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signature of “by one who wins," and only objection which could with any among the devotees of the game of show of plausibility be brought against whist there are not a few who could him whilst holding that conspicuous label themselves in that way. Take post was, that he was sometimes inthe case of the brothers Bulwer. They clined to be indolent. He was addicted Pinherited froni their grandmother a love to play, and often ran over to London of cards. Whist and piquet were the for a little of his favorite amusement games which the elder brother, Lord at Crockford's, White's, or Graham's, Lytton, relished and studied most, but almost as frequently returned to the because in them the result depends French capital with the loss of a conmore upon skill than luck." On these siderable sum of money. He was one games he concentrated for a time his of the four noblemen who lost £100,000 complete attention, and, “from prac- at Crockford's in a night, the companitice and aptitude combined,” soon took ions in misfortune from the ranks of rank in London clubs as an “exceed- the peerage being Lord Chesterfield, ingly good whist-player,” even if he Lord Foley, and Lord Sefton. Still, in could not be admitted among the spite of all his losses Lord Granville chosen few to whom the epithet of left behind no less a sum in cash than

first-rate » could be applied. His ap- £160,000. With the French his popuplication was not without its reward, larity was unbounded. They admired for in a short time his winnings formed his style of play, and gave him the su

an appreciable addition to his in- preme title of Le Wellington des come.”

The good fortune of his joueurs. .younger brother, Henry Bulwer, after- The hold which whist exercises over wards Lord Dalling, was even greater. the minds of men may be exemplified In 1827 he was attached to the Berlin by an illustration drawn from the life embassy, and taking Paris in his wa of Elwes the miser. He, the most won there between six and seven thou- tenacious of mankind in his control of sand pounds at play. This fortunate his purse, did not hesitate to engage haul proved, says Abraham Hayward, in conflict at whist with the Duke the starting-point of his diplomatic for- of Northumberland.

When play was tunes. It enabled him to join a whist- over the unfortunate miser found himplaying set, composed chiefly of the self a loser in close upon £1,000. He leading personages at the Court, which loved a lobster, and the only thing that :met at Prince Wittgenstein's and in- could soothe his intense agony at the dulged in such high stakes as five hun- magnitude of his loss was “the tail of dred louis the rubber. Bulwer, though, a good lobster.” like his brother, falling short of the In these days the losses at cards highest standard of play, “eventually rarely reach in the upper circles of life came off a wiuner, and through this in- a sum sufficient to cripple the cidental intimacy with princes and am- sources of the player. Stakes are now bassadors . he learnt a good deal fixed at a much smaller sum than used about important matters from which to be the case, and a deca.le passes withliis official superiors were shut out; he out the mention of any noble's name as also formed connections of permanent being ruined by dice or by cards. Ocvalue.” Moreover it opened to him casionally there creeps into the papers the principal resorts of the best whist- in an obituary notice the name of some players in other Continental cities, one who has put down or taken up at where he often played with success, the card-table a few thousands of though not having a “decided turn for pounds. An instance of the death of the game at any time.”

a whist-player, des bonnes fortunes, ocLord Granville, who died in 1846, curred in the spring of 1891. This was with a great reputation for courtliness Lord M—, who was said to have anof manner, held for many years the nually cleared at the Turf Club for post of ambassador at Paris, and the many years the handsome of

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£3,000. Credat Judæus Apella non ego. ample of Cavour. This great statesStill I should in fairness add to this man, the best friend that Italy has public expression of my doubt in the known for many generations, was accuracy of the figures that a player of whist-player whose zeal for the game considerable reputation at whist who was unquenchable. Once he lost a had often played with him, assured me larger sum than he could afford, of his belief in the correctness of the “ Many men would have played on paragraph in the newspaper. A few more recklessly ; many men would have players keep a detailed record of their thrown down the cards in disgust; but doings, and the statistics which they Cavour for the future merely reduced produce on the fruits of their labors for his stakes” (A Campaigner at Home). many years are not of such a tall char- May others in a like position have his acter as to awaken suspicion.

manliness and tread in his footsteps of Cavendish in the winter of 1875 paid goo l sense and moderation ! a short visit to the charming cottage of You, my dear A-, are familiar Mortimer Collins at Knowl Hill, and as with every line of Thackeray's writing, out of the fulness of the heart the and appreciate at their full worth the mouth speaketh, it is on record in the adventures of Mr. Brown and his diary of Collins that “he never learnt nephew. Is the statement true that so much about cards in so short a Thackeray and Dickens, the friends of

The visitor, this “famous our youth, are losing somewhat of their whist-player,” imparted to his host the popularity ? No, it cannot be; I retotal of his rubbers and his gains dur- fuse to give credence to such a slander ing the previous ten years. He had on my countrymen. What a picture of played twenty thousand rubbers and club-life is contained in Thackeray's won about £2,000.

description of the card-room at the Almost equally conspicuous in the Polyanthus ! You see the “ ranks of the whist-players of the pres- silent members sitting at those little ent day is the well-known novelist green tables,” losing or winning withwhose contributions afford us a per- out any outward expression of conmanent pleasure in the columns of a cern, pursuing in complete calmness weekly illustrated paper. He, too, has their game, "which is, in fact, the most been known to find a solace at the elaborate science and study,” and thorcard-table for the arduous and exacting oughly indifferent for hours together duties which have been performed by to the fortunes of the outside world. him regularly for close on half a cen- There sits Trumpington, the man of tury, and I have heard from others good parts and much reading, who that in twenty-eight years the whole makes for the game of whist a sacrifice of his gains, although his skill is above of all other pleasures, and in the end doubt and his good fortune impossible rises a winner of three or four hundred of question, have only amounted to a year; and

oo well he may,” says about the same number of hundreds of Thackeray ; 66 with his brains and half pounds.

his industry he could make a larger inIf any one contemplates entering come at any other profession.” He upon such a course of life in the hope and others like unto him sit there every of pecuniary advantage, he may well day for years together, ready to receive ask with Mortimer Collins is the game and play with any new-comer who may worth the candle ? On the other hand, wish it ; and when he retires discomif any player of skill, but of limited fited from the contest “they will make means, finds that his talents at whist you à bow and wish you good-mornare only rewarded by disappointment, ing." and that his losses have amounted to a Anthony Trollope inherited his mothmagnitude which he ought not with a er's love of whist-playing, as well as due regard to prudence to incur again, her aptitude for novel-writing. He has let me enjoin on him to adopt the ex-I told us of his great delight in playing

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LIVING AGE.

VOL. LXXXIII.

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a rubber in the little room up-stairs of while seated at one of its tables his por an afternoon” at the Garrick, how it trait was sketched by the present Sir became a daily habit with him, and how John Millais on the envelope of a lethe tried, but tried in vain, to discon- ter. Since that time the character of tinue an amusement which he does not the whist in Garrick Street has someshrink from stigmatizing as having, what declined. It was impossible that after all, “not very much to recom- the play should remain forever at that mend it.” This was possibly an un- high level ; but the club is still freworthy concession to popular prejudice. quented by several players of great At all events, when he had penned it excellence. there came to his mind the truer reflec- The card clubs in and around Pall tion that “without cards he would be Mall are three in number, and the most very much at a loss.” Memories of famous of them without doubt is the many illustrious players hover around Portland. For many years its memthe walls of the card-rooms in the West-bers used to meet at their house in Oxend clubs. Their merits and their ford Street, at the corner of Stratford faults are handed down from genera- Place ; but that building is now demoltion to generation; and the play of the ished, and its occupants have removed leading exponent of this age is con- to a more convenient place of assemtrasted, not always to his advantage, bly. They are now housed

on the with that of the veteran who ruled the north side of St. Janies's Square, in the room forty years ago.

building at the south-west corner of Whist at the Garrick is commemo-York Street, and since the date of their rated in “On and Off the Stage,” by removal the number of the members the Bancrofts. The lord and master of has materially increased. The that household summons to our view rooms are spacious and excellently from the shadowy mists of the past the ventilated, with shafts carrying away name and characteristics of its chief to the roof the fumes of smoke and the performers. He pictures in its card- heated air. The tables are constructed

“the ever kindly presence of with the latest devices for picking up Lord Anglesey ... the strongly marked the cards most easily and expeditiously, features and deep-toned voice of Sir and with certain dodges for allowing Charles Taylor ; the merry eye and the smoker to suspend for a moment musical brogue of Charles Lever . his “horrid trade” of smoking without the gruff exterior which hid the soft| inflicting unnecessary damage upon the and tender heart of Anthony Trollope cloth. There may at this time, as since

the occasional visits of courtly its opening, be observed the most James Clay (the former companion skilled of the London card-players. A Lord Beaconsfield in foreign travel, and distinguished peer or two of great whist a monarch at the whist-table); the more distinction still haunt its rooms. A law frequent presence of Sir George Col- officer of the crown may now and then thurst. I see kindly Joe' Langford, be seen playing a dashing game of and dear old Bunsby' (Merewether, whist within its walls. A metropolitan Q.C.) arrive for their rubber; cut-police-magistrate pursues there, with ting-in' with gentle, pipe-loving Ed- unceasing devotion, when off duty, that ward Breedon (who bore so little of game of piquet at which he is a skilled the aspect of having once been a dandy professor. in the Guards ); the great novelist,

The second card club in importance who wrote “Hard Cash,' and Dr. Du- is, no doubt, the Baldwin, and the only plex, who once prescribed for Edmund drawback to its development lies in the Kean - who complete the table." crowded condition of its rooms. A John Heneage Jesse, a clever compiler great gulf separates its rooms in point of many amusing volumes of anecdote, of luxury from those of its richer rival, was in his later years a great frequenter the Portland ; but that is the only reof the Garrick Club card-room ; and spect in which it need confess to infe

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riority. Its members are sans reproche, | memory serves me aright, his portrait, its points are moderate, yet of sufficient a ghastly head, now hangs in one of its size to engage the interest of the play- rooms. Forster, the Irish secretary, ers; and the excellence of the play is never tired of whist ; and it was at the above any feeling of doubt. The third Reform Club that he remarked, when whist club, the St. James's, is, and reproached with, and confessing to, has been for some time, domiciled at some very bad play, to a distinguished 87 St. James's Street, adjoining its novelist, “You are quite right. Call south-west corner. This was the num- me any names you like. Call me Buckber in the same street of that great shot Forster, if you will.”. Some good whist club, called Graham's, which died players, an attorney-general, a queen's about forty years ago. It was at Gra- counsel or two, a brace of city merham's that Lord Henry Bentinck in- chants, one or two men returned from vented the Blue Peter, or call for the East, or retired from official life, trumps, the explanation of which was still assemble within its precincts ; but first given by Coelebs. It was at Gra- they are heavily weighted by two or ham's that a well-known nobleman was three gentlemen whose play falls below detected in the act of cheating, and was high-water mark.” forced into a public exposure of his Whist at the Carlton was killed by an misconduct in the law courts.

active politician who has since surrenMost of the other clubs are linked in dered to fate himself ; but in the permemory's roll with

some illustrious son of the late Sir Rainald Knightley names in whist-life. The Athenæum - he is not dead, but buried in a peerpossessed some members of the great- age — it possessed a student of the est distinction. Abraham Hayward game of whist of the highest excelwas long a leading figure of its card-lence.

His play was good, and few At the Oxford and Cambridge Club men possessed a more extensive knowl- the game of whist has died a natural edge of the history of card-playing or death, but among its members were of card-players. His knowledge was three players who could hold their own freely communicated to the world, and against any competitors in England. his writings are now the choicest pos- James Clay, who used to play there sessions of all those interested in the and at the Portland, was the acknowlgossip and anecdote of this century. edged head of whist in England for One distinguished family, now repre- thirty years. He is described under the sented in the ranks of the baronets, has disguise of Castlemaine in Lawrence's produced several whist-players of high novel “Sans Merci." Mr. W repute ; but by far the most distin- who still survives, was a worthy colguished was the master of the rolls, league, and Mr. H. B. Mayne took a who found in whist at the Athenæum leading place in the ranks of whist prothe relaxation needed for a life of active fessors. His talent for games was acbusiness. Dr. Pole, whose “ Philoso- knowledged by all. At Christchurch phy of Whist” takes a very high place he was a first-rate oar, in cricket there among the treatises on the game, is a was no better “ all-round player,” and member of the club ; and one of its in the world of London whist he knew best players is a son of a late chairman but few superiors. Whist, piquet, and of committees. Talleyrand, when resi- bezique, the three chief games, are not dent in London, was accustomed to join confined to these clubs. They flourish the little coterie of whist-players that elsewhere, and notably, after dinner, at assembled at the Travellers' Club: the Junior Carlton and the Devonshire ;

Card-playing has flourished at the but at many of those institutions the Reform since the day, now more than games have too much of a business half a century ago, of its foundation. look. You cannot characterize the Bernal Osborne was long one of its game of whist as practised in them as a most zealous professors, and, if my “social amusement,” and when such a

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title is inapplicable the play loses all its | their energies without undue loss of charms.

power. The origin of whist dates back in The occasion produced the England for at least two centuries. Hoyle, the mighty Edraond Hoyle, Several passages from English writers, whose name and death are about the mentioning its existence before 1700, only solid facts definitely ascertained are quoted in the text-books on whist. about him, published, but without his Another curious reference to it is given name, his “ Short Treatise"

on the in the entertaining memoirs of Lord game. By his efforts, to quote the lanAilesbury, which have just been printed guage of the poet, “whist became a for the gratification of the select few sober, serious, scientific game." He who form the members of the Rox- was a preceptor in whist, giving lessons burghe Club. This Jacobite peer notes, in the gay science at Bath and London i in his rambling style, that the Prince and it was probably through the en: and Princess of Denmark took Berkeley forced purchases of his pupils that the House, in Piccadilly, in the autumn and work ran through five editions in a spring of 1692–93 ; but that as they single year. Hoyle made a considerwere out of favor with William III., able sum of money through the compotheir levées were not attended by the sition. Bishop Newton contrasts his court parasites. Ailesbury, who was lot with that of Milton. For the copy an honest old boy, without a spark of of“ Paradise Lost” the poet "received fear in his composition, did not keep not above ten pounds, at two different aloof from them; and “the Duke of payments ; but Mr. Hoyle, for " 'the Shrewsbury, then out of the court, went treatise on the game of whist, after thither occasionally. Some few gener- having disposed of all the first impresous spirited ladies, but very few in sion, sold the copy to the bookseller, as number, waited on them ; but to play I have been informed, for two hundred there was only us two, and the game guineas." Innumerable issues appeared was whist with honors, in vogue at that in his lifetime, and many impressions time."

subsequently came out under the reThe new game very soon became vision of Charles Jones. It was issued fashionable in all classes of life. Mrs. in a maimed and mutilated form by G. Sullen, a fine lady from London, is rep- F. Pardon, by E. Trebor, of Edinresented in Farquhar’s “ Beaux's Strat- burgh, a nom de guerré for Robert agem as saying, “Dost think that my Hardie, and by a certain Bob Short, parents . . . had early instructed me in whose labors reached a thirty-first edirural accomplishments of drinking fat tion in 1819. ale, playing at whisk.” Pope, in his Since that time a vast army of authors epistle to Miss Blount (1715), depicts have endeavored to instruct by their her chief delight as that of teasing some lucubrations their less-skilled country. squire " whose game is whist; is and men in the mystery of whist-playing. Mrs. Delany, in her autobiography, has Major A., Lieut.-Colonel B., and Gen. recorded for us that her sole evening eral Scott were the compilations of inoccupation, after her father's retire- ferior hands published under initials or ment into the country upon the death names which might deceive the unwary of Queen Anne, was to make up a into the belief that they were composed party at whist with my father and by experts. The work by Mathews of mother, and the minister of the par- Bath had higher merits, and was long ish." In 1734, Pulteney, writing to spoken of with respect.

The seventhe Hon. George Berkeley, wishes him teenth edition, dated in 1827, is the “good luck at whist.” So the game latest which is preserved in the British went on, increasing in popularity every Museum. The brochure which

Pyear ; but its followers sorely needed a peared under the disguise of Celebs scientific trainer to direct their atten- was the composition of a Cornishman tion to the right course, and to develop called Carlyon — quite Cornish, you see,

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