Saxon. The Australians have also the sing to be leaders of thought, who have fate of the Southern States of the Union by their speech and action rendered it before them, and have noted the warn- impossible that the experiment of the ing given by the negro problem. With- employment of white labor in tropical out attempting to defend slavery, it agriculture should be fairly tried.” seems but fair to acknowledge now that So, without losing faith (as he assures the motive of the South in striving to us) in his conviction, though it coutrabind the negroes to the servile state dicts all experience, that white labor was no more than the instinct of self- can cope with the cultivation of the preservation. How many Americans sugarcane in the tropics, Sir Samuel were there that thought the Civil War Griffith has carried a measure for the would produce as its principal results readmission of Polynesians. the negro problem, and the danger of a While Sir Samuel Griffith was preparwar of races ? But if the white man ing his manifesto of recantation, Sir chooses to engross a vast territory Thomas Playford, the premier of South wherein the climate is unfavorable to Australia, visited India to negotiate him, he must take the consequences. with the Indian government for the im

Some years ago Queensland boldly portation of East Indian coolies into faced the realities of her position and that province. Now, as both these imported colored labor for the sugar- premiers went enthusiastically with Sir plantations — an industry from which Henry Parkes in 1888 in his impasshe expected, and still expects, great sioned protestations that Australia results. The laborers thus imported should be reserved for the “ British were Polynesians, as to whose merits type,” their conversion is a little refor this particular work there seems to markable. But it is easily accounted be some conflict of opinion. Two main for. “ The interests of the working causes, however, conspired to put an population have been kept too excluend to this system : first, the abuses sively in view" in all the Australian and scandals of the Pacific labor traffic ; provinces, and one principal result (not and, secondly, the jealousy of the white mentioned by Sir Samuel Griffith) is the working man. Accordingly in 1885 the Australian public debt.. “Great is bankpremier, Sir Samuel Griffith, fixed a ruptcy,” says Carlyle ; no falsehood, term when this importation of Poly- did it rise heaven-high and cover the nesians should cease. He summarized world, but bankruptcy will one day his objections against colored immigra- sweep it down and make us free of it.” tion as follows:

Great also, we may add, is impecuni1. That it tended to encourage the osity, which threatens to become bankcreation of large lauded estates owned ruptcy ; for this, too, peels the scales by absentees, to the prejudice of settle- from men's eyes and forces them to ments by working farmers.

face truths which they have deliber2. “It led to fiell labor in tropical ately blinked and avoided. It is all agriculture being looked down upon as very well for Sir Samuel Griffith to degrading and unworthy of the white attribute the impossibility of obtaining race."

white labor for the North Queensland 3. “The permanent existence of a sugar-plantations to the speech and aclarge servile population amongst Aus- tion of this man or that ; but the true tralians, not admitted to the franchise, cause lies much deeper, and is summed is not compatible with the continu- up in the word “climate.” The delibance of Australian free political institu- erate policy of closing the continent to tions."

colored races, at the cost of allowing And now, last year, Sir Samuel Grif- the tropical territory to lie fallow, has fith has discovered that “among the been early defeated by impecuniosity. working population, whose interests he Somebody must be found to do work in had perhaps too exclusively in view, this territory ; white men will not, canthere has arisen a body of men, claim- I not do it, so colored men must.

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According to present indications the longer it is continued, the firmer its future of tropical Australia seems likely | basis and the more inevitable its perto be coinmitted to East Indian immi- manence. Everything now points to grants. The supply of Polynesians is the importation of East Indians into far from inexhaustible ; African negroes northern Australia. are not to be obtained ; Chinese are not Then arises the question, How far only an abomination but a terror to the would such a race spread down over Australians. East Indian coolies are the continent ? And this is extremely abundant; and their exportation from difficult to answer. On the one hand India is not only permitted but organ- we have the metropolitan populations, ized. The government of India is ex- fully a third of the whole, disinclined tremely jealous for the welfare and for hard work, bent upon the enjoygood treatment of these emigrants ; and ment of an easy and comfortable life, the most elaborate enactments exist for and seeking to crush competition by their protection in their new homes ; restraint both upon immigration and so that they very soon gain ideas of natural increase. The metropolitan self-respect and independence which towns are situated in, so to speak, the were quite unknown to themi in India. rainy fringe of the continent, where the There is no more ludicrous contrast heat, become damp, tells more against

-witness any one who has seen it – the white man's energy than in the than that between the Madrassi coolie parched interior. On the other hand, just disembarked in a strange land, the we have the country population, agriincarnation of abject pliancy, and the cultural and pastoral, extending inland same individual two years later. They from the coast, sparser and sparser as it bring with them, of course, their habits leaves the rainfall behind it. A recent and traditions, notably the practice of writer on Australia does not hesitate to hoarding and lending to their fellows at say that the types of man bred on the extravagant interest ; and so many of more or less watered Pacific slope and them grow rich, at any rate for a time, the arid interior are totally distinct; and occasionally even important. and indeed it is no more than one

These are the people with which, for should expect. Nor are we surprised good or for evil, Sir Thomas Playford to hear that the latter is the better seeks to develop the tropical territory type ; more vigorous, more enduring, of South Australia. Whether he will stouter-hearted. From which the obvibe able to fulfil the conditions imposed ous conclusion is, that, broadly speakby the Indian government is another ing, the district which offers the white question. “ Free political institutions,” man' the best return for his work, is especially as understood in Australia, precisely that which is most enervating are no good guarantee for the safety of to him physically. On the Queensland a competing race. What ought to be sugarcane fields, which form an exdone is clear enough. England ought treme case, the white man has abanto take over tropical Australia, and doned the attempt to work in the damp govern it as a part of our Asiatic em- heat. pire, to which, indeed, it really be- There are also other complications to longs; this, however, unfortunately, be considered : first, the desperate seems to be out of the question. But struggle still in progress between capwhatever may be done, the establish- ital and labor; and, secondly, impecument of a colored race in that territory niosity. As if the uncertainty and can hardly be avoided much longer. It tyranny of the climate were not of itself is impossible to fix a term during which far too powerful an agent in driving the colored immigration may be permitted, people down into the towns, the Ausand at the end whereof it shall cease ; tralian governments, far from striving for, as has been discovered in Queens- to stop the influx, have for the most land, if once established it cannot be part done all they can to encourage it. overthrown without ruin; and the They have also demoralized the work

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ing classes by leading them to look cases shifted their ground to other always to the State for employment and European countries, where labor is employment at high wages, erecting an cheaper than in England, and where artificial standard of comfort, any re- they are less hampered by trades unions, lapse from which is regarded as “ social factory acts, and other institutions, degradation.” The funds by which this doubtless very excellent, hut, unfortustandard was maintained now nately, extremely expensive. There is stopped ; and more than that, the piper no reason why they should not go still to whose music the Australians have further to the eastward and use cheaper danced for so long remains to be paid. labor still. Now what if Australia Who is to pay him ? “Not 1,” says should anticipate the rest of the world the working man, “ if it is to be at the in the employment of Asiatic labor ? cost of social degradation ; " and his She has a climate which would suit a point of view is perfectly intelligible. colored race, and yet, in some parts at Whether he will alter his opinion or not any rate, give the whites as good a remains to be seen ; certainly he will chance. What if she were to work up not if he can help it. But more work all her wool and sugar with colored must be done by some one if the present labor, for instance, and employ no difficulties are to be successfully sur- other, so far as possible, on any indus· mounted. Queensland and, apparently, try ? The Australian democracy would South Australia bave faced the prob- never permit it, I shall be told. It is lem, and propose to solve it by the es- never very safe to predict what democtablishment of a “servile population.” racy, and especially such a democracy Will other provinces find it necessary as that of Australia, will or will not do ; to follow this example ? More improb- but let it be observed that in Queensable things have bappened. We know land it has already permitted the inwhat the tendency of “modern civil- troduction of Kanakas. And why? ization” is. M. Le Roy Beaulieu has Simply to keep up or try to keep up the summed it up in a terse sentence : rotten fabric of State socialism, which “ Tout le monde fait l'éloge du travail is tottering to its fall; in other words,

. manuel, et personne n'en veut plus.” to keep the white man in ease and comIf everybody is to enjoy a high standard fort by the labor of the colored. The of comfort, and not to do too much work other provinces are in exactly the same for the same -and this, with its con- trouble ; and South Australia apparnoted independence, seems to be the ently wishes to adopt the same remedy. bone of contention between labor and If the experiment succeeds two things capital in Australia — the object can be are likely to happen : first, that capital obtained by the employment of “ser- will migrate to the provinces, where it vile " labor.

can get colored labor, cheap and trustThis is one solution of the labor prob- worthy ; and, second, that all the men lem in Australia. I have no doubt that who have been living on the loans of it will be scouted as ridiculous and im- the confiding British investor will likepossible ; but perhaps it may not be so wise migrate to the north and live in utterly impossible after all. An emi-comfort on the labor of the colored nent French economist has pointed out man. That the white man so pampered that the day may not be very far ahead and softened will degenerate physically when Eastern competition will wrest I have no doubt whatever ; for he will its industrial monopoly from the West, grow idler and idler, and less and less and that a series of unpleasant sur- inclined to the physical exertion that prises may be in store for our sons and alone can keep him in vigor. In the grandsons. Already we feed ourselves southern provinces the burden of departly with Indian wheat ; and Man- fraying the cost of State socialism must chester cotton manufacturers have fall on the country party — that is to taken alarm at the rivalry of Bombay. say, the working as opposed to the labor Our capitalists have already in many party ; but whether it will submit to it

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for long is another question. The, and, besides these, two large, dumpy struggle between the two will be iu- bottles of “ager mixter,” so called. tense, and perhaps prolonged ; but as After two days had elapsed a deputation to the ultimate issue there can be little went to see what he had succeeded in doubt. Australia will have to abandon producing. This was received by the her attempt to “keep abreast of the wife, who told them that the work was. front rank of nations in modern civil- proceeding well, but they must not ization.” But there will always be the " worrit him.” On the fourth day she competition of the colored race in the let them kuow that they could now north, and the temptations to avoid it come up for the verses. With all the by employing colored labor. This com- gravity befitting the situation these plication will be incomparably more were handed over that evening ; the formidable in Australia than in the poet also contributing a tune which he United States, because the Island Con- had composed to suit them. They betinent is virtually all sub-tropical, except gan as follows : where it is tropical - a great advantage to a colored race.

There cummed unto our coast a whale,

A very big whale indeed, Lastly, if any one should deny that

T'others couldn't catch un, the white man has his climatic limits

But we did, let me point to the fate of the Roman

Hip, hip, hip, looray ! civilization in North Africa. Surely, in all our dreams of federation, we Our village was not critical, and the should be wise to remember that there verses were sung and roared through are such factors as climate and Asiatic the quiet streets to the inspiriting accompetition.

companiment of a drum and a keyJ. W. FORTESCUE. bugle.

Whenever I hear of a stray visitant, some bird or other that is unusually

uncommon, the first line of that absurd From Macmillan's Magazine. composition is apt to recur to my mind.

The night-crow, white-topped hern, BY A SON OF THE MARSHES.

or night-heron, we are told by a recogA WHALE had been seen several nized authority of the present day, was times, spouting as it passed up and recorded first in May, 1872 ; but it had down the open channel opposite my been to my own knowledge shot frenative village on the coast of north quently without the fact being noticed. Kent, and efforts had been made to Like the bittern it only reaches us to drive the great creature into shallow be shot. Early impressions are very water, so that it might be stranded and lasting, and having been “bird-struck” killed, but all to no purpose. At last, even as a youngster, I remember as under the direction of a notable old though it had only taken place yestersea-clog, who went by the name of Dick day, how old Craft brought in from the the Whaler, the feat was accomplished, marshes, where he had shot it, the to the great mortification of those who finest night-heron that had been seen had tried but failed to do the business. by us. That was long before the year Some of Dick's partisans and admirers, 1872. in order to commemorate the event, As a rule old Craft was very commurequested one of his friends who en- nicative as to his luck, but on the parjoyed the reputation of being a regular ticular afternoon to which I refer he i dabster” at verse-making, to compose stood before the bar of The Royal Ansomething worthy of the occasion, in chor, with his gun and a bunch of order still further to humble the pride birds, in a decidedly glum state of mind. of the other leader.

The worthy landlord chaffed him about The poet was supplied with a bundle it, asking what ailed him ? Had he of quill pens, plenty of ink and paper, I seen a wreck ? Had he run out of



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sager” medicine ? Had his pigs cut o ducks with white feathers in their their throats, swimming down the creek beaks, cuttin' most owdacious capers again? This last allusion referred to on the water, tossin' their heads up, what was usually a dangerous topic to quackin' an' spinnin' about in most touch on, but as the questions were fol- onairthly fashin, Josher watched 'em lowed up by a glass of his “most per- fur a time, then he shot 'em. That 'ere tickler " offered free of cost, and as the coyman, to keep t'others from cummin landlord usually was ready to purchase to shoot there, though it waunt nowhere any fowl that old Craft wanted to sell, near the landmarks fur the coy, had the reference to a tussle he had had, in clipped their wings, put feathers in night-shirt and cap, with his cantanker- their beaks, an' turned 'em out there, ous swine was allowed to pass.

lo scare fowl away, the heathen! If he Now, then, Craft, what ails ye?” don't ha' done cutting them capers he'll he was asked again, as he put down his find his coy raised, and he wunt want it glass.

done more 'an once, we reckins. De“Well, I shot and missed him,” was pend on it, Craft, 'twas a coot that the laconic, but vague reply.

warmint had figgered up with apern“ Sure-ly, ye ain't pullel on that 'ere strings.” new coyman, have ye ?The coyman These remarks only made Craft feel referred to was the man in charge of indignant. “ Had any on 'em sin him the great duck-decoy.

in specks ? Had any on 'em sin him “No, 'twas a bird ; I never sin one fed with a spoon, or led about by his like it afore."

little gal ?" No one replying to these This statement reaching the ears of questions, he left bis bunch of birds, the customers in the bar-parlor (birds seized his gun, and went out, stating in concerned every one in various ways), the most emphatic manner that, “He out they walked to hear about it. “ Wet would hev the creeter, if 'twas in the up, Craft, an' yarn it off to us." maʼsh ; if he raised the coy over it.”

"I was comin' over the last ma'sh Perhaps I might as well explain what afore you gits to Stangate creek, when raising the coy means. The ducks up gits a bird somethin' bigger 'an a come into the decoy — or decoys as the coot, with white feathers a-hangin' down case may be — from open waters early his back. I got a bit flustered, seein' in the morning, leaving it to feed again as 'twas most onusual like, an' missed as evening draws near. It is when him.”

resting in the decoy that they are coaxed ''Twas a trick o' that ere furrin up one of the decoy-pipes and get capheathen o' a coyman, Craft,” said the tured. Extreme quiet must be mainlandlord, “ you may depend on it. He'd tained if the capture is to be a fortunate catched one o' them 'ere cat-scratchin' one, for it is absolutely necessary that coots, an' tied his missus's apern- the fowl should never leave the decoystrings roun' its neck."

pond except of their own accord. To Ay,”

,” added one of his chums, be frightened off a few times would " them 'ere heathens frum the shires is ruin the working of it all, and heavy most fit to do any outlandish work. penalties are incurred by wilful disturbJosher here reckins as he'll pull a ance. “ To raise the coywas the stroke-oar in coyman's boat afore long.” worst threat that any of the more dar

“'Twas only last week he went down ing spirits could venture on in the to the long splash for to git a couple o' marshes, for the decoy was generally ducks ; 'tis a good place for 'em, you respected as sacred. know. Well, there waunt a sign o' one In from the marshes proudly walked about above or below. He couldn't Craft on the day after the conversation mak it out nohow, fur he'd niver missed I have related, with the strange bird, seeing on 'em, if he didn't git 'em. It its beautiful head-plumes lovingly ar. regʻlar dumbfounded Josher; and pres- ranged on the dark neck and shoulders. ently out from the reeds cums a couple Craft was triumphant; he marched


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