intercourse between the two countries was interrupted by the breaking out of the revolutionary war. By this time the number of ministers had increased to thirteen; and the applications to the Presbytery for supply of preaching and the dispensation of the sacraments increased in a still greater degree.

At this period it was judged necessary to divide the Presbytery. Those ministers settled in New York, with the congregations in that State and east of it, were set off into the new Presbytery, which was called the Presbytery of New York. The others remained under the old designation, the Presbytery of Pennsylvania, and had the care of such congregations as were located in Pennsylvania and southward of it. This division of the Presbytery took place on the 20th of May, 1776.

There were at this time also in the Province of Pennsylvania three ministers belonging to another body of dissenters from the Church of Scotland, called “ Reformed Presbyterians.” An attempt was shortly after this made to form a union between these brethren and the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania. After some twenty meetings of unsuccessful efforts, when the affair had been apparently dropped by both parties, it was unexpectedly brought on at a meeting of the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania, when the members were not all present, by the efforts of one of the members of the Presbytery of New York, and in violation of a former express agreement of the Presbytery, and carried by the casting vote of the moderator. The part of the Presbytery who at the time opposed the union, wished the matter delayed until the judgment of the Synod in Scotland could be obtained on it; but the others declared themselves no longer in connexion with the Synod in Scotland, and proceeded to pass censures on their brethren who did not fall in with the union. This event took place on the 13th of June, 1782.

The united body denominated themselves the Associate Reformed Synod, from a combination of the names of the two bodies from which the parties came.

This union, instead of making two bodies into one, as was its professed design, divided two into three; for those of the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania who refused to join the union, believing the terms of it inconsistent with truth and of schismatical tendency, continued their former organization. Their course was approved by the Synod in Scotland; the Reformed Presbyterian Synod disapproved of what their members had done, and sent in other ministers to supply their place. So that the two original bodies continued to exist, and the new one also.

The Presbytery of Pennsylvania was almost extinguished by this union. At the meeting of the Presbytery at which the above transaction took place, besides the moderator, there were present five ministers and five ruling elders: three ministers and two ruling elders voted in favour of the union, and two ministers and three ruling elders against it. So that but two ministers were left in the Presbytery of Pennsylvania at the time, for the absent ministerial members at first fell in with the union; and for a time these two ministers, Wm. Marshall, of Philadelphia, and James Clarkson, of York County, Pennsylvania, with their elders, composed the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania. The Associate Presbytery of New York had joined the union previously.

The Synod of Scotland, however, as soon as practicable, sent over others to their assistance, and in a few years most of those who at first had joined the union, abandoned it, and returned to the Presbytery of Pennsylvania, so that in a short time her affairs began again to revive.

Nothing however worthy of special notice occurred in the Presbytery from this period until the formation of the Synod in 1801. During this period a number of ministers arrived from Scotland, and some were educated in this country. The first institution for the purpose of educating students in theology by this body, was established in 1793, under the care of the Rev. John Anderson, D. D., of Beaver County, Pennsylvania, who continued to serve as sole profesfor of theology until 1818, when he resigned on account of old age. From the appointment of Dr. Anderson, in 1793, until the formation of the Synod, in 1801, six young men had been licensed to preach the Gospel.

Before noticing the formation of the Synod, it is necessary to give an account of the organization of the Presbytery of Kentucky. The Presbytery of Pennsylvania, being wholly unable to meet the applications for preaching which were sent from Tennessee and Kentucky, directed the applicants to apply directly to the Synod in Scotland for missionaries. They did so, and in answer to the petition, the Synod sent two, viz., Messrs. Robert Armstrong and Andrew Fulton, missionaries to Kentucky, with authority to constitute themselves into a Presbytery. These missionaries arrived in Kentucky in the spring of 1798, and formed themselves with ruling elders into a Presbytery on the 28th of November of the same year, by the name of the Presbytery of Kentucky.

This accession of strength enabled these Presbyteries to form themselves into a Synod. A resolution to that effect was passed in the Presbytery of Pennsylvania at their meeting in Philadelphia, May 1st, 1800. After setting forth the reasons for this, they “Resolved, that this Presbytery will, if the Lord permit, constitute themselves into a Synod, or court of review, known and designated by the name of the Associate Synod of North America. To meet in Philadelphia on the third Wednesday of May, 1801, at eleven o'clock A. M. That Mr. Marshall open the meeting with a sermon, and then constitute the Synod. The rest of the day to be spent in solemn prayer and fasting.” The Synod met pursuant to this appointment. The roll then con

. sisted of seventeen ministers. These were divided into four Presby. teries, viz., the Presbytery of Philadelphia, the Presbytery of Chartiers, the Presbytery of Kentucky, and the Presbytery of Cambridge. At this time there were also several probationers preaching under the care of the Synod. Until the year 1818 appeals might be taken from this Synod to that of Scotland. But at that time it was declared a co-ordinate Synod by the General Associate Synod of Scotland.

From this period until the present time, this society has regularly increased in members and ministers. It is perhaps worthy of remark, that her members have increased in a greater proportion than her ministers.

About the year 1820 an attempt was made to form a union between this church and the Associate Reformed Synod of the West, who had separated from what was at that time the General Associate Reformed Synod, on account of the latitudinarian principles of the latter. A correspondence was carried on between the two bodies for some years, and nearly every obstacle to a union seemed to be removed, but the attempt was at length abandoned. This result seemed to be owing in a great measure to the nature of the last communication

a from the Associate Reformed, the tenor of which was unconciliating and unkind.

Between the years 1838 and 1840, six or seven ministers were deposed or suspended for various offences. These have since formed themselves into a Synod, and have assumed the name of the Associate Synod of North America. Two ministers, also, in the south, one in South Carolina and the other in Virginia, who had been suspended on account of their connexion with slavery, have also assumed the name of the Associate Church. These have united, or are about to be united, to the Associate Reformed Synod of the South. A minister of the Presbytery of Miami has also joined with a suspended minister of the same Presbytery, and formed what they denominate the “ Free Associate Presbytery of Miami.”

These defections of ministers have consequently occasioned some reduction in the number of the people ; but this loss has been more than compensated to the society by the peace, harmony and order that have since prevailed.

January, 1844.

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Of the earliest Scots' Presbyterian Churches in this country, we have no very certain accounts, with the exception of a few in South Carolina. In 1680, Lord Cardron took measures for the establishment of a colony in South Carolina, with the view to afford a place of refuge to his persecuted Presbyterian brethren. This was formed at Port Royal, and the minister of it was the Rev. Dr. Dunlop, afterwards Principal of the University of Glasgow. An invasion by the Spaniards, and the English Revolution of 1688, which afforded the exiles an opportunity of returning to their native land, led to the abandonment of the colony. Numbers of private persons, however, remained in Carolina, who were gathered into congregations under the care of a Presbytery which continued to exist until about the close of the last century. Of these churches, only one now remains, the Old Scots' Church of Charleston.

During that dark period of Scottish history, from 1660 to 1688, numbers of Presbyterians were transported to the American plantations, and sold as slaves. Wodrow sets the number down at 3000. They were for the most part sent to Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. To a congregation formed of these exiles, in New Jersey, Fraser, the author of the work on Sanctification, for some years preached; he afterwards removed to New England, and from thence returned to Scotland. It is much to be lamented that the accounts of these Scottish Churches are so exceedingly scanty, inasmuch as their history is connected with that of the American Presbyterian and the Associate Reformed Churches.*

* Wodrow the historian corresponded with many of them for a long series of years; his correspondence, now in course of publication by the Wodrow Society, it is to be hoped will throw much light upon this early period of American Presbyterian history.

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