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factory historical account of the Sikhs. These people abstain most rigidly from the use of beef, and from killing cows. They are even more scrupulous than the mere Hindoos, who will not hesitate to sell cows, although they will not use their flesh as food. The Sikhs equally abstain from both practices.
We now follow our author in retracing his second tour, which consisted of a journey across the Sutlege river into the Hill-state of Kooloo, undertaken by him with the intention of proceeding to Kashmeer. The first of the places visited, which possesses any interest, is a village called Shumsheer-Ka-Mahadeo. He found the people to be Bramins; and understood that they all composed but one family. He was, however, well treated; and being allowed to take up his residence in a porch of the outer square of the temple, he there, by conciliating the heads of the village, made himself quite at home. They became familiar with him; and were very curious to know where his country was; was it governed by a king ; and had the inhabitants plenty of flour. His telescope captivated them all ; when one of them distinguished through it a distant object, he broke out into loud laughter. The temple just spoken of is of great repute ; and it is the scene for the performance of an annual ceremony, called the “ Jug." A great rope, made of grass, is fastened to a high rock or tree; it is then fixed below, and a portion of it stretched across a small valley. In honour of the god of the temple, a devotee will ride down the rope, incurring the danger of breaking his neck. If the rope break, so much the worse for the character of the temple. The priests, however, are sure to look to that. But, if the performer get off safely, he is overwhelmed with presents; and the rope is passed round the sanctum of the temple, and preserved as a trophy. Previously to coming to this place, our author witnessed at Sreenugger an amusement, such as, he supposes, was never observed in any other part of India. A long pole was placed horizontally on the top of a post, which was fixed securely in the ground; the pole had a hole in the middle part, which received the sharp extremity of the post; and thus it was capable of moving freely round. The pole, in its right position, was breast high. Two persons played with this machine ; each got up on one of its extremities, and occasionally descended; the glory of the game then consisted in the certainty of the concert with which each jumped from his place, for if one was off before the other, the balance was instantly lost, and he who remained would be sure to meet with a severe fall.
In the vicinity of Giarghi, a hilly country, the Major found the people sadly afflicted with the goitre. Some of the swellings are enormous. The disease is attributed, by the medical men who visit the place, to the use of snow-water.
The third tour of our author was a journey from Simlah to the Borendo Pass; and was performed in October, 1828. The route comprised altogether a mountain character, the bold scenery of which affords the Major frequent opportunities of exhibiting his powers of description. At Pecca he witnessed the ceremony called the “ Dance of the Gods." The following is the account of this ludicrous scene :
In the afternoon we went down to the temple, the priests, at our solicitation, having agreed (odd and irreverend as it may be deemed) to give the gods a dance. After the prefatory drumming and sounding of horns, two divinities were brought forth, and “strange gods” they were. These were fashioned nearly as follows:-A circular piece of brass, about ten inches deep, and a foot and a quarter in diameter, like a broad hoop, had round it several faces of divinities in alto relievo, about six inches long; a large quantity of black hair, from the tail of the Thibet cow, was fastened to the top, and fell down like the fashion called mop-curls of a lady ; below this hoop, and fastened to it, depended clothes in the shape of petticoats, of ample dimensions, made of silk and cotton cloths. On a frame, consisting of two poles, with a cross piece, having in the centre a spindle fixed to it, the figure was stuck, the petticoats coming low down : the poles were, perhaps, ten or twelve feet long, and the ends brought so close to each other as to allow their fitting upon the shoulders of two men. The poles of a sedan chair, with a platform in the middle instead of the chair, having a peg projecting on which to stick the god, is the nearest resemblance I can find for the machinery. All being ready, a band of instruments struck up such sounds as one might imagine would serve as revelry for the powers of darkness; and if superstition and gross idolatry are two, that which is now recorded was fit music for them. Two men took each of the frames, and, resting them on their shoulders, moved to the music in measured steps : the mop of hair and petticoats danced too; the gods jumped about, and now and then most lovingly knocked their heads together. As the men became tired, others took their places, for it was fatiguing work. p.p. 287, 288.
One of the most interesting portions of the first volume is the elaborate account given of the Hill people, as that vast body is called, which inhabits the range of the Himalaya. Descriptions are given of the manners, food, diseases, &c., of this people; and the produce which is raised, either naturally or by cultivation, is minutely explained.
A journey in the Upper Provinces of Hindoostan, which began on the 26th of October, 1828, and ended on the 11th April, 1829, formed the fourth of the tours performed by the author in India. We do not think it necessary to follow the Major in this last of his journeys, as we feel that we have already supplied a sufficient number of examples, exhibiting the merits of this portion of the work. Half the second volume is devoted to observations on the local government of Bengal, and the general administration of India, both at home and abroad. As no one who looks to the present state of affairs will doubt the propriety of narrowly examining the manner in which the East India Company have exercised the jurisdiction so long enjoyed by them in India, we shall avail ourselves of this opportu. nity to enter upon the investigation. We are the more inclined to do so, at this moment, because, during the perusal of Major Archer's observations on the general government of India, we received the important volume called The Government of India, by Sir John Malcolm. As each of these volumes throws considerable light on the other, and as both are witnesses speaking from personal knowledge, we do not think that a more seasonable opportunity could be supplied than this for arriving at a knowledge of the truth. We proceed, then, to take up the series of important questions, connected with India, which have been treated of by each party; and, in general, we shall content ourselves with developing the testimony of each, leaving to the reader the perfect control of his own judgment.
We may commence by calling the reader's attention to the fact, that Sir John Malcolm assumed the station of governor of Bombay on the 1st of November, 1827, and resigned it on the 1st of Dec., 1830. The object which he proposes to accomplish by the publication of the present volume, is a description of the actual state of the different branches of the British government of India, abroad and åt home.
In the first chapter, Sir John makes a brief statement of the principal measures adopted during his administration in Bombay. It appears that in these measures he was entirely guided by principle derived from long experience, which was, that we can only hope to reclaim ignorant, superstitious, or predatory classes of men from their rude and lawless habits, by using, as our instruments, those by whom they are influenced or governed. With such a view of the nature of his duty as this, Sir John proceeded in his government. Every rational mind will agree in the justice and liberality of this opinion, and if it were only common to all the members of the body which is entrusted with the government of India, we should see its effects in a manner not very easy to be mistaken. No one knows better than Sir John, how small a share of encouragement his doctrine obtains at the India House. The truth is, that Sir John is either deluded himself or wishes to delude his readers ; for the whole of his work is nothing more than a catalogue of his own judicious efforts to establish a good government in India, and in dwelling upon those efforts, he would have us believe that they form part of the habitual system of the East India Directors. This is the grand fallacy of Sir John Malcolm's book. The consequence is, that though he treats of many subjects, he never penetrates into any, but, in almost every instance, is contented with stating whatever has been done for the sake of correction or improvement, and never is anxious to inquire what abuses remain which ought to be rectified what a mass of impolitic regulations exist, which a wise and prudent directorship would not tolerate for a single hour. Hence, then, Sir John can only refer to the interval during which he himself was doing the duty of governor, when he says, that the operations of the present system have been on the whole beneficial, and that the
home.government has been studious to do justice to fair claims, and has ever evinced an anxiety to promote the prosperity and happiness of the natives of India. Such being the case, in the conviction of Sir John, he concludes that any measures which would have the effect of producing a change, whether in the character or the efficiency of the existing government, demand the most cautious consideration. Now, if we refer to the report of Major Archer upon this important point, we shall find that he, a military officer in common with Sir John Malcolm, gives an entirely different opinion upon the merits of the present policy by which the general administration of India is carried on. Let us take a case. At page 137 of his book, Sir John Malcolm tells us, that with a view of improving the breed of horses for the army, the government stud established for that purpose has been conducted with economy, and has been efficient. This stud, he states, was enlarged and improved during the period when he was at Bombay, and he entertains no doubt whatever that the advantage accruing from such an establishment will be to render the Deccan, where the stud is situated, independent of foreign supply. Well, then, let us only hear what Major Archer has to say upon this vast source of improvement :
The stud department is one of large expenditure, which makes as yet but inadequate returns. This is to be accounted for from the mal-arrangement of the home authorities, who, instead of leaving the Indian government at liberty to follow the plan which experience had pointed out to those whose pursuits had been connected with the breeding of cattle, choose to chalk out the way they themselves thought best. The consequence has been the want of success to the establishment, although so many years have elapsed since its birth. There are three great studs : one in the Ghazepore district, à very large one; one at Haupper, near Meerut; and the third at Hissar, about one hundred miles north-west of Delhi, in a country possessing fine pastures, and celebrated for its breed of cattle. The controlling power is vested in a “ Board of Superintendence for the Breed of Cattle,” which has under it orders two superintendents, and seven assistants. In the boards rest the governance of the stud, all arrangements and improvements, and without their sanction no horse can be admitted, although it has been known that one every way fitted for the purpose has been rejected by the governorgeneral, who, among his numerous and high qualifications, and farming reminiscences, fancied he knew a bit about horse flesh. To say the least, it was making very small of the veterans, then members, one of whom was the father of the Calcutta turf, and two others were as good judges as Newmarket could ever boast of. The horse in question was an Arab, rather low, but the best four-mile horse of his day, and as strong as a house. The first and great fault of the directors at home was their not sending out the best cattle to be had for the intended purpose. Not having done this, it will take a long time to get what is required out of the present produce good horses and mares, the latter being put to Arabs,-thence strong and handsome foals.
The present system is to send out a number of horses into the circles of the divisions, and every one bringing a mare covenants to tender the produce to the superintendent at a year old for a certain sum, who selects or rejects at pleasure; if the former, they are sent to the stud, and kept there until chosen to remount the cavalry corps. The mares tendered are for the most part not worthy the trouble or expense; but as drafts are required, the produce, though unfit, must sometimes be taken. Now the Company do not send out either horses or mares, but trust to the country supplying both : the consequence again is, that many horses are obliged to be taken which otherwise would be rejected : for instance, a high-bred, but small horse, would not be preferred to one larger and having substance with less blood. To show the want of judgment in not sending out the best cattle for stud purposes, the celebrated horse Benedict cost three hundred guineas, and his passage out two hundred more: he has been in India seventeen years, and besides furnishing his owner's mares, averaging thirty-five yearly, has netted him upwards of 20,000 rupees. His stock are the best in India, and sell from 1200 to 1600 and to 3000 rupees, two-year old colts and fillies.
The stud has now been established some years, and has not yet been able to pay itself; although the Company sell all horses undersized, and those to which they attach the value of 1000 rupees and upwards. The loss to the state in the expense above its real good, if it were money alone, would not be so great a cause for regret; but the breeding of horses by the Company has entirely stopped the trade which in former years brought large numbers of horses from the Punjab, and the countries north of it, as a supply for the cavalry. Doubtless it is a greater security that we should not be dependant on our neighbours for the annual equipment of the cavalry; but it should have been a prime object to have made that body equal, if not superior, by the change, at a less cost if possible. - pp. 259-262.
And this is the home government, any change in the efficiency of which requires the gravest consideration! Such direct contradictions as these at once satisfy us as to the extent of the credit which is due to the statements of Sir John Malcolm.
Again, Sir John tells us that the revenue derived from salt in Bombay is gradually increasing. Major Archer states that it is less than it was ; formerly it fetched three millions sterlings, now it rarely exceeds two. And how, we ask, could it be otherwise ? Will Sir John deny that the tax on the consumption of salt in India is scandalous in the extreme? What is its amount-does the reader conjecture? Nothing short of eight hundred per cent., supposing it to be bought, as it usually is, from the retailer. And this, mind, is an indispensible article of food. With respect to the monopoly of opium, Sir John really slurs it over. The revenue derived from opium, he tells us, was very considerable, as long as the drug produced was purchased on account of the Company, and as long as the trade of individuals was prevented by a very high duty. But, he continues, this state of things has been changed, and the cultivation of the poppy, the plant from which the opium is produced, is now made free, whereas before it was restricted.