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flock thither for food and subsist upon | cant of the popular quest of our time its wealth. That was many hundred both in London and in Alexandria. It years before Egypt became the granary was Alexander's general and successor, of Rome, or when it was easy to “ find Ptolemy Soter, who founded this Boda ship of Alexandria, corn-laden, sail- leian and the university around it, but ing into Italy” (Acts xxvii. 6, 37; it was his son Philadelphus who enxxviii. 11), as it was in St. Paul's riched it with its treasures ; indeed, day ; but from the earliest its fashion- these two men were like David and able quarter was named the Bruchium, Solomon in their enlightened policy, Puroucheion, supposed to mean a gran- and in many ways both are worthy of ary.

Alexander never lived to see the high respect. city completed but most of the cele- The Museum, the home of the Muses, brated buildings we know so well by was in shadow reproduced by our medname — the Museum, Soma, Library, iäeval universities not a place where Gymnasium, etc. were the work of collections of relics of the past were the architect he had chosen, who, if he stored up, but where students of literahad not also died, had projected one of ture, science, or art, whether as teachhis daringly fresh designs for a temple ers or taught, lived together in an or memorial of Arsinoë, the wise of atmosphere of intellectual luxury. In Ptolemy Philadelphus, in which a come its corridors and porticoes, the porticowas to be arched with loadstones so ists, or peripatetics, sat with their puthat the lady's image, made of iron, pils around them, the same as the might hang suspended in the air with- monks did in the cloisters of our own out support (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 42). Winchester, Gloucester, or Westmins

One's thoughts naturally turn to the ter, and as the Arab may be seen to do great Library, which was “the wonder still, in the school mosque of Al-Azhar, of antiquity and the conundrum of in Cairo, to-day. . To this venerable modern scholarship,” and we first learn university, a still more venerable, that that hitherto we have had no distinction of Heliopolis – the On of the Bible in our casual thought between the great transferreol its reputation, and we owe Library of the Museum and that of the to it the preservation of Greek literaSerapeum burut by the Arab conqueror. ture and its influence upon Western Indeed, even the learned are at variance culture. Surely, gratitude alone should as to how many great libraries there make us anxious to dwell for a while in were here. The illustrious Orientalist thought at the grave of so beneticent a Silvestre de Sacy, who examined the mother! Even up to the seventh cenquestion, arrived at the conclusion of tury of our cra, its schools of astronthere having existed four separate ones omy, physics, geology, etc., retained

(1) the library collected by the Ptol- their reputation, and the revival of sciemies; (2) that of the Serapeum ; (3) ence amongst us is but the return to one attached to the Sebasteum, and (4) Alexandrian principles, and natural scianother of the School of Alexandria. ence is indissolubly connected with its But it is only the two former that are schools. It is interesting to think just universally known. We were inquiring now, when the world of literature has for the site of the Museum, and were been delighted with the recovery of a astonished and disappointed to be led lost work of Aristotle, and when a ruacross the street from our hotel to mor prevails of the possible discovery where a thick mass of building now of his tomb, that it was the library of stands, and taken to the Bourse, and the great peripatetic philosopher which told that, where the modern thought formed the nucleus of that of this city ; was given over solely to the search for and it was a singularly appropriate begold, the ancients sought for wealth of ginning, for had he not been the valà far more precious description to the ued and revered tutor of the city's worlıl and its children ; and yet the founder, who was wont to say that his change is as true as it is sadly signifi- I natural father had given him existence,

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but that his second father, Aristotle, | phus says that he did this in gratitude had taught him how to make use of it ? for their services against Egypt” The Arabs, to this day, call him Alex- (B. J. ii. 18, 7); moreover, numbers ander's vizier ; moreover, he is the were transported here after Ptolemy proto-bibliophilist, the first known col- took Jerusalem, so that the Jew boasted lector of a library, according to Strabo, that the number of his people in this and it is considered hat the honor city alone was double that which came is due to him of having in some way out of Egypt. Later on they continued suggested this collection to the Ptole- to show their desire to return to the mies. They talk of there having been scenes of the wonders done in the several hundred thousand volumes in it " field of Tavis," and it said that in the at the time of its destruction. What a reign of Tiberius they formed one-third cruel loss it seems to us who treasure a of the population.

Their synagogues single manuscript of even the fourteenth and services were remarkable for their century so highly! Try if you can and magnificence, and these Græcized Herealize that these were veritable vol- brews had a place of worship especially umes, rolls of papyrus or byblus, either for them in Jerusalem, and were the the originals of writers whose names great opposers of the proto-martyr, St. and works have thrilled through long Stephen (Acts vi. 9). It seems strange centuries eighteen, nineteen, twenty this coming back of his people to the

or else beautifully executed copies ; land of the house of the bondage they not a printed line among them, every were forever recalling, and certainly letter the outcome of human exertion. they did all they could to deserve a secThe originals of some of Aristotle's ond oppression, for they were the cause works were probably here, so too those of almost all the civil and religious disof Sophocles, Æschylus, and Euripides ; sensions in the place. and the tale is told that they were ob- But it was not for the use of the tained on pledge from the archives of Hebrew population that the Septuagint Athens, when a famine was sore in translation was made of their Scripthat land, and when Ptolemy Euergetes, tures; but the desire of the day was to like a second Joseph, would in no way understand all knowledge, and the vengrant it corn unless the messengers erable books of the Jewish people were brought them. Indeed, the Ptolemies the most precious of remaining ancient seem to have been truly Grecs in their literature. Moreover, the revelation to enrichment of the collection, for they Alexander of the prophecies of Daniel borrowed originals and returned but must have been very attractive, and beautiful copies; and furnished an made him and his wise men desire furcarly example of custom-house offi- ther information. It may be mentioned ciousness by searching all travellers and in passing that to this day the Arab impounding replicas of any works they shows a santon or tomb which he highly might be possessed of. It was in the reveres as that of El-nabi Daniyal (DanLibrary of the Museum upon this Bourse iel the prophet), although the Persians site that the Septuagint was translated. say they possess it at Susan or Sus (Ibn The Jewish population was a large one Haukal, p. 76) — but the tradition in from the city's foundation; they had connection with Alexander's city, the won the favor of the great Alexander conqueror of Persia, is worth a thought from that day when, marching upon as to which is the real one, if either. Jerusalem to destroy it, he was met by Philadelphus's librarian, Callimachus, Jaddus, the high-priest, who showed introduced a great number of both Jewhim in the Book of Daniel how it was a ish and Egyptian works into his colGrecian prince that the prophet had lection, and among the former were foretold should destroy the kingdom of portions of the Septuagint, and of the Persia. He was ready, therefore, to latter we know nothing whatever. We give them anything, and granted to are told by Josephus that each transthem a quarter of his new city. Jose- I latór of the Septuagint received over


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3,0001., a sum which, multiplied seventy- | wars in which the Israelites took part two times, looks fabulous, but not im- in this land of Egypt before the Exopossible to these princely Ptolemies. dus; or the records or memoirs of Is it improbable that such a work and Jeremias (2 Macc. ii. 3) and the lamensuch a reward must have drawn to the tations of the same prophet upon the city almost every book considered sa- death of Josias (2 Chron. xxxv. 25), cred scripture by the Jew, and is it and in connection with whom the tradipossible that such were forever de- tional history is that he was brought by stroyed in the fire which deprived the the Jews out of Palestine by compulworld of so much else? Then were sion, and died a short distance from lost the originals of Sophocles and Eu- this city of Alexandria ? Might they ripides and many of those of Aristotle not have had here the Book of Isaiah, likewise. Æschylus's works were there, the Demosthenes of the prophets, upon too, and iu his case there disappeared Uzziah (2 Chron. xxvi. 22), or the true not only the originals, but even the prophecy of Henoch (Jude, 14, 15), texts, so that out of seventy tragedies which Origen and Tertullian, citizens of his we have now but seven. What a of this place, praised so highly, and loss that was of a poet whose bold, en- which the Abyssinian Church still reergetic verse is instinct with the soldier veres? Can there be any truth in the of Marathon, Platea, and Salamis ! rabbinical tales of how Aristotle learnt And side by side with his we may place his natural science from a discovered a still greater, that of the chief of work of Solomon, and can it have been Greece's lyrical writers — Pindar, the here that were stored those works of fellow-soldier of the brave tragedian, the wise king upon nature, trees, fishes, and who has survived only in memory beasts, and plants (1 Kings, iv. 32, 33), and in one triumphal ode. What would or the book of his three thousand provwe not give for a roll of his hymns, erbs and one thousand and five songs ? processionals, panegyrics, and songs But it is idle to think of the possible that manly, cultured, and pious soldier, losses when the known ones who, after the Persian war, when the great ; and all through an accident of fashion was to be sceptical and lax in war - not intentionally, let it be said, the worship of the gods, might still be to the credit of the human race. The seen making his pilgrimage to Delphi, honor of being librariau of such a colwhere, seated in the iron chair before lection was considered more distinApollo's shrine, he sang the hymns he guished than that conferred by any post had composed to his honor. But it is to-lay in the world of science or literanot the poets we alone lament; where ture. We know the names of many of

now the thirty-nine orations of its early directors - Zenodotus, the Isæus, the master of Demosthenes, or Homeric student; Callimachus, whose that eighth volume of the great geom- history of Greek literature is forever eter Apollonius, a work full of original lamented ; Eratosthenes, the maker of and fresh thought ; where the treatises the first observatory, wherein he disof Theophrastus, the favorite pupil of covered many wonderful things, as to Aristotle, and the additions he made to the obliquity of the ecliptic and how to his great master's “ Natural History measure the bulk and circumference of and Physics "? These are a few the earth, and other results dear to sciwhich come to mind as we think of our entific souls. He also patented a sieve losses in profane literature. Is it possi- known by his name, which sorted out ble that then, too, were likewise burnt all the numbers you threw into it, lemany of these books we now miss from taining only those that have unity as the roll of sacred history ? Could they their common

To him all have had submitted to them for consid- Egyptologists are indebted for his latereration at least such works as " The culus or catalogue, which is the most Book of the Wars of the Lord (Numb. authentic list of thirty-two Theban xxi. 24), thought to be the recital of the kings omitted by Manetho. There


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were many other famous men as libra- school of science and literature; and rians. Its founder, Ptolemy Soter, was yet as one of art it promised to revive fond of intellectual society ; he himself all the classic glory of enfeebled Greece. had written a history of his great pred- That Beauclerk, Ptolemy Soter, enterecessor Alexander, which is now lost, tained all the artists who would come and gathered around him such men as to his court with a most hearty welEuclid, Erasistratus, Herophilus, An- come, and his son did the same. Alextiphilus, and Apelles. Euclid had been ander the Great had permitted only .born in the city, and how many of us three artists to take his likeness have wished that he had died early, or Lysippus the sculptor, Praxiteles the at least that his works had been among statuary, and Apelles the painter. The those lost until after our pons asinorum last named was by accident brought to days ! How much pleasanter it would the court of Soter, for he did not have been for his "Elements” to have visit it intentionally, since envious and been irrecoverably missing, we have malignaut men had sullied his credit once thought, than for them to survive there ; but fate threw him into the and his works on music to be gone! midst of the scandal-mongers, one day And yet this plain, angular, and solid after a storm in which his ship was mathematician would never have given driven ashore, and soon all was changed, us any music which would have ap- and his enemies scattered. His bitterpealed to our youthful ears, and most est maligner had been an Egyptian

not sure if we painter named Antiphilus, an artistshould not prefer the “ Pythagoric friend of the king, a man to whom is dreams and Platonic fancies " upon the attributed the invention of those carisubject to anything that lie would have catures called Grylli — grotesque monhad to say. It was walking along the sters, part animal or bird and part broad and easy ascent to the palace with human.

He had been always reprePtolemy Soter — a way none save those senting the great Apelles as a Gryllus, of the imperial house were allowed to and made every effort now to get his tread — that the philosopher is said to monster condemned to death; but have made that reply so often re- Soter stripped off the coat of misreprepeated to each of us since : “ There is sentation, and finding instead the true no royal road to the mathematics,” character of the artist, one of fidelity to meaning that all must approach, as the his sovereign and to his art, he ordered citizens had to do to the palace, by the Antiphilus to be reduced to slavery, arduous circuit of steps.

and made Apelles his master. There Herophilus was another scientific are the records of numberless statues friend of the son of Lagos, and one to existing as the work of Alexandrian whom we owe not only the present workmen, and yet the name of only one nomenclature of all our bones and parts artist - Satyrius - has reached us. In of the body, it is said, but also that Rome there are still fragments of portrying discovery of the existence of phyry and basalt statues carried away nerves. Very many persons wish they from Alexandria by Claudius after the never knew that they possessed any, same fashion as we did the works of especially in these overwrought times. Pheidias from Athens. The coins of But then it was just the fiendish kind of the city were celebrated for their beauthing we might have expected for this tiful impression, and indeed probably human ghoul to have left behind to there is no city in the world where all torture men with when he himself the noblest pursuits of the human brain could no longer do so. Tertullian says and hand were so eagerly followed as that he dissected six hundred bodies, at this. Such was the benefit that a and he was so early and ardent a vivi- wise endowment of research produced sectionist that he experimented upon under the ten Ptolemeian kings, that condemned criminals alive.

the short period of the existence of this We think of Alexandria only as al Museum was sufficient to flood every

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field of study with fresh thought and trefoil, Melilotus cærulea, Lam., in Ausrich material for future development, tria as ügyptischer Klee. There are a and from that source the geography, few more which without great effort we anatomy, medicine, mathematics, me- can recall to our minds wherewith to chanics, geometry, astronomy, natural stock this venerable herbarium. There history, and many another exact sci- would be the Glastonbury thorn, which ence, took its modern course, Truly a is known to us better by this name than kingly work "elegantiæ regum cu- as Egyptian thorn; the hibiscus, or ræque egregium opus” (Livy).

rose mallow, whose musk seeds are Attached to the University or Mu- known Ægyptia moschata, and

were botanical gardens for the whose perfume we buy in the form of students (Philostrat., Vit. Apollon. vi. Cyprus Powder. Two of our scabious 24), abounding in tropical and other plants bear the name of Egyptian or flora, like that at Oxford ; and in its gipsy rose, and blackamoor’s beauty physic beds we can be sure that they seems to be the equivalent in England, would cultivate not only the rarer ex- where all dark-skinned races are “nigotics, but also every species of Allium gers ; " and the sycamine, or Pharaoh's

the probable herb moly of Homeric fig, or wild Egyptian fig, is the Ficus verse — and the cucumbers, and the Sycomorus, L. Another event is remelons, and the leeks, and the onions, called by the German name for the and the garlick, which were among the Triticum vulg. turg. L., in Joseph's regretful memories of the Israelites in Kornweizen, arabischer or ägyptischer the desert. Some have said that the Weizen, and we need not add the lotus onion took its name from the city of On or ägyptische Bohne, and many another

the daughter of whose priest Joseph to the list. It is pleasant to recall, the Exile married — just as shallot and however, in our Western nomenclature scallion does from Ascalon. From the titles which have been handed down herbs of this garden the doctors in through the centuries, and which origvented many a simple named after the inated from this Eastern source. city's presiding genius. There was, at There were also zoological gardens least, the famous garlic plaster, the connected with the University (Athen. Emplastrum Alexandri, and Ætius xiv., p. 654), and one cannot think of mentions a Collyrium recalling the those without wondering if Alexander's same great name. Many a plant in successors obtained a cat from Persia of Europe bears still in its title a recollec- that beautiful Angora species, and thus tion which enables us to replace it in banished forever out of the minds of this first botanical collection. There is the villagers of Egypt any respect for the Alexandrian laurel, the victor's their own native breed. In the “ grancrown (Ruscus racemosus), with its ary of the world” there must have glossy dark green leaves and elegant been plenty of rats and mice. Just as growth; the Smyrnium olusatrum, L., we probably owe more than we can now which our countryfolk still call Alexan- tell to the systematic collections made ders or Alisaunders, from the old name by the Alexandrian Greek students in Herba Alexandrina or Macedonisium ; their physic garden, so are we indebted the pellitory of Spain (Anacyclus Pyre- to them for the introduction of this thrum, DC.), which is Alexandra's graceful animal into Europe. The Foot, pied d'Alexandre, in England name is probably Greek. Kilta is the and France. The “ cucumbers and the Arabic for a Tom, I believe, and I melons" of the mourning Israelites is know the old Egyptian was onomatoprobably the Cucumis Colocynthis, L., pæic, viz., miau. Our domestic cat is or allied species, which the Germans the probable lineal descendant of those call Alexandrianappel, and Hengsten- of ancient Egypt, with admixture of berg thinks that the word “ leeks” blood of course ; but we can see the old

2 ought to be translated clover, and if so strain often repeating itself in those it is to be noticed that they know the l of a yellowish color, darker on back,

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