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UNIVERSAL GEOGRAPHY,

IN FOUR PARTS:

HISTORICAL, MATHEMATICAL, PHYSICAL, AND POLITICAL.

BY THE

REV. THOMAS MILNER, M.A., F.R.G.S.

ILLUSTRATED BY

TEN MAPS, WITH DIAGRAMS AND SECTIONS.

“Let me once understand the real geography of a country,-its organic structure, if I
may so call it the forni of its skeleton,- that is, of its hills; the magnitude and course of
its reins and arteries,-that is, of its streams and rivers; let me conceive of it as a whole,
made up of connected parts; and then the position of man's dwellings, viewed iu reference
to these parts, become at once easily remembered, and lively and intelligible besides.”

DR. ARNOLD.

LONDON:
THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY ;

Instituted 1799.

DEPOSITORY, 56, PATERNOSTER ROW, AND 65,
ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD; AND BY THE BOOKSELLERS.

SOLD

AT

THE

1857,

201. 9.42.

PRE FACE.

The following pages present, for the first time, it is believed, in a generally accessible form, a combined view of Historical, Mathematical, Physical, and Political Geography. The writer has endeavoured to condense, from a great variety of scattered sources, as large a quantity of matter as possible into the smallest compass consistent with perspicuity ; his object having been to give the most comprehensive general information, with those minuter details which claim attention on account of their interest or importance. In the Political section, he has attempted to convey a definite idea of the natural features of each particular country, in harmony with the view expressed by the late Master of Rugby School in the motto on the title-page. Considerable use has been made in this department of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. The work is intended for the general Home reader; for the Emigrant who may wish to take to the far bounds of civilized life, a cheap and portable compendium of information relative to countries, with reference to which his means of knowledge will necessarily be limited; and for the use of Colleges and Schools, to which it will be further adapted by EXERCISES, which may be had separately, or bound with the volume. While treating of a branch of secular knowledge, of high importance, and continually becoming more so, by an extending foreign commerce, and the more frequent intercommunication of distant nations, care has been taken to lead the reader to the “wisdom which cometh from above," whose "ways are ways of pleasantness, and all ” whose“ paths are peace."

NORWOOD,

August 26, 1850.

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Willoughby, Burroughs, Pet and Jackman, and Barentz-endeavours to
find a north-west passage-voyages of Frobisher, Davis, Hudson, Burton,
Bylot and Baffin-researches of Spanish navigators--discovery of Australia
by the Dutch-Schouten and Lemaire-Tasman's discovery of Van Diemen's
Land, New Zealand, and other islands—inland discovery promoted by
colonization—the pilgrim fathers, the French, Dutch, Swedes, Jesuit mis-
sionaries-correction of maps, by Hondius, Peirsac, Picard and Delahire-
settlements in Greenland, Hans Egede, Moravian brethren-Russian dis-
covery under Behring - Loshkin's discovery of the east coast of Nova
Zembla-survey of the Falkland Islands by Byron-Wallis's discoveries-

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