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“perpetui inimici,” and were not, until a late period, admitted even as witnesses in courts of justice.

It was the race of Portuguese Jews which formed the first general settlement of Jews in England ; they were mostly wealthy families, and some of them were able to support a ducal establishment after their arrival in this country. For many years they comprised the community of Spanish and Portuguese Jews, as they were generally designated, the noble part taking their proper stations. Their translated prayers and Bibles in Spanish, and their by-laws and judicial and other civil documents being still issued in the Portuguese language, are proofs of their origin. This class of Jews were always remarkable, in London, for the haughtiness with which they conducted themselves, particularly after the influx of emigrant Jews from Germany, Poland, and Barbary, with whom the former were afraid to be confounded.

The pride and passions of the first race of Portuguese Jews which settled in England, were handed down to their immediate successors. The first and second generations resided in retired quarters in the city; the third generation consisted of natives, and the fourth were true Englishmen. On all occasions the Jews showed unshaken loyalty to the crown. This, our author states, was the case is most countries ; and as a proof of the confidence entertained in their fidelity, he mentions that Jews have marched in the armies of European sovereigns ; Prussia has many Jewish officers ; France counts numerous Jews in the Ecole Polytechnique; and the King . of Holland has a complete regiment of Hebrews.

The author contends that the Jews should be endowed with the privileges of free citizens of this country ; but that no improvement of their body, political or moral, can take place, unless they educate their youth, as the youth of Europe, and not of Palestine.

NOTICES.

Art. XI.--The Magazine of Botany

and Gardening, British and Foreign. Edited by James Rennie, M.A., Professor of Zoology, King's College, London. 4to, with plates, beautifully coloured. Nos. 1 and 2 for April and May. London: Henderson. 1833.

The two numbers now before us constitute the commencement of a periodical work, than which one more likely to be generally useful and interesting has not appeared, even at the present era so, fertile in cheap vehicles of knowledge. The plan of this work, like all the projects which emanate from Professor Rennie, is modified strictly in con. formity with the principle of making all intelligible, if not familiar, to those for whom the work is intended. Here, then, the casual, and we may say the uninstructed, or at least unlearned reader, will at once be able to contemplate some of the most curious and complicated facts in the science of the vegetable world, with out any preparation, save that of paying his shilling for the Magazine. But, in order to do justice to the work, we must illustrate our view of the performance by referring to the execution itself, and we proceed at once to the very first page of No. 1. The first plate of which, a descrip. tion is given in the above page, contains beautiful representations of four plants. One of these, called the Convallaria Japonica, will an. swer as a specimen. Now on turning to the description, after contemplating the plate for a moment, we

find in the first place a full ac. count of the scientific history of the plant; its place in the two great systems of botanical classification, and references made to the volumes where either it was first, or where it will be, found, amply and correctly. described. We then have a popular account of all the parts of the plant, its root, its leaves, its flowers, its fruit or seed. Next we have the particulars of its history, where it was found, in what sort of soil it naturally grows, and finally we are told of its virtues as a medicinal agent, if such it is found to possess, together with the proper mode of propagating and cultivating it.

But this is not all. It is not possible that by giving the portrait, so to speak of a plant, where you have to attend to outline, to relation, proportion, and general effect, you can so present the parts that possess a peculiar structure as to allow of this peculiarity being seen and appreciated. This being impracticable, the artist who furnishes the plates is required to make an addition to his principal figure; and in the compartment dedicated to the Convallaria, we have not only the whole plant itself beautifully depicted, but we have nine distinct diagrams, giving the appearances of the organs in their detached state, and exhibiting them as they appear when examined through the medium of a powerful microscope. And here we should say is a practical manifestation of the very perfection of the graphic art, for, as now must be evident, it can be made the medium

of superseding the use of a micros- of these are added an account of cope, to any thing like the extent to some experiments on plants, by Prowhich that instrument is employed fessor Burnett; a new method of at present in botanical inquiries. planting trees, by Munro; Life of Let us now only consider, that in Linnæus, by Sir W. Jardine ; a this shilling publication we have no curious account of the Gum Ammoless than eight plants, rare and pre niacum plant ; Brongniart, on the cious objects of scientific cultivation, leaf-pulp of plants; saltpetre, as a described and illustrated in the de- manure, and various other important tailed and exact, and truly interest subjects connected with botany. ing way in which we have seen that the Convallaria is treated: let us only consider how such a collection of all that is scarce in science and refined Art. XII.-Illustrations of Poliin art can be effected; and then how tical Economy. No. XVI. useful, as a general reference, it Messrs. Vanderput aud Snoek. really is, and we shall then only do A Tale. By HARRIET MARTIjustice to the merits of this publica- Neau. London: Fox. 1833. tion.

The Magazine of Botany and Gar- The labours of this able and singudening, however, is not limited even larly industrious woman have at last to this amount of valuable matter; produced that practical consequence and that this is far from being the which has been some time expected, case will be easily determined if we and which is regarded in the moral cast our eyes over the pages of the world as the clearest possible evitwo numbers before us. We find dence of their success, namely, the in the first of these numbers an able resentment of the foes to all imarticle on the Rationale of Garden provement. A word more on this ing, in which the functions performed subject would only profane the by air and light in the vegetable splendid triumph which truth and economy are explained in a most' justice, in the fair form of a gifted attractive manner. The article on woman, have experienced. the Amelioration of Fruits, by Pro- The purpose of the present wellfessor Lindley, which succeeds, is told tale is to exhibit, in a familiar another of those beautiful develop and intelligible manner, the nature ments of the processes of nature and operation of that form or modiwhich so justly form objects of con- fication of the ordinary currency, templation with the first philosophers which consists of a bill of exchange. that have ever adorned humanity. A considerable portion of the illus, But even here we are not allowed to tration goes to show the true nature, pause ; for, turning over still the in a commercial sense, of money. leaves of the magazine, we have an The par of exchange is next amply account of the choicest plants which explained ; and it is made apparent, fower in the particular month, with that the variation, in a given counample directions for their manage. try, from par, cannot exceed a cerment. Two other articles on the tain limit, and this limit is deterstructure of trees, and on fruit and mined by the cost of substituting kitchen gardens close the number. for each other metal money and one

The number for May contains two of the representatives of metal mobeautifully coloured plates, repre- ney, as a bill of exchange. How senting five magnificent plants. To the introduction of this instrument the ample and detailed descriptions into the circulation operates, is also

VOL. II. (1833) no. 1.

admirably described; and the sub- must ascertain the proportions in stantial conclusion is ultimately which each part of the compound made out, that there is a self-ba- exists, in reference to the rest. This lancing power inherent in the sys- condition of the inorganic bodies, tem of commercial exchange, and therefore, gives rise to two forms that it is, therefore, absurd to sup- of analysis : that which is concerned pose that its operation ought to be about the quality, and that which subjected to any restraints.

merely takes into account the quanThe present story, as the name tity. Thus, then, the analysis of vill readily suggest, has its scene Berzelius is usually spoken of either in Holland; and there appears to be as the Qualitative or the Quantitative. no misgiving in the mind of the au- In the present volume, numerous thoress as to any breach of consis, rules are laid down for analysing tency being involved in the circum- hard bodies, such as we have destance of her attributing to the scribed ; then, for analysing gases, Dutch of the seventeenth century a mineral waters, salts, &c. preference for the principle of free The notes appended to this vertrade. However, such is the case; sion, by Mr. Rees, are highly valuthey judged from experience ; they able, inasmuch as they exhibit a had no teacher; and they came to very minute acquaintance with the the natural and, no doubt, just in- state of chemical science in this ference, that trade should be free: country. upon this principle, at all events, they disposed of their herrings and butter.

Art. XIV.--Geographical Works

of Sadik Isfahani. Translated, by Art. XIII.-The Analysis of Inor

J. C., from the Original Persian ganic Bodies. By J. J. BERZE

MSS. in the Collection of Sir LIUs. Translated from the French

William Ouseley, the Editor.Edition by G. O. Rees.

A Critical Essay on Various Ma.

nuscript Works, Arabic and PerThis is one of those brief, unpre sian, illustrating the History of tending, but most valuable, contri Arabia, Persia, Turkomania, Jubutions to science which, we are dea, Syria, Egypt, Mauritania, happy to be able to state, present and Spain. Translated by J. C. themselves much more frequently London : Printed for the Oriental every day. The work contains the Transalation Fund. 1832. masterly details of the modes employed by the celebrated Berzelius The extent to which the spirited in analysing mineral substances, or body called the Oriental Translation those which, to distinguish them Fund, are determined to carry the from animals and plants, are called principle of incorporating Oriental inorganic bodies.

literature with that of our own It is the opinion of this great country, is strikingly evinced by the master of chemistry, that the mic present publication : for it contains nute analysis of bodies tends to some very curious contributions, prove at once the knowledge, the which may prove useful in promotjudgment, and exactness of the ing an acquaintance with Asaiatic chemist. It is his duty to deter- geography. mine, first, of what the substance Both the works, whose titles we examined is composed; and then he have copied, are manuscripts deposited in the library of Sir William to us with a short description of its Ouseley, who, if we were merely to particular locality. judge from his conduct on the pre The object of the second work, sent occasion, we should say, exer- which was written by a learned cises his control over these relics of Bengali, was to point out to his son, an interesting country, with a liber or some pupil for whom he was inality truly worthy of such a possess. terested, and whose taste in historior. The first of the works is called, cal researches he wished to direct. in the original Tahkik al Irab. It Sir William Ouseley is of opinion, gives an alphabetical catalogue of that the essay is in a peculiar manthe names of countries, cities, vil- ner adapted to the objects of the lages, rivers, mountains, and other Translation Fund, as containing inobjects connected with geographical formation which is not to be found knowledge. It seems to have been in the most extensive catalogues of compiled by the author for the pur- Oriental literature, on books and pose of determining the true pro- authors. An index to the works and nunciation of the places enumerated the authors, mentioned in this rare in the list ; and each is presented work, is given in the present pub

lication.

MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE.

A shrewd measure.—Charles the Humming Birds.—The ancient First had anact of parliament passed Mexicans used the feathers of the expressly for the purpose of requir- humming bird for superb mantles in ing that all the dead of these realms the time of Montezuma, and the should be buried in woollen shrouds. pictures so much extolled by Cortes The object of the royal project was were embroidered with their skins : to encourage the woollen manufac- The Indian could appreciate their ture.

loveliness, delighting to adorn his Mirrors of Fusible Alloy.-Ber- bride with gems and jewels plucked zelius has found that by the union from the starry frontlets of these of nineteen parts of lead and twenty. beauteous birds. Every epithet which nine of tin, a fusible alloy is pro- the ingenuity of language could duced, which affords, on cooling in invent has been employed to depict thin plates, very bright surfaces. the richness of their colouring; the A convex lens dipped several times lustres of the topaz, of emeralds, and into the melted alloy yielded from rubies, have compared with them, the surface dipped a concave mirror and applied in their names. of great lustre. This, mounted upon Mothers in India. Those who plaster, was preserved for some time have resided long in India are aware in the air untarnished. Dust destroys that neither Mahomedan nor Hindoo these mirrors, which will not bear mothers will part with their sons wiping.

even for a short period. It is to

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