sent into the western districts to try Feversham ; and in his camp was set the adherents of this rash enterprise, up a public chapel, which was erected accompanied by a military force un- on wheels, and in which mass was der the command of the ruffian daily performed. Colonel Kirk, a merciless coadjutor At the abdication of James, the of this judge, appointed by the state chapel was stationed on the south authorities, and especially by the side of Conduit Street ; and it being concurrence of the tyrant sovereign. reconsecrated, the service of the Pro

Thes human vultures, in their testant church was performed therein memorable tour of blood and bar- until about the year 1725, when it barity, hanged these misguided par- was removed, and Trinity Chapel was tisans of the duke by scores, in the erected on its site. King James, to most grossly insulting and inhuman obtain a specific object, most unad

Kirk ordered thirty to be visedly published two papers, taken suspended at once upon the same out of the late king's strong-box, to gallows, which was erected immedi- assure the British people, had other ately in front of the inn, where himself proof been wanting, of this gratuitand his officers being at dinner, they ous act of folly in making it public might gratify their hellish cruelty that Charles had died a Papist. by a nearer sight of the sufferings of The character of this king, the their victims ; of these-horrible to most profligate of the Stuart race, recite !—ten were launched into dread has been thus faithfully portrayed eternity with a health to the bigot by a noble poet :king, which was accompanied by a

“ Fortune, or fair or frowning on his shout; ten with a health to the

soul, fanatic queen, the late Duchess of

Could stamp no virtue, and no vice conModena; and ten with a health to

trol; the arch-demon, Judge Jefferies ! Honour or morals, gratitude or truth,

The principal scenes of the atro- Nor learned his ripen`d age, nor knew cities perpetrated by Jefferies and his youth. Kirk occurred in the neighbourhood

The care of nations left to knaves or of the battle of Sedgmoor, where the

chance, duke was defeated, and shortly after made prisoner.

Plunderer of Britain, pensioner of France;

Free to buffoons, to ministers denied, The following towns were stained

He lived an atheist, and a bigot died !" with the blood of the unhappy victims to the inconsiderate, and, it must From this period it appears that be inferred, unpardonable rashness of all the measures of King James were the Duke of Monmouth, - Bridge- governed by a strange infatuation, water, Taunton, Dorchester, and for every public and private act Wells. Jefferies openly boasted on savoured of the grossest fanaticism this horrible occasion, that he had and stark-blind zealotry; and the hanged more than all the British monstrous absurdities of the revived judges who had lived in England old system of the Popish church from the period of the Norman Con- terrified or disgusted all thinking

people. On his return to London after this On the 25th of March, 1685, a murderous expedition, he was in- proclamation was issued from the vested with the dignity of lord-chan- court, appointing a day of public cellor by the king, -an indubitable thanksgiving, on discovering the proof that his sanguinary conduct queen's pregnancy. This absurdity met with the entire approbation of was immediately seen through, and the unfeeling despot.

ascribed to those stratagem-mongers, It was now too evident that James the priests, who were encouraged at determined to establish Popery in the court of St. James's. his dominions ; almost all places of The extravagant joy of the Papists honour or profit were bestowed upon on this occasion, and the sanguine Papists or their adherents; and al


and expectations of the Jesuits, though the nation was in a state of were openly declared, who made no peace, he caused an army of 15,000 secret of their belief that this conmen to be encamped on Hounslow ception was miraculous, and asserted Leath, under the command of Lord that it was the immediate effect of


a holy vow made to our Lady of imbibed a hatred for the name, and Loretto by the other Lady of Modena, the wish became universal. All who performed a pilgrimage to the the judicious amongst those of the Loretto shrine expressly to obtain Catholic communion were alarmed the promise that she should be and disgusted with the violent meabrought to bed of a prince !

sures of the frantic James, and wisely This occasioned the Protestants, foresaw the consequences that must whose interest it was to encourage of necessity ensue; but he was too the expectation of no such birth, to self-willed to listen to advice, and entertain suspicions of this anticipated blindly rushed upon his fate. But pregnancy, and to persuade them- James was the victim to an incurable selves that these Papists were hatch- infatuation, and was entirely governed ing a scheme for imposing an heir on by the rash counsels of the bigot the nation.

queen, and of his own confessor, On the 10th of the following June Father Peters, a Jesuit, whom he the queen was said to be safely de- created a privy-councillor; all was livered of a prince, afterwards known now hastening to rapid ruin, and the to our history under the title of the last act of the direful drama had Pretender.

reached the very threshold of the Many believed at the time, and throne. still do believe, that this was a sup

Before the arrival of the Prince of posititious birth. This event, which Orange, indeed, only within a very the king had long made the object few days, all the real friends of huof his most ardent prayers, and from manity, however influential their which he expected the firmest esta- station might seem, at once absented blishment of his throne, ultimately themselves from the court; the paproved the cause of his downfal; lace was deserted, and James was for as he was now in the fifty-sixth left without a friend. Every day, year of his age, and the Princess of every hour, brought the tyrant bigot Orange was the next heir to the British a new disaster. In his agitation, he throne, the nation had entertained entreated the support of certain hopes of at last obtaining a peaceable amongst the most honoured and reand safe redress of all their grievances; spected of the nobility; but his apbut when a son (real or pretended) peal was made too late. Some inwas born to the king, they were re- jured party answered him with the duced to despair, and saw no resource bitterness of sarcasm or reproach, left except in forming a confederacy and every one left him without symfor their mutual interests; and this pathy for his fate. He had not the comprehensive union of Whigs and balm of family consolation to repose Tories, Churchmen and Dissenters--- upon in his trouble,— for the last Protestants, speedily produced the who fled from the palace was his Glorious Revolution !

daughter, the Princess Anne, the In the year 1688, on the 1st of wife of Prince George of Denmark; October, the Prince of Orange pub- which saddest sorrow he was conlished a declaration, with the reasons strained to endure without an apof his intended expedition to Eng- peal, for he had forfeited all claim to land: one of these was “ to inquire the affections of relations, and as for into the birth of this supposed Prince friends he had none, saving those of Wales."

who had been active abettors of his So general had the public hatred persecutions. spread against James in every part

It is related that his son-in-law, of the kingdom, from the flagitious the husband of Princess Anne, who acts of those about the court, and the remained at St. James's as one of his sanction which he gave to the daily last friends, and who appeared to atrocities which were committed to commiserate his disasters, having the injury of his subjects, that the heard from the king's own lips how, whole body of the Protestant people one by one, his court had been dewillingly believed every report that serted, and that all were gone over to had got abroad to the prejudice of join the bands of his rival, the Prince the house of the Stuarts; for the of Orange, he shrugged his royal whole empire, with the exception of shoulders, and exclaimed, “ What ! the Papists and the Jacobites, had is he gone too ? Mon Dieu! est il


possible !" At length, Princess Anne And as for the priests, whenever departed from the court under the they appeared, they were mocked by wing of one of the bishops; when, a noise resembling the braying of immediately after, the prince himself asses. More than once, this clamour absconded also. The king, on being of derision was silenced by the callinformed of this last blow, remained ing out of the guards; but the rabsilent ; when he observed, “ So much ble shewing symptoms of resistance, for-est il possible? Then he is gone the palace gates were closed, a reinat last !" and in bitter sadness added, forcement of the military assembled " Then it is expedient that I go too!" by beat of drum, and a strong guard

When the Dutch troops arrived to remained in front of the chapel dutake their quarters in the barracks ring the whole night. The frantic at St. James's Palace and at White- howlings uttered at the names of hall, Lord Feversham was then upon Jefferies and Kirk were quite appallduty; he commanded the king's guard. ing. He expostulated with the new com- The military at the Tower of mander, and said, that as he had re. London, during the time that the ceived his commission from his law- Lord-chancellor Jefferies remained in ful sovereign, he would defend his confinement there, after being discopost until he obtained the royal au- vered at a public-house at Wapping, thority to the contrary; and that he were ready to affirm, on aftidavit, and his soldiers would defend his that shadows of the devil and his trust with their best blood. Hap- lordship were nightly seen in the pily for the peace of the city, James apartment wherein he was a prisoner, forwarded his commands to his lord- with a gallon of porter and tobaccoship to give the Dutch troops peace- pipes before them.

A tale was able possession.

equally current, that the shrieks of Some few months after the atro- the same execrable miscreant were cities which were committed on the nightly audible to the inhabitants of victims in the west of England by that fortress during his stay there. Judge Jefferies and Colonel Kirk, a An old Jacobite, whom Dr. Johnson spirit of resistance began to manifest had seen, and well remembered, conitself amongst his majesty's Protest- trived to be allowed to wait upon ant subjects; and the guards under Jefferies in the Tower, during the Lord Feversham were frequently in- term of his incarceration, and act as sulted on their posts, particularly by his messenger. the Thames watermen and bargemen, The hasty preparations for a gewho had stout Protestant hearts, and neral decampment from St. James's were known to be brave, even to the Palace kept the whole neighbourhood last man.

in a state of hurry and confusion; Some remnants of the wits of the and the excitement, night and day, last age penned several smart dia- as soon as it was known that William logues upon the court, and severely and his friends intended to march to lashed those who were prominent the metropolis, was extreme. All characters in the public abuses of the houses along the Strand and that atrocious period; and amongst Fleet Strect, that could spare even a others was one that gave the life, single apartment, had numerous apcharacter, and transactions of old plications for their hire ; for the noGranny James, our Lady of Loretto, bility, gentry, country squires, landwhom they dubbed Lucifer's great- owners, and yeomanry, met their grandmother, wood-chandler to Mary, honoured deliverer, William, on the wife to Philip of Spain, and whole- road between Torbay and London; sale fagot-binder of Smithfield. A and the people of every district apconsiderable mob accompanied the peared spontaneously to assemble tovendor of these satires, which in- gether, as if called by Providence to creasing, they surrounded the Romish celebrate an universal, happy juchapel in the court-yard of St. bilee! James's Palace, and vociferated, “ Our When the despot, James, to favour Laily of Loretto !" with a groan; his party, arbitrarily ordered a de“ Our Lady of Modena !" (the queen) claration for liberty of conscience to with two groans; and a groan for the be read in all churches and chapels, mass, ending with a shout and a yell. certain bishops having first agreed

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not to obey the order, presented a pe- The glorious Revolution forms a tition against it. The Archbishop of new epoch in the constitution, says Canterbury, and his holy associates, Hume, and was probably attended who piously and boldly resisted this with consequences more advantageous mandate of an infatuated king to dis- to the people than barely freeing tribute a declaration which they con- them from an exceptionable adminisscientiously considered to be entirely tration. By deciding many importsubversive of the Protestant religion, ant questions in favour of liberty, were William Sancroft, archbishop and still more, by that great preceof Canterbury; William Lloyd, bi- dent of deposing one king and estashop of St. Asaph ; Francis Turner, blishing a new family, it gave such bishop of Ely ; Thomas Kenn, bishop an ascendant to popular principles as of Bath and Wells; John Lake, bi- has put the nature of the English shop of Chichester; Thomas White, constitution beyond all controversy. bishop of Peterborough ; Jonathan It may justly be affirmed, without Trelawney, bishop of Bristol.

any danger of exaggeration, “ that we These upright men, uncompro

in this island have ever since enmising and honest supporters of our joyed, if not the best system of goholy church, were sent by James to vernment, at least the most entire the Tower of London, in order to re- system of liberty that ever was known ceive trial; but were subsequently

among mankind.” tried for a libel (as their dutiful ad. It must ever be an honour to the dress was designated by the frantic English crown (says a late popular monarch); but they were acquitted writer), that it has been worn by so on the memorable 17th of June, great a inan as William III. Com1688, to the great joy of the whole pared with him, the statesmen who people, excepting those who pre- surrounded his throne-- the Sunderferred to live under the most fia- lands, Godolphins, and Shrewsburys gitious crimes and impositions that -are sadly eclipsed ; even the Soever were imposed upon a generous, mersets and the Montagues sink in deserving people by a corrupt church comparison with him ; for he was, in and a wicked state.

truth, too great, not for the times The recent birth of a prince at wherein he was called to action, but length impelled the people seriously for the peculiar condition of a king to think of means for preventing their of England after the Revolution ; own religion and sacred liberties from and as he was the last sovereign of being utterly destroyed ; and with this country whose understanding this view they determined to invite and energy of character have been over to England the Prince of Orange very distinguished, so was he the from Holland.

last who encountered the resistance The eminent persons whose names of his parliament, or stood apart and were subscribed to the invitation ad- undisguised in the maintenance of his dressed to the Prince of Orange, own prerogative. His reign is, no held several private meetings to ar- doubt, one of the most important in range their plans for effecting this our constitutional history, both on great national and most laudable account of its general character, and object, at a place named Whitting- of those beneficial alterations in our don, some distance north-west of law to which it gave rise. Chesterfield, in Derbyshire. The The conduct of this tyrant bigot, seven subscribers to this most im- James, had long lost for him the portant document were (for ever respect of all the thinking people honoured be their names !) the Earls amongst his subjects; for long beof Danby, Shrewsbury, and Devon- fore he sent the seven bishops to the shire ; Lords Delamere and Lumley ; Tower, the public hatred had inBishop of London, and Admiral creased to a degree which would Russell.

have made a stouter heart than that King William arrived at Torbay, which inhabited his base, cruel, and November 4, 1688, on which glorious most unkingly bosom tremble apoccasion the following two memora- palled ; but James was not only a ble lines of Claudian were applied :- rash bigot, but proved himself ulti“ o nimium dilecte Deo, cui militat mately to be equally pusillanimous Æther,

as rash ; and all sensible men of his Et conjurati veniunt ad classica venti.” own faith held him in derision.

His mcanness in discourse, his procession surpasses the power of demanner, and general behaviour, be- scription. And further, it is related, came the subjects of open animad- that the commotion continued in the version ; and one of the best reputed streets, and all the public and pripoets of the day laughed at him even vate parts of the metropolis, during to his face at his own court. His

the whole succeeding night; and that bigotry became so flagrant that the even in the morning of the succeedpeople about the palace appeared to ing day, vast groups of people asfeel scandalised ; and even in his sembled in every street; and such presence they could with difficulty was the general excitement, that fifty avoid giving utterance to their con- thousand people might have been tempt.

collected together ready to have beIlis conduct and character were as come the perpetrators of every sort well understood and as duly appre- of insubordination and public misciated abroad as they were in England; chief, had any influential person the Archbishop of Rheims seeing offered to become their leader. him come from the chapel at the This wanton outrage committed French court, could not forbear sar- against the independence and becomcastically remarking, in the hearing ing holy zeal of the bishops scaled of Louis XIV.,—" Make way! here the evil fate of King James; for the comes an honest gentleman, who has measure of his iniquity had already abandoned three kingdoms for a been almost complete, and the resermuss !"

voir of crime of late had been aug. It is sufficiently known, that, from mented through so many daily and the times of which we are speaking, hourly streams of iniquity, that it the Thames watermen have assumed would bear no more; when hasty the privilege of speaking out, or, in ruin and dismay now pervaded the other words, giving way to the utter- court, and every miscreant agent and ance of their thoughts as they occur, abettor of his crimes thereof were without the least fear or restraint. driven to seek safety, either by seThe guards, and the court authorities creting himself or in hasty flight. who attended the seven bishops to The fiendlike Kirk evaded the just the Tower, were well advised of this; indignation of his enraged pursuers, and it was supposed that all the by smuggling himself abroad in a wherries upon the Thames between trading vessel, hired by a fund supWindsor and Greenwich accompanied plied by the Romish priests, who these holy martyrs (as they were were now conscious of their own then considered to be) during their danger in remaining even for another passage from Whitehall stairs to the day in London ; and his brother in Tower.

iniquity, the atrocious Jefferies, had On this momentous occasion an nearly accomplished his own escape immense concourse assembled upon by a similar contrivance, for he was the water, and the scene was most on the way to get into a ship protouching, for the prelates were known vided for him. But an attorney of to be wise, honest, and holy persons, one of the law courts, who had been universally and deservedly honoured scandalously maltreated by the insoand venerated accordingly. They lent lord-chancellor, now determined, were in consequence rowed to the whatever might be the cost, to displace of their captivity amidst the cover his hiding - place. Hence he prayers, tears, and blessings of the secretly promulgated his intentions people. There were some accidents amongst all the sheriff's officers in at the passage under London Bridge; London and Westminster; and sent but when these holy men attained agents to Deptford, Greenwich, Ro. the Traitor's Gate, where they were chester, and other districts the rendelivered into the custody of the au- dezvous of shipping and sailors; and thorities; and when the boats with circulated printed papers, praying their crews, at the returning tide, every one of manly feeling and paput about, their shouts were so loud triotic integrity to hold himself on and increasing, that it was asserted the alert to detect such a traitor to they were heard at the water-gate at the cause of humanity. This hue and Whitehall; and the yell of the boat- cry succeeded ; for late one night a men against those who were in at- seafaring man Jeft a letter at the tendance ex officio at the melancholy house of the vigilant inquirer, de

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