Compel By and by. This phrase as used in the may or does imply physical force; constrain scriptures denotes immediately, without an in- implies moral as well as physical force, and terval of time. In present usage, it seems this seems to be the most proper word. rather to indicate soon, but not immediately. Froward, Ps. 18. 26, appears to me impropMatt. 13. 21; Luke 17. 7; and 21. 9.

erly applied to the Supreme Being. In its Presently. This word in the scriptures sig- present signification, it seems to be not merely nifies immediately. Matt. 21. 19.

harsh, but irreverent, and incorrect. I have Insane for mad. In our popular language, therefore substituted for it, thou will contend. mad more generally signifies very angry, See also 2 Sam. 22. 27. which is not always its signification in the Earnestly for instantly. Luke 7. 4. common version. I have therefore, in some Man for follow. The latter word is several instances expressed the sense by insane or en- times inseried in our version, without any agraged, words less likely to be misapprehended thority in the original: it implies contempt

, by our common people than mad. John 10. which may have been felt, but a translator 20; Acts 12, 15; and 26. 11, 24; 1 Cor. 14. 23. should not. I think, add to the original what is

Healed for made whole. When persons re- not certainly known to have been the fact. I cover from sickness, we never say they are have in the place of it inserted man. Gen. 19.9; made whole. This phrase is proper only when Matt. 12. 24, &c. some part of the body is broken. John 5. 6. Body of soldiers. The troops with which Whole is not the proper word to be set in oppo- Claudius rescued Paul, Acts 23. 27, cannot be sition to sick. It should be well or in health. called an army, as the word is now understood. Matt. 9. 12.

Many people are the words substituted for Conversation. This word, in our version, much ople. Numb. 20. 20; Mark 5. 21, &c. never has the sense of mutual discourse, which The door shall be opened. Matt. 7. 7. The is its signification in present usage. Il now word door is not in the original, but is necessaretains the signification it had formerly, chiefly rily implied in the verb. as a technical law term, as in indentures. Ils Staff Matt. 10. 10. The original Greek sense in the Bible comprehends the whole word is in the singular number. moral conduct in social life, and I have used Master of the house. Luke 22. 11. The in the place of it manner of life, or deport- phrase, good man of the house, is not warranted ment, chiefly the former, as deportment, in or- by the original, which signifies master of the dinary use, is, perhaps, not sufficiently com- house. At the time the Bible was translated, it prehensive. When it occurs, however, it is was customary to call men by the title, good intended to embrace all that is understood by man, instead of Mr. It is seen on the records manner of life, or course of conduct. Ps. 37. of the first settlers in New England; but if it 14; 2 Cor. 1. 12; Gal. 1. 13, &c.

roper in our version, which can Olsend. I have, in some passages, substi- hardly be admitted, it is now improper. tuted for this word, the words, cause to sin, or Sai at mcat. This phrase is improper on to fall into sin. In other places I have ex- more accounts than one. The ancients did plained it in a marginal note.

not sit at table, but lay down or reclined on the Cense vessel for bushel. Matt. 5. 15, &c. There left elbow. I have retained the word sit or sat, is now, I believe, no vessel of the measure of however, but have inserted in the margin an a bushel, in common use. The Jews used explanatory note. At meat, is obsolete, and I lamps, not candles, which such a measure have substituted at table or eating. would extinguish. I have, therefore, substi- Foreign for strange. The latter word often tuted close vessel. Vessel is used Luke 8. 16. signifies foreign or not native, and in a few in

Agitate, or stir, for trouble. The application stances I have substituted for it foreign. In

was ever


doubtful cases, no change is made. Heb. 11.9;my sight." Mark 10.51. So Luke 8. 9. What Acts 7. 6. See Ezra 10. 2; Acts 26.11; 1 Kings might this parable mean? This mode of ex11.1, 8.

pression is still common among a certain class Boat for ship. In the New Testament, the of people, who ask a stranger, Pray, sir, what words designating the vessels which were used might I call your name?" There are many on the lake of Tiberias, are generally rendered examples of this improper use of might, where ship. This is wholly improper. Those ves the sense is more correctly expressed by the sels were boats, either with or without sails. present tense, may. See John 10. 10. No ship, in the present sense of this word, The old word yea is used, in some cases, could be used on a small lake. Besides, we where it is not warranted by the original; and have evidence from the facts stated in the when the original authorizes some word in this evangelists, that the vessels were small; other-sense, it would be better to substitute for it wise they would not have been "covered with even, indeed, truly, or verily. Yes is used in the waves," Matt.8. 24; nor" rowed” with oars, the New Testament, in iwo or three passages, Mark 6. 48. In Luke 5, it is said that both and I have introduced it for yea, in several ships were filled with the fish taken in a net, passages of both Testaments. so that they began to sink. Surely these were Deut. 20. 18. The present order of words in not skips. In John 6. 22, 23, these ships are this verse may give a sense directly opposite to called boats, which is the most proper word, that which is intended. The Israelites were and that which I have used.

directed to destroy the Hittites and other heaGo thy way, he went his way. These and then nations, to prevent the Israelites from similar forms of expression occur often in the adopting their idolatries and vices; but the version; but in the New Testament, and some passage, as it now stands, is, that they, the times in the Old, the words thy way, his way, heathen, may teach the Israelites not to do afGORT xay, are not in the original, which is sim- ter their own abominations. Surely the heaply go. The additional words were introdu- then would not teach the Israelites to avoid ced probably from the Hebrew phraseology, or their own practices. By transposing not and in conformity to popular use; but they are placing it before teach, ihe ambiguity wholly redundant. I have not been very par-moved. ticular in rejecting the superfluous words; but Holy Spirit. The word ghost is now used have done it in some instances.

almost exclusively for an apparition, except in Luke 9. 61. The words at home are redun- this phrase, Holy Ghost. I have therefore dant. The phrase in Greek is simply at my uniformly used Holy Spirit. house.

Demon. In the scriptures, the Greek daimon Scribe's penknife, Jer. 36. 23. The transla- is rendered devil; but most improperly, as tors have omitted the word scribe or secretary, devil and demon were considered to be different which is in the Hebrew. It is supposed that in beings. I have followed the commentators on former times, no person had a penknife, but a the New Testament, in substituting demon in secretary; or the word pen was supposed to in- all cases where the Greek is daimon. I cannot clade or imply the word scribe. I am surprised think a translator justified in such a departure however that men, so careful generally to trans- from the original, as to render the word by late every Hebrew word, should have omitted devil. The original word for devil is never this. In the present age, the omission would plural, there being but one devil mentioned in doubtless be a fault.

the scriptures. Safe and sound. Luke 15. 27. This is an- Hell. The word hell in the Old Testament, other instance in which the translators have and sometimes in the New, is used, not for a followed popular use, instead of the original place of torrent, but for the grave, region of Greek, which signifies simply well or

in health. the dead, lower or invisible world ; sheol in HeLiting beings. Rev. 4. 6, 7. &c. The word brew, hades in Greek. I have in most passages beast

, in the low sense the word has in present retained the word in the text, but have inserted use, is considered to be very improper in vari- an explanatory note in the margin. In Ezeons passages of the Apocalypse. The word kiel 31, I have rendered the word grave in two signifies animals or living beings; and I have or three verses, to make the version conformaused the latter word as more becoming the dig- ble to verse 15. nity of the sacred oracles.

Master. This word is frequently used in the Passover for Easter. Acts 12. 4. The ori-New Testament for teacher; doubtless in conginal is pascha, passover.

formity with the popular or vulgar practice of Men, brethren. Acts 13. 15. &c. The trans- calling teachers of schools masters. "I have relators have erred by inserting and between tained the word, but have added an explanathese words, which tends to mislead the reader tory note in the margin. into the opinion that these are addressed as dif- Provoke. This word 'formerly had, and ferent characters; whereas the sense is men, sometimes still has, the sense of incite, excite, brethren, men who are brethren.

or instigate. In modern usage, it is generally How that. These words are frequently used used in the sense of irritate. This requires the very improperly, where manner is not express-substitution of another word for it in 1 Chron. ed in the original. The original is simply that. 21. 1; Heb. 10. 24 ; 2 Cor. 9. 22, in which I This is another instance of an inconsiderate have used incite or excile. use of popular phrases. 1 Cor. 10. 1; 15. 3. Ps. 4. 8. The word only is misplaced, and

A still more objectionable use of popular thus it gives a wrong sense. I have placed it language occurs in employing the past tense next after thou. might instead of may. When Christ asked Lord for Jehovah. When the word Lord is the blind man what he desired to bave done for in small capitals, it stands for Jehovah of the him, he replied, “ Lord, that I might receiveloriginal. I have not altered the version, ex

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