education throughout the Persian empire. The author of this great work was Shykh Suúdee, of Shiraz, who flourished about the beginning of the 12th century. Being a member of the religious order of Dervishes, he spent the chief part of his time, according to the rules of that body, in travelling, and having accidentally, in one of his religious journies, placed himself in the power of the Moors, he was taken prisoner, and condemned to labour in the works before Tripoli. Whilst thus employed, he happened, by great good fortune, to have been recognized by a merchant of Aleppo, to whom he had previously been known, and who generously paid down for his ransom ten golden crowns, and afterwards gave him his daughter in marriage. In one of his works, entitled Goolistan, the poet humourously relates the account of his captivity, his redemption, and his marriage :

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“ Being completely wearied with the society of my friends at Damascus, I turned my face towards the holy wilderness, (the desert of Jerusalem) and took up companionship with the brute creation, until the time that I became a prisoner to Frankish chains. They detained me in the moat of Tripoli with some Jews to dig clay, until one of the chief men of Aleppo, between myself and whom there subsisted an old intimacy, passing by, recognised me, and said, 'in what state do I see you ; and how do you pass your time?' I replied, I had fled from mankind to the mountains and desert, since on no other than God can we place dependance ; imagine what my condition was at that moment, when I was compelled to associate with worse than men.

He took pity on my miserable condition, and for ten dinars freed me from the captivity of the Franks, and took me with him to Aleppo. He had a daughter whom he gave me in marriage with a portion of one hundred dinars. After a certain time had elapsed, she proved of a bad disposition, contentious and disobedient, and began to be abusive, and destroyed my happiness ; as they have said,

“ A bad tempered woman, in a good man's house,

Even in this world is his hell."

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" Beware how you connect yourself with one of a bad disposition,

And defend us, oh our Lord, from this fiery trial!" “ On one occasion, lengthening the tongue of reproach, she said, art thou not he whom my father redeemed from Frankish captivity for ten dinars ?' I said yes; he certainly redeemed me for ten dinars, but delivered me into your hands for a hundred."-pp. 56, 57.

The Pund Namuh, as we have before hinted, is a composition intended for the instruction of the Persians in the principles of the ethical doctrines which are taught in the religious system of the country. The translations which Mr. Pocock has now given to the public, appear to possess every qualification which is requisite to constitute a good version, and he informs us that his object has been to sacrifice every other consideration to the main purpose of

presenting the composition of the Persian poet to his reader, as nearly as possible in the same circumstances as he himself was able to peruse it. For our own parts, we have been quite surprized, and indeed charmed, with the unexpected benevolence, the truly bold, liberal, and virtuous principles, which are inculcated in the poem. The following denunciation of oppression is marked by an energy, and a passion for freedom, which could only emanate from the noblest instincts :

As lovely gardens, wrecked by Autumn's blast,
Whirlwind Injustice o'er this earth hath past.
Thus, should Oppression o'er all ranks incline,
Thine empire's sun shall mourn a swift decline;
For he who hurls its baleful fires on high,
Wrings from the tribes of earth the avenging sigh.
O'er feeble poverty, who bears fierce sway,
Doubtless shall tread hell's dark and cheerless way;
Since hearts oppress'd, that sigh for liberty,
Spread wide the flames of strife o'er land and sea.
Yet pause at last! and scan yon narrow grave,
Nor whelm the wretched with Oppression's wave.
Lend not thy soul to act the tyrant's part,
Slighting the sighings of a people's heart;
Nor deal th' afflictive curse thy subjects dread,

Lest God's swift vengeance light upon thy head.-pp. 69, 70. There is a passage in an early part of the work on the Glory of Generosity, à virtue which seems to have been particularly prized by the Persians; and the name of Hatem, an Arab, who distinguished himself by this qualification, has been so gratefully honoured by the country, that it is incorporated in the Persian language as a designation for an act of generosity. As an example of the liberality of his character, it is related, that a King of Yemen, being jealous of Hatem, commissioned one of his sycophants to go and destroy the life of Hatem. The courtier proceeded on his murderous embassy, and arrived at the desert where the Arabs were encamped. Not being acquainted with the person of Hatem, the agent wandered about amongst the tents, and was at length accosted by a man of prepossessing address, who ultimately invited him into his tent. After a splendid repast, he offered to take leave, but the Arab requested him to prolong his visit. Generous stranger," answered the officer, “I am confounded by your civilities, but an affair of the utmost importance obliges me to depart.” “ Might it be possible for you,” replied the Arab, “ to communicate to me this affair, which seems so much to interest you? You are a stranger in this place; if I can be of any assistance to you, freely command me." The courtier resolved to avail himself of the offer of his host, and accordingly imparted to him the commission he had received from the king. “ But how," continued he, “ shall I, who have never seen Hatem, execute my orders?

“Generouste, but the Amstent. Aiteras



is irata IT IS

Bring me to the knowledge of him, and add this to your other
favours.” “ I have promised you my service,” answered the Arab,
“ behold, I am a slave to my word. Strike,” said he, uncovering
his bosom ; “ spill the blood of Hatem ; and may my death gratify
the wish of your prince, and procure you the reward you hope for."
The courtier, thunderstruck by what he had heard, fell upon his
knees, and cried out that he could not lay his sacrilegious hands
upon such a being, and when, on returning, he related to the king
what had happened, the latter participated in his admiration, and
joined in applauding his unparalleled generosity. We give the
poetical passage in which this virtue, thus so strikingly developed,
is eulogized by the Persian poet :-

Whoe'er my soul the feast of Bounty spreads,
His name throughout this orb, a lustre sheds :
Worlds of renown, the grateful theme proclaim,
And sure Prosperity enshrines his name.
No traffic, nobler in this busy sphere,
Than this bazaar, more crowded, none appear!
Sure fount of joy, of termless bliss to thee,
Whose meed is radiant life's eternity!
Thy fame, (cheer but yon heart thy generous store,)
A full-voiced world, shall hail from shore to shore.
Thence, constancy of love directing all,
Bless like the Lord of life, each suppliant's call.
Choice of those heaven-born sons, the amiable,
With whom prosperity of good shall dwell !
Thou, o'er earth's realms, a peerless sovereign be,
By gentleness and liberality,
Till rapt to climes of bliss, the eternal year
Thou wield that sceptre that thou wieldedst here!
Choice of the sage, devote to bless mankind,
The lov'd profession of the truly kind ;-
The chemic test of meanness' base alloy ;
Balm for each murtal pang, till grief be joy ;
Long as thou canst, check not thy noble aim,
That thou mayst bear the ball in Bounty's generous game.

pp. 60, 61.
The lovers of poetry will find in this very beautiful volume a con-
siderable fund of what is both highly amusing and instructive.

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Art. XI.- Narrative of Voyages to explore the Shores of Africa,

Arabia, and Madagascar, performed in H. M. Ships Leven and
Barracouta, under the direction of Capt. W.F. W. OWEN. By
Command of the Commissioners of the Admiralty. In 2 vols.

London : Bentley. 1833.
These volumes contain the results of the vast and perilous labours
undergone by Captain Owen, in pursuance of a Commission en-

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trusted to him by the Admiralty, for surveying different portions of the coasts of Africa, Arabia, and Madagascar. A considerable period has now elapsed since the voyages were completed, and an explanation of the causes which delayed the present publication became necessary. This is supplied by Mr. Heaton Bowstead Robinson, the editor into whose hands the whole of the documents connected with the voyage have been transferred, and he informs us that Captain Owen’s intention of arranging his manuscripts for the press was interfered with by his appointment, on his return, to His Majesty's ship Eden, in order to proceed to Fernando Po, for the purpose of establishing a settlement in that island. In 1831, Captain Owen returned to this country again, but his time has been so engrossed by being devoted to the settlement of some colonial accounts, that it was essential to hand over the manuscripts to some competent person who should prepare them for publication.

The vessels which composed this expedition were the Leven and Barracouta, and these having been fully equipped, departed in January, 1822, for their destination. They stopped for a short time at the Cape de Verd Islands, the longitude of which respectively they were able to verify by means of a new and singularly simple process. Captain Owen, by previous experiments, found that the flight of a Congreve rocket, when fired off from a gun, corresponded in exact proportion to its own weight, and this circumstance immediately suggested to him the employment of the rocket as an instrument for measuring distances within a certain limit. A trial of its merits took place at the Cape de Verd Islands, and was at. tended by all the good results which had been expected from it. From these islands the vessels directed their course to Rio Janeiro, with the harbour of which the party seems to have been highly delighted. In the town of St. Sebastian, which is situated on the left shore of the harbour, the streets are described as being regularly laid out, generally intersecting at right angles, about twenty-four feet wide, having a channel down the centre to carry off the filth, if it can ; but frequently the water is so deep that canoes are paddled through the streets for the use of passengers. The houses are of various sizes; those of the merchants and principal inhabitants are two or three stories high, with balconies to the windows. These balconies are in fact the general residence of the inhabitants, who are seen constantly lolling over them and amusing themselves by spitting into the streets. The houses of the lower classes have only one story, with lattice windows or jalousies that open upwards, and form a protection from the sun: from these the inmates are enabled to take a peep at the passers-by, which, like their more wealthy neighbours, is nearly the only occupation they indulge in, as all labour in this country is performed by negroes brought from different parts of Africa, constituting in fact the greater part of the population. This is now the principal depot of the slave trade, and the writer (Mr. Forbes, botanist to

the expedition) was informed that not less than 20,000 were sold within the last twelve months.

In the beginning of July, the ships made land near the Cape of Good Hope, where the party landed. Upon the eastern coast they found a system of warfare pursued, which appeared to have for its object the extermination of the native Kaffers from our settlements, so that to pass over the British boundaries was punished either with death or captivity. Captain Owen required some interpreters during his researches on the coast, and was supplied with seven natives who had been up to that period prisoners on Robben Island. They appeared to be handsome, strong, and tall negroes, with habitual freedom strongly marked in their gait and carriage. When first received, their gloomy countenances bespoke their uncertainty as to the purpose for which they were sent on board ship, a circumstance in itself considered by them as worse than death; such is the antipathy and dread of the sea felt by all the native tribes of South Africa.

They were then stripped of the greasy skins which served them for raiment, and which were covered with vermin, and were dressed in the jacket and trowsers of seamen; they failed entirely as interpreters, but in other respects were excellent trust-worthy men. The same good character is given to six other natives of the eastern coast and Madagascar, who were in the docks as government slaves, and were sent on board as linguists. They turned out most useful and orderly people, and when discharged, returned home with considerable accumulations from their wages. The two peninsulas of the Cape are described here as well adapted to the culture of the vine; the grapes even under bad management are excellent, but the wine is bad. The greater part of that exported is brought from other parts of the colony, and must yield a considerable tax before it can be exported. The Barracouta was employed in a survey of the coast, while the party in the Leven landed and proceeded up the country on the peninsula on the east of the great bay. The natives came down in numbers to see them. The first who approached them was self-styled“ Jem of the Water,” and he wore the native costume, which is literally worse than nothing, consisting only of a straw tube, about a foot long, with a shred of blue dungaree hanging from its upper end. He was ornamented by a necklace of charms, composed of small shells, eagles' talons, brass buttons, coloured beads, medicinal roots, &c. not arranged according to taste, but to produce the effect which he could not hope for without their assistance. He was a good-looking well-made man, and offered his services to supply the ship with water and guard the casks; an office which he usually performed for the whalers when they entered English River. These men were under Portuguese jurisdiction, and seemed to be miserably backward in improvements, as compared with the facilities of which they might have availed themselves. The countenances of these people are much more

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