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the delegates from the presbyteries comprised in the four synods which had been expunged from the ecclesiastical statistics by the previous Assembly. When the motion was made that the commissions from these presbyteries should be received, the moderator refused to recognise the motion, or the parties on whose behalf it was made. After a short interval of disorder, the minority, including both the advocates of the synods who were excluded by the Assembly of 1837, and the commissioners from those synods,) united in disclaiming the authority of the moderator, and proceeded to organize by themselves; and having elected another moderator and clerks, the whole of the dissentients from the acts of the Assembly, in 1837, immediately withdrew, in a body, to the edifice occupied by the First Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia.

The majority retained their seats until the temporary confusion ceased, when they proceeded to their ecclesiastical business according to the prescribed ordinary forms.

The trustees and other corporate bodies among the Presbyterians possess much valuable property, for their seminaries and missionary institutions. Some time after the separation in 1838 had been consummated, the question, in whom that property was legally vested, was carried into the civil courts of Pennsylvania, in which state the trustees were incorporated. The Trustees of the General Assembly are elected by the General Assembly, who may change one-third of the number every year. The seceding Assembly elected one-third of the board as new members. When they claimed their seats at the board they were refused admission. A suit, therefore, was commenced, to obtain possession of the offices from which, as they contended, they were illegally excluded. The cause excited intense interest, and was primarily decided in favour of the claimants; for the true question litigated was this: Was the body who refused to acknowledge the four severed synods the true Assembly of the Presbyterian Church? An appeal to the Supreme Court was entered from the adjudication of the inferior tribunal. The superior court reversed the sentence of the lower court; and granted a new trial, with a construction of the law which in effect precluded the plaintiffs from obtaining their object, and the suit was withdrawn. Thus, so far as the legal decision in Pennsylvania operates, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States are recognised as that body, represented by their trustees who, in law, still hold that title, with its common property.

The effervescence of the strife now has almost disappeared; and the two bodies of American Presbyterians are actively pursuing their own course. According to their statistical returns, they have increased during the six years from their separation, nearly one-third in actual numbers. Moreover, when we contrast the diversified additional instrumentalities to promote the Redeemer's kingdom, which have been put in operation by them, since their division in 1838; it is manifest, that, in capacity for the Lord's work, they have doubled their usefulness and enterprise.

Thus, from the smallest beginnings, when the little companies of the “ Presbyterian Pilgrims” who first came to America, as it were, but with a "staff," here laid the foundations of this church, and reared it under manifold difficulties and annoyances, encountering obloquy and even persecutions: it has grown under the protection and favour of Providence, oft sharing the dews of the Holy Spirit, enlarging its borders in this genial land, and exerting a happy influence on the world, until now it has become two bands."

Although not of this distinct denomination, the Reformed Dutch and German Reformed Churches in the United States, are Presbyterian and Calvinistic. Their standards of doctrine are the Articles of the Synod of Dort and the Heidelberg Catechism. The Reformed Presbyterian Church, or Covenanters, the Associate Church, and the Associate Reformed Church, and the body which separated from us in 1838, adopt the Westminster Standards as the symbols of their faith and order ;—the last specified body having the same constitution as the Presbyterian Church, with the exceptions of the restriction which they have since put to the powers of the General Assembly, and of the substitution of triennial for annual General Assemblies.

And all these distinct denominations, including the Cumberland Presbyterians, and some smaller denominations, although for various causes they are arranged in separate bodies, compose a great Presbyterian family in the United States, which comprises upwards of four thousand ministers and nearly six thousand churches, and comprehends a population of three or four millions who, either as communicants or worshippers, are associated with them.

III. STATISTICA L.

According to the statistical tables, appended to the minutes of the General Assembly, for 1843, the Presbyterian Church in the United States, comprises 19 synods, or 105 presbyteries, 1434 ministers, 183 licentiates, 314 candidates for the ministry, 2092 churches, and 159,137 members in communion.

The existing institutions of the Presbyterian Church must be con

cisely described. They may generally be divided into those connected with education, or literature, or missions.

Education. This department comprises colleges, theological seminaries, and the Board of Education."

Colleges.—The establishments of learning at the following places, although not absolutely connected with, or directly controlled by Presbyterians exclusively, are generally considered as under their supervision, or are chiefly sustained by them.

New York.—Hamilton College; Union College, at Schenectady; New York University.

New Jersey.-Nassau Hall, at Princeton.

Pennsylvania.—Jefferson, at Cannonsburg; Washington College; La Fayette, at Easton.

Virginia.-Hampden Sidney, in Prince Edward county; Washington, at Lexington.

North Carolina.—University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill ; Davidson, at Mecklenburg.

South Carolina.—South Carolina, at Columbia.
Tennessee.—University of Nashville.
Kentucky.--Centre, at Danville.
Ohio.--Miami University, at Oxford.
Indiana.--South Hanover College.

Theological Seminaries.--At Princeton, New Jersey ; Western, at Allegheny, Pennsylvania ; Union, in Prince Edward county, Virginia; Southern, at Columbia, South Carolina; Indiana, at New Albany, Indiana.

Board of Education. The formal commencement of the work of education for the ministry, was the result of the proceedings of the General Assembly in 1806, when that duty was assigned to each presbytery. The inefficiency of the system induced the General Assembly, in 1819, to form the “ Board of Education;" but during the interval until 1829, there was not the adequate result which was necessary to supply the demands for ministers. A new organization was then made; and the consequence has been manifested in a large augmentation of the funds, and a proportionate increase in the number of theological students maintained during their preparatory course.

Thirteen hundred and fifty young men have been assisted in their studies for the gospel ministry. Two-thirds of the foreign missionaries, and nearly one-half of the domestic missionaries, with a large proportion of the pastors of the Presbyterian churches at this time, have been introduced to the ministry through the aid of the “ Board of Education.”

Literature. This department comprises the miscellaneous publications, which are expressly devoted to promulge the doctrinal principles, and to defend the government and discipline of the Presbyterian churches.

There is a quarterly periodical, by Presbyterian writers, entitled the Biblical Repertory and Theological Review, which is devoted almost exclusively to disquisitions strictly religious, or to those which have a close affinity with them, either on Christian ethics or ecclesiastical history. Several weekly newspapers are issued by them, and very extensively dispersed. The Presbyterian, at Philadelphia ; the Presbyterian Advocate, at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania; the Presbyterian of the West, at Springfield, Ohio; the Protestant and Herald, at Frankfort, Kentucky; the Watchman of the South, at Richmond, Virginia ; and the Observer, at Charleston, South Carolina.

Board of Publication. In addition to these miscellanies, the Presbyterians have organized a most important and efficient society, denominated the Presbyterian Board of Publication, which was instituted for the purpose of disseminating standard volumes of theology and ecclesiastical history, and also tracts that elucidate and defend Presbyterianism. This board, which is elected by the General Assembly, has printed nearly fifty tracts, doctrinal, ritual, on Popery, historical, and for youth. · Nearly one hundred and thirty works have already been issued by the Presbyterian Board of Publication, which may thus be classified: Biographical, nineteen; devotional, eight; doctrinal, twenty; experimental, seventeen; historical, seventeen; polemical, sixteen; practical, five; prophetic, five; and works adapted for youth, eighteen. The benign fruits, which this powerful typographical machinery is producing, can be estimated only by remembering the moderate price at which the works are sold, and the high character of the volumes themselves, a few of which are enumerated in the order in which they originally were published.

Brooks's Mute Christian; Halyburton's Great Concern; Life of John Knox; Charnock's Discourses on Regeneration; Guthrie's Christian's Great Interests; Lime Street Lectures; Bradbury's Mystery of Godliness; Flavel's Divine Conduct; Charnock's Discourses on the Attributes of God; Owen on the Holy Spirit; Charnock on Christ Crucified; Owen on Justification; Calvin's Institutes, translated by John Allen; Owen on Indwelling Sin; Sibbs's Souls' Conflict; Lorimer's History of the French Protestants; McCrie's History of the Reformation in Italy and Spain; the British Reformers, with their Lives, twelve volumes; Daillie's Use of the Fathers; Mead's Almost Christian; Charlotte Elizabeth's English Martyrology, and the Lives of the British Reformers, separate from their writings.

The beneficial influence, under the divine auspices, which must result from the unrestricted dissemination of these and similar invaluable Christian productions, throughout the Republic, and especially among the Household of Fuith, far transcends our utmost imagination; and the exhilarating anticipation cannot be otherwise expressed, than in the Psalmist's urgent petition, “O Lord, we beseech thee, send now prosperity!" Amen.

Missions. This portion of the philanthropic labours of the Presbyterian churches is conducted by two distinct agencies and boards of managers.

Domestic.—The primary arrangements for Home Missions, under the committee appointed by the General Assembly, were comparatively restricted in extent and languid in their operations; until in 1828, the present efficient system was adopted, through which there has been a gradual but constant increase in the number of missionaries, the amount of funds collected, the interest excited, and the good accomplished.” Three hundred missionaries are now employed, while the prospect of usefulness in spreading the gospel never was more promising than at the present period. Signal success already has attended the work under the divine blessing; and every heart must exult in the glorious prospect, that “the righteousness” of Zion “shall go forth as brightness," and “the salvation" of Jerusalem “ as the lamp that burneth."

Foreign.-" The first mission to the heathen, established by the Presbyterian Church, was among the Indians on Long Island, in the year 1741. David Brainard was the second missionary. His ordination took place in the year 1744, and the fields of his remarkable labours were at the forks of the Delaware, on the borders of the Susquehanna, and at Crossweeks in New Jersey. From that period increasing attention was given to this great subject, and various missionary societies were formed in which Presbyterians largely participated. This was particularly the case in the United Foreign Missionary Society, which after a brief career was eventually merged in the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.'"

Notwithstanding, many Presbyterians were solicitous that their own churches should separately engage in the missionary work. In consequence of which, “ In the year 1831, a determined and active effort was made by the Synod of Pittsburg, to awaken the church to a sense of her duty in this respect, by the organization of the • West

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