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bear with no rival in his worship, no attributes of a wise, and just, and claimant of his glory. When it is merciful, and gracious God. For all said that He repents, it simply de- the offers of the Gospel, all the monotes that He alters the course He tives, and opportunities, and means formerly pursued, and takes another that could possibly be presented are way of making known His intentions presented to the sinner; and if he and His will. If God had left these reject them all, he sins against the expressions on record without any clearest light, tramples on the kindexplanation, there might be some est love, and nothing more can be pretence for this objection; but, in done for him than has been done : order to guard against any miscon- then there are remaining just two ception, we read, “ My thoughts are ways in which that man may be not your thoughts, neither are your punished. Either he may be cut off, ways my ways, saith the Lord: for and soul and body be both cast into as the heavens are higher than the hell, or his physical life may be earth, so are my ways higher than spared, while his moral and spiritual your ways, and my thoughts than life may be extinguished. In either your thoughts." And again, He case the punishment is the same. has represented Himself “ the same Pharaoh, instead of having his heart yesterday, and to-day, and for ever." hardened, might justly have been The objection, therefore, that God is cut off at that moment, and cast out represented as possessed of human from the presence of God; but inpassions is seen to be futile, when we stead of this, God suffered his phybring Scripture into comparison with sical existence to be protracted, and Scripture." Another objection is the put an end to his moral and spiritual text, God “hardened the heart of existence; and therefore, while on Pharaoh." Infidels say, Is it reason- earth, he was in effect in that place able or just that God should condemn where mercy never
We that man to everlasting destruction should not have objected if God had whose heart He himself hardens ? cut off his natural life, and given him Now, we may observe here, that it no more means of repentance ; then has been noticed more than two we ought not to object to God's cuthundred years ago, that the literal ting off his moral and spiritual life rendering of that phrase may justly after every thing had been done for be,--the Lord permitted (or suffered) him that could be done. Pharaoh's heart to be hardened ; the A doctrine also objected to is, that same mood of the Hebrew verb God visits the sins of the father upon which means to cause signifying also the children. We find this illustrated to permit. And if it be an objection in ordinary life. For instance, a noagainst revelation being the inspira- bleman rebels against his prince; he tion of God that he permitted Pha- loses his coronet, and his family suffer raoh's heart to be hardened, then for centuries afterwards.
Å king you will find that there is the same commits some great crime, and the objection against creation being the whole country is thrown into a state work of God. Does he not suffer of rebellion and war. A father men to be born blind ? to come into through gambling loses all his prothe world deformed ? Does he not perty, and his children and his childkuffer injuries and casualties to de- ren's children sutter. A parent bestroy hundreds ? You do not say comes a debauchee, wastes his health, that this proves creation not to be the and injures his constitution; and his work of God. In the same way, if offspring are diseased to the third he suffers the passions of men to and fourth generation. Now, what work their natural evil results, and is all this but the sins of the fathers their hearts to be hardened, it does visited upon the children, in the arnot prove that the book which re- rangements of Providence, in the cords such things is not the word of occurrences of daily life? If, thereGod. But we do not shrink from fore, the record of this fact in the the strongest view of this matter. Bible proves the book not to be the We take the words as they are in inspiration of God, then does the our version, “ The Lord hardened happening of this fact every day bePharaoh's heart;" and say there is fore our eyes prove creation and nothing in that inconsistent with the providence not to be the workman
ship of God. And, moreover, when try bringing in a verdict of guilty, God states that He visits the iniqui- the judge pronouncing the sentence ties of the fathers upon the children, of death, and that sentence executed, He does not refer to their after-exist- you do not complain that there is ence. In Ezekiel, xviii. 19, you read, any thing wrong or unjust in the act. “ Yet say ye, Why ? doth not the Just in the same way these Canaanites son bear the iniquity of the father ? are declared to have polluted and When the son hath done that which stained the land with their corrupis lawful and right, and hath kept tions and abominations; and when all my statutes, and hath done them, they were cut off by the sword of he shall surely live. The soul that Ileaven, it was merely the jury and sinneth, it shall die. The son shall judge pronouncing the verdict and not bear the iniquity of the father, sentence to the letter. neither shall the father bear the ini- therefore, to regard the extirpation quity of the son; the righteousness of the Canaanites not as an act of of the righteous shall be upon him, revenge, but as the execution of the and the wickedness of the wicked sentence of retributive justice. shall be upon him." This chapter Again, it is urged that the comrefers to the after-existence of the mand given to Abraham to sacrifice soul. The Jews construed the state- his son Isaac is altogether inconsistent ment in Exodus falsely, and under- with all right conceptions of the jusstood it to refer to God's arrange- tice and the mercy of God. Now, ments in eternity, as well as to his first, this act was intended to be dealings in time; but here, by the symbolical ; it was meant to repremouth of his prophet, he distinctly sent the sacrifice of the Son of God shews that “ visiting the iniquities as a propitiation for the sins of the of the fathers upon the children ” world. And, in the second place, has reference purely to man's tem- we reply, that God has a sovereign poral condition, and has no direct and indisputable claim to the life of bearing whatever on the destinies of His creatures, when, where, and how his immortal soul.
He pleases; and that if Abraham had Another feature objected to by actually plunged the knife into Isaac's infidels, as inconsistent with the mo- bosom, it would have been perfectly ral character of God, is God having consistent with the character of God, caused all the Canaanitish nations to for He has a right to summon the be destroyed. They say that it seems soul to lis presence through any wholly inconsistent with what we avenue, in any circumstances, and should suppose to be the merciful by any instrumentality that to Him character of God, that He should may seem meet. In the last place, thus destroy whole nations by the Abraham did not kill Isaac. sword. But when we read that the The next objection we refer to is, pestilence has depopulated crowded that in the books of Exodus and cities—when you read that Napoleon Deuteronomy there are passages so swept the continent of Europe, and indelicate as to be utterly unfit for left but the wrecks of smoking homes general perusal ; and Paine, and and the blood of slaughtered citizens Voltaire, and Hume, have urged this to be the mementos of his march,- popular but paltry reason for diswe do not say that this is a proof believing the Bible to be the inspirthat there is no God in heaven, and ation of God. In reply to this, we no moral government of the inha- observe, in the first place, that we bitants of the earth ; and yet if the have no fact recorded in the Scripdestruction of the nations of the ture which does not actually occur Canaanites immediately by God is a in creation and in providence; and if, proof that the Bible which records it therefore, the record of that which is not the inspiration of God, then the to us seems indelicate is an argument destruction of nations by the sword that God did not write the book, of the conqueror, or by the breath of then the occurrence in creation and famine, must be a proof that there is in providence of these same indelino God, or that creation is not God's cacies must be an argument that God work, nor providence a part of God's did not create the world, and that general government. And, moreover, He does not rule it by His providence. when we see juries in your own coun- In the second place, we reply to this objection, that in courts of justice, Another objection is, that polygamy and in professional and medical com- was suffered to exist among the Hemunications, circumstances transpire brews and in other Eastern nations; which may seem revolting to us, but we read of the number of David's of which we never complain, because wives, and the concubines of Solomon. we know they are essential to the Can this have been permitted by the good and well-being of mankind; and same God who so frequently forbids may not these communications of the it ? Now we can easily see that the great Physician be essential for the laws which may be suited to one age moral restoration of the world ? In of the world may not be suited to the third place, we reply, that the another age. Our Lord says that Scripture is an exact portrait of man; this was suffered, “ because of the if it shews the bright in his character, hardness of the people's hearts;" it it shews also the black; if it pro- was an expedient required by the claims that which ennobles and exalts circumstances of the age, not a perhim, it discloses that which tends to petual moral maxim, intended to depress and humble him. This book regulate the intercourse and conduct would not be a fair portrait, not merely of mankind in after ages. In the of man's restoration, but of man's ruin next place, is it not the fact, that and guilt, if it did not record fully there ai different laws, not only for and fairly the sins as well as the different ages, but for different states virtues of mankind. There may be of the same community? The same in the present day a certain delicacy laws would not do for the prison of language, which was totally un- which are required for free and known even two or three centuries polished society; the same laws do ago, and still more unknown in the
not prevail in a penal colony as in day when the Bible was written. the free mother country; the same In ancient times, and especially in laws will not do for Otaheite that will Eastern countries, men and women do for Britain. There must be a mingled together in society, but kept certain accommodation of the laws to perfectly distinct and separate, and the country they are intended to allusions might occur not in such regulate. We have this illustrated circumstances indelicate. In a recent in the present day in the conduct, for work written by an Arab, it is stated instance, of medical men. Suppose a as a most revolting circumstance, that person is seized with a dangerous in England the ladies walk the streets disease, and is placed under a phywithout being veiled, and openly sician; and suppose he has been acmingle with men in society and in customed to take a great quantity of churches ; for this the foreigner alcohol daily ; the physician, though charges us with a want of delicacy, he will reprehend the use of alcohol, just as we lay the charge against a will allow that person a certain past generation. When we read of quantity of it every day, and will that which is immoral or indelicate decrease it gradually every day until in a novel, it is recorded too often in the patient is able to abstain from it such a way as to excite corresponding wholly. Now it may have been that emotions in the mind of the reader; God allowed in the circumstances of but when we read the most indelicate other times the gradual diminution records in the Pentateuch, they are of a practice which, now when “ life recorded in tones of holy and righteous and immortality are brought to light," severity; and instead of being calcu- is utterly interdicted. Polygamy, like lated to excite one unhallowed emo- many other things, is not sinful till tion, they are calculated to make you God' interdicts it. It is God's proabstain from what is foul, and love hibition that makes the sin, it is whatsoever is just, and pure, and of God's command that makes the virgood report. And for all these rea- tue. Without God's law on the sons we say, that those parts of Holy subject, there is no more guilt in Writ which appear to us indelicate polygamy, than there would be in may be vindicated on the strictest violating the seventh day while God principles, and shewn to be neither had not commanded to keep it holy: inconsistent with the moral character it is His command that makes it sinof God, nor calculated to contaminate ful. Polygamy is not essentially sinthe feelings and affections of mankind. ful like murder or theft; but it is
now become sinful because the com- fatory facts as these lectures on the mand of God forbids it. Cain, in the five books of Moses unquestionably infancy of the world, married his sister, and it was not then sinful; but That the Dean was a man of mind, now it would be most sinful, as well of great Christian simplicity, and as revolting, to every right mind. possessed of the purest sympathies So that you observe, there must be with the highest destinies of our kind, some adaptation between the age or it needs not the atfectionate testimony the individuals, and the laws em- of his son to convince us. His life ployed to govern and restrain them. constitutes one impressive comment
We now take our leave of our on his creed, his practice the most author. We are of opinion that so eloquent proof of the divinity of the valuable a work as that of Dean sacred truths he taught from the Graves on the Pentateuch ought to pulpit and from house to house. be published in such a way as will We are more and more convinced, command the most extensive circula- not merely from divine testimony, tion. This is the age of cheap litera- but from the experience of years, ture, and we rejoice to add still better, that he who preaches as an angel the age of cheap republication of and in secret lives as a devil is the ancient and valuable literature. Those worst enemy Christianity has to conpublishers who are engaged in the tend with. latter department would confer an The memoir of the Dean is clearly immense moral service on the Christ- and affectionately written; but were ian community by publishing in a it otherwise, the writings of the cheap and popular shape a work so author speak, and speak imperishsimple in style, so rich in reasoning, ably, for themselves. and so full of convincing and satis
TIIE GREATER AND LESSER STARS OF OLD PALL MALL.
CHAPTER XIII. THE PERIOD OF THE COMMONWEALTH.
FIRE IN THE APARTMENTS OF THE DUCHESS OF MODENA, WIFE OF JAMES II., AT ST.
JAMES'S PALACE - CHARLES II. AND JAMES II. --- OUR LADY OF LORETTO —THE DUKE OF MONMOUTH's REBELLION- JUDGE JEFPERIES - COLONEL KIRK -- ROMAN CATHO. LIC CHAPEL AT ST. JAMES'S PALACE - CONFUSION AT THE COURT IN ST. JAMES'S AT THE REVOLUTION - PRINCE GEORGE OF DENMARK - PRINCESS ANNE - SATIRICAL DIALOGUE. UPON THE COURT --THE SEVEN BISHOPS CONFINED IN THE TOWER OF LONDON - THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION - ESCAPE OF JEFFERIES, WHO WAS RETAKEX AT WAPPING-DR. JOHNSON-DR. BURNEY-THE JACOBITE CLUB-JEFFERIES DIES IN THE TOWER-THE GUNPOWDER PLOT-OBSERVATIONS ON THE TORTURE--KING JAMES's
ABDICATION, WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THAT EVENT, WITHIN the last thirty years the Palace, amongst which were these, eastern part of the palace at St. underwent a purgation ; for the misJames's was consumed by fire; it tresses of that flagitious sovereign had was then occupied by the Duke of to seek new quarters, although many Clarence, afterwards our late King of them had saved money, part of William IV. This conflagration was the wages of their iniquity; and caused, as appeared, by one of the others, through the management of servants to his royal highness care- King James II., bad contrived to lessly raking a fire out of a stove- retain their pensions. grate on the first-floor, which induced
It was soon publicly known that his majesty King George III., to ob- Charles, in derision of his subjects, serve to Mr. Groebecker, one of her as some said, who had so patiently majesty's pages, on the morning after, endured his flagitious government, “ I have ever maintained that the had died in the Romish faith ; a fact safest place to leave a fire is in the which his weak successor, James
, lost grate."
no time in making his people acAfter the decease of King Charles quainted with. II. the ground-Hoor, and some of the How it could happen that two first-floor apartments of St. James's princes like Charles and James should thus have attained to the years of queen's bed under a warming-pan discretion, having constantly before without being heated. their minds the unhappy fate of the The account of the birth of this king their father, and after experi- supposititious heir to the crown was encing for so many years, as they published in the Court Gazette ; the did, expatriation from their native cannon of St. James's Park and at country, and being deprived so long the Tower of London announced the of their legal inheritance, and Pro- event; and the court annals of the vidence at last interposing and seating time gave a circumstantial account first one brother and then the other of the Archbishop of Canterbury and on the throne of their forefathers, the other state officers and ladies of the and after such manifest evidences of court being in attendance in the next Divine favour, and yet act as they apartments to that of the queen, with did, appears to sober reason entirely her majesty's door open wide; but incredible.
malgré these mock demonstrations, to With such fearful admonitions ever quote Samuel Butler in his Hudibras, before their eyes, with such a re
“ Those persuaded 'gainst their will trospect, considering the troubles that
Will be o' the same opinion still." they had so happily surmounted and 80 marvellously survived, evinces a Hence the case, to use the phrase of presumptuous daring on the part of Westminster Hall, “ had not a leg these reckless princes, so preposter- to stand upon.” ously wicked, indeed, as to leave us Unfortunately for the upholders wrapt in wonder and astonishment of the truth of the event, it was well at the contemplation of their flagitious known to the residents of the palace government.
that there was a jib-door, which was Charles being consigned to the covered with part of the tapestry in tomb, it soon became too evident that the panel in a room close behind the King James shewed himself hastily head of the royal bed; and further, anxious to patronise all persons of the that there was a private staircase Romish faith, and to obtain as many that communicated both upwards and of them about his person as he could downwards to this very doorway in smuggle into the court. Hence the this back apartment. royal chapel soon exhibited visible Our Lady of Loretto (known to demonstrations of the most glaring fame in England before the ReforPapacy; for large wax- lights were mation) had promised the royal bantseen burning upon the altar-table ling to the pious supplications of his night and day, and the mass resound- majesty King James; but strangely ed in full chorus through the various enough this holy personage was not avenues of St. James's Palace from subpoenaed into court in proof of the the stentorian voices of the priests. birth, and of course we have not the
Here in one of the old state apart authority of her evidence. ments at the east end of the first- King James had proved himself floor, the queen of James II., late the an infatuated bigot, a priest-ridden Duchess of Modena, had her sleep- tyrant, a savage, remorseless pering-chamber, which remained there secutor of his people, and deservedly within the present century, that part merited his unhappy fate ; for he reof the palace having received but mained in his palace until he was little alteration from the abdication deserted by relations and friends to of James, the bigot sovereign. whom he might hope for support;
This apartment, and several others for all whom he had favoured were en suite, were hung with splendid known enemies to the people. Hence tapestry, richly wrought at the manu- it became the general belief, that all factory of Sir Francis Crane, at Mort- the tales that were uttered to his lake in Surrey, for King James I. prejudice were truths sacred as Holy
In this chamber, in the year 1685, Writ. the queen, as was reported, gave The king, having subdued the rebirth to Prince James, who was pretty bellion of the Duke of Monmouth in generally considered to be by all but the west of England, who soon after the king's party merely a suppo- lost his head upon the scaffold, now sititious child-namely, a new-born thought himself securely seated on infant, secretly introduced into the the throne, when Judge Jefferies was