towards this goal ; it is the aim of all, even Again :of him who lays violent hands upon him

Not from space must I seek my greatself. Yet through the ages, no one, except

ness, through religion, has attained that end More than this I could not have, though I

but from the ruling of my thought. which is the desire of the whole race.

possessed worlds. By space the universe The Christian's God is not simply the encompasses me and swallows me up as an author of geometrical truths and elementary atom ; by thought I encompass the universe. order, such was the deity of the heathen Man is but a reed, the feeblest of and the Epicureans. Nor is he merely a created things, but a reed that thinks. It God who watches providentially over the needs not that the universe should rise to lives and fortunes of men, giving happiness crush him ; a breath, a drop of water, is and length of years to those who worship sufficient. But were the whole universe to him, such was the deity of the Jews. But arm itself in order to destroy him, man is the God of Abraham and Jacob, the God greater than that which crushes him, for of the Christians, is a God of love and con- man knows that he dies ; and the universe, solation, who fills the hearts and souls of though it thus prevails against him, has no those whom he possesses ; who makes them sense of its power. . . All our greatness feel deeply their own misery and his infinite therefore is in thought; it is by this we compassion ; who enters into their inmost must raise ourselves, not by time or space spirit, filling them with joy and humility, which we cannot fill. Let it then be our confidence and love, and making them in- aim to think well, for here is the startingcapable of resting in any other end than point of morals. himself.

We find in such passages as these the Christ is the end of all and the centre to which everything tends. To know him is accent of a man who is at once poet, to know the cause of all things.

His utterances on moralist, and seer.

Those who go astray do so because they see not religion have the authority that we one of these two things : we may know God recognize in the saints and the prophets. without knowing our misery ; we may know An acute observer remarked to our misery without knowing God. But we recently that Pascal was not a man with cannot know Christ without knowing both a special calling for religion, but that he God and our misery.

took it up with the same ardor which Some of the grandest of his sayings he showed in his study of mathematics, are those in which he dwells upon the or in his controversy with the Jesuits. greatness of man as a thinking being, Something of this sort is perhaps true which to him is the only greatness. He of Matthew Arnold, but it certainly is has many things that remind us of not true of Pascal, whose religious the saying of Immanuel Kant : “Two genius was greater even than Bossuet's. things fill my soul with awe, the fir- The authority of his utterances mament with its stars, and the sense of spiritual things is proof enough of his duty in man."

fitness to speak on these subjects; When I reflect (says Pascal] upon the purely intellectual writers on religion brief duration of my life, absorbed in an like Mr. Arnold have not this unmiseternity before and behind, “passing away

takable accent. as the remembrance of a guest who tarrieth Pascal, indeed, was qualified to speak but a day ;” the little space I fill or behold, for the human spirit on many sides, for lost in the infinite immensity of spaces of he was one of the most perfect of modwhich I know nothing, and which know ern minds. No other man since Plato, nothing of me; when I reflect thus, I am except three or four of the great poets, filled with terror, and wonder that I am has had such keenness of intellect comhere and not there, for there was no reason bined with such depth of emotion and why it should be the one rather than the

niceness of perception. His mind was other, why now rather than then. Who set me here ? By whose command and rule Greek in its natural sense of fitness and were this time and place appointed me? proportion, while his literary sense was How many kingdoms know nothing of us! as fine as Voltaire's. The eternal silence of those infinite spaces

Where could we find a truer sense of terrifies me !

measure than in the following ?


on 66

I do not admire the excess of a virtue, as interesting a book as Loss and Gain." for instance valor, unless at the same time Pascal, even when writing of every-day it is balanced by the excess of an opposite matters, has such a rare distinction of virtue, as in the case of Epaminondas, who phrase, and an accent of individuality combined extreme valor with extreme be

so strong and winning, that you feel no nignity. Otherwise it is apt to lower rather

one else could have written in just the than elevate. We do not show greatness by attaining the one extreme, but by attain- same way. Yet the thing is said siming both, while at the same time we fill up ply, and in such a manner as to satisfy

alike the grammarian, the literary artist, the spaces between them.

and the man of good sense.

Pascal is There is in Pascal nothing of the also the more original mind ; and he is hair-splitter ; not the most pretentious the greater reasoner, in spite of all that of the realists has so keen a sense of has been said of late concerning Newreality as this mystic and mathema- man's logical power. Both are men of tician. Naturally he is one of the profound religious feeling, and of great healthiest of thinkers; and he exem- religious genius ; and each has eviplifies for us admirably the truth of that dently sounded depths of scepticism saying of Landor's, “ The intellectual which few unbelievers have reached. world, like the physical, is inapplicable And both are among the “glories of to profit and incapable of cultivation a the human race.” little way below the surface."

If we would see Pascal at his highWe find, too, in Pascal a vigor, and a est, we should try to picture him during manliness of tone, which are wanting the four last years of his life. His in the distinguished writers of French weakness and suffering make it imposprose who followed him. Fénelon and sible for him to meditate long upon Massillon are altogether gracious and a subject; he can only write down winning spirits, but in them the femi- in haste the thought of the moment, nine side of our nature is too strong to nor can he afterwards connect these permit them to produce that invigor- thoughts, and make of them a coherent ating literature which is at once noble, whole. It is the last development of classical, and masculine. There is in the illness of his youth ; an illness Pascal's writing as genuine a ring of peculiar to natures with nerves too manliness as in the writings of the highly strung, brought on at first in greatest of the Elizabethans.

Pascal's case by excessive study, and But it is of an Englishman of our since complicated in many ways. This own time that we think as in many break-up of the physical frame has left ways the analogue of Pascal. John its mark upon the whole man ; yet his Henry Newman and Blaise Pascal were mental power has not failed

him ; to both great writers on religion in whom the end his intellect has all its keenthe human sentiment was never killed ness, notwithstanding that morbid eleby ecclesiasticism ; they wrote as men ment which the body has imparted to who lived closely in touch with the the soul. Fancy gives him the long, world. Both are greater than their narrow face of the ascetic, with the writings, each has the same lofty self-mark of spiritual exaltation, and the respect and aloofness, which are no lines that tell of deep penance and anxdoubt a kind of pride, but a pride found ious self-questionings at once austere, only in great spirits and consistent with humble, yet invincibly proud. How difentire simplicity of character. Pascal's ferent from this was the Pascal who literary style is the more perfect, though looked upon men two hundred and thirty Newman has isolated passages worthy years ago! In these last years, when of comparison with the best things of the hand of death is upon him, he has Pascal ; but Newman is always uncer- still the full face, the handsome features, tain, and often commonplace, which and the large, quiet, dreamy eyes of his Pascal never is. It is inconceivable youth ; grave, indeed, he looks, but on that the latter could have written so un-I that fine face there is no sign of pain.


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He is a singular, complex, most | Francis Xavier that will stand as the attractive personality. A great and type. Strenuous, vigilant, eager to original thinker upon the subject of bring the whole world into the fold of religion, he is not an ecclesiastic; by no Rome, intolerant, and a little super

learned in theology (as the ficial, Xavier, with his feverish desire schoolmen understand it), his writings for unity and his impatience of indion religion have given him a place viduality, is an embod of the sentiabove many of the great theologians; ment of Rome. Pascal is the spiritual he is distinguished among mathema- brother, not of St. Francis Xavier, but ticians, but keeps his science rigidly of that greatly loved if unknown man within its proper limits; the master of who wrote the “ Imitation of Christ." a consummate literary art, he disdains This world-weary ascetic, struggling all the tricks of the rhetorician ; ar- to kill within him that spirit of Heldent, and deeply in earnest, he does not lenism which loves art and science, forget his breeding, but is at all times a poesy and all things fair ; this lofty gentleman.

thinker, unceasingly narrowing his conNo principles of historical criticism ception of piety, is yet far above the can fully explain him. You can in a mere ascetic or sacerdotalist, and is way build up Bossuet from the known after all too great for us to see him working influences of the epoch ; he is fully. The extreme ecclesiastic, like in truth, as most great men are, the Bossuet, is always overmuch of a forproduct of the time-spirit. Much of malist; and when you have once Pascal, too, belonged to the time, for clearly defined his limitations, you no man can make an atmosphere or a know him almost as the instrument is world for himself; yet there is a great kuown to the musician. Still more so part of him of which his age gives no with the ordinary ascetic ; when you promise, and offers no explanation. In know his temperament and his fixed these last years, incurably ill, and able ideas, you can tell everything of which only to think fitfully upon a subject, he he is capable. But Pascal eludes you yet sounds the human heart and con- at every turn. He is an ascetic, and science so deeply that he puts himself even goes so far as to wear a girdle in a class apart from the other Christian fitted with spikes, which he does not apologists of his century. Make what hesitate to use when he feels that deductions you will for his occasional temptation is near. He has other exmonastic falseness of tone, you still travagances of thought and action, feel that he desires the truth

so such

we usually conceive to be ardently, and struggles so terribly to peculiar to the worst type of religious gain it, that he leaves behind him alto-fanatic, with a small brain, a gloomy gether the scholasticism of the age ; nature, and great poverty of blood. It and while in spirit he lives with the is not without pain that we can force early Christians, he obtains a foretaste ourselves to dwell upon this side of of the religious doubts and difficulties Pascal, for it is strained and unhealthy. of the future. A loyal son of Rome, to But it is not the whole man

it is

very whom Luther and Calvin are objects of far from that. scorn, he has none of the Roman senti- Not even St. Martin of Tours had ment for unity, but more than the more pity for the poor and suffering Lutheran feeling for individuality. than Pascal ; he lived as one of them, The communion of the soul with God, and gave them not only half, but nearly and the joy of the spiritual life ; man's all that he had. Charity, that

supersense of responsibility, and the awful natural, that divine virtue, filled him mysteries of pain, sin, and death - through and through. " All bodies tothese are the things that occupy Pascal. gether,” he says,

66 and all minds toIf we seek among the illustrious sons gether, and all their productions, are of the Church of Rome a representative not worth the least movement of of her spirit, it is not Pascal but St. Icharity ; that is of an order infinitely

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about you.

higher.” Nor was this mere theory | Copt, Turk, Jew, Nubian, Syrian, with him ; he shaped his conduct by it. Negro, Soudanese, Berber, Albanian, His life in these years is inexpressibly Armenian, Indian, you can see them pathetic. Surely no man in mortal all commingled in this ever-varying sickness ever thought more nobly. crowd, with eyes centred upon the For be it remembered that he was ship. Well might it be said in classic above all things a thinker and not a lore that Proteus had his home at this man of action, but one of those think- place, for Protean indeed are the diverers whose words are acts. To be near sities of costume and type which we unto death for years while you are can see around us. It is just the same young, and to know that health will as when Dion the golden-mouthed oranever again be yours, yet to face your tor was here eighteen hundred years lot with unflinching courage, while in ago, and when the same sight saluted soul you remain pure, human, and of and astonished him (Orat. xxxii. : undimmed faith ; not to murmur at “ Halians, Syrians, Libyans, Cilicians, your destiny, or ask with the faint- Æthiopians, Arabians, Bactrians, Perhearted ones whether it is good to live, sians, Scythians, and Indians” he menbut to be brave, humble, and in charity tions). You feel for some days that with all men, while you continue to you never shall be weary of simply 56. seek the truth with groans,” until watching these lithe, spare, and gracedeath completes his hold upon your ful men, and that you never shall be frail body - this is to live worthily, as able to distinguish between them, or a hero and saiut should live. And thus feel at ease with dark faces everywhere lived Pascal.

It is not, however, the present that we need regard now. It is in the days

of its Grecian glory that we like to From The Nineteenth Century. think of it. A WALK IN ALEXANDRIA.

It is ancient classic Greece which WHAT a wonderful scene is that pre- comes out to welcome one in this beausented to our view as we draw up along- tiful harbor of Eunostos — the Port of side the quay at Alexandria ! The fine Happy Return and the two most anbroad wharves, built by Englishmen, cient civilizations we know of, Egypt and identical with those of their own and its pupil Greece, seem to join here sea-girt land, are crowded with a mass in greeting us. of humanity differing in face and dress The whole tale of how the city archifrom anything experienced before in tect, Dinocrates, came to know his European travel; the eyes wander great employer, and the city's founder, over the great congregation of men is far more worth thinking about as no white faces seem present, or else you drive or walk through the modern they are lost in the multitude of those town than anything you will see there, of Asia and Africa. What a mixture so let me tell it. Dinocrates was a of races and appearances, as well as of Macedonian, the Lesseps of his time, a characters, meet you upon this Alex-genius of daring design, and it is to be andrian quay ! To those who have hoped quite out of accord with the never been out of Europe before, it is popular feeling of his day in his crava sight never to be forgotten; you ing for self-advertisement. He had there meet for the first time that grave, perhaps contracted the corrupt practice impassive face of the Eastern, bearing from Herostratus (or Eratostratus), the himself erect and nobly, with his grace- scoundrel who had destroyed the Temful fall of robe and ample turban ; their ple of Diana at Ephesus upon the first

1 bright black eyes seem full of calm in- birthday of Alexander, in order, as he telligence and



you feel your- himself confessed, that future ages self unable to read them as you can might not be ignorant of his name, those of your own race. Arab and such being his passionate lust for noto




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riety that he cared not whether his “I am Dinocrates, the Macedonian fame were good or evil. Dinocrates architect, and bring to your Majesty had been called upon to restore this thoughts aud desigus worthy of your temple, which, in order that the earth- greatness.” When Alexander heard quakes might not ruin, had been that it was he who had restored the placed in a marsh upou foundations of Temple of Diana of the Ephesians, he

coal and goat-skius! It was in asked him what next he proposed to this restored building that St. Paul do. “I have laid out Mount Athos," preached, and where that apostle must responded he, “to be sculptured as have seen the great picture of Alexan- one block, and to be hewn into the der painted by Apelles, upon its walls, fashion of the limbs and features of and from which arose the saying that your Majesty. In your left hand I there were two Alexanders the Great, have designed a city of ten thousand one the invincible, the son of Philip, inhabitants, and into your right I have and the other the inimitable, the work conducted all the rivers of the mount, of Apelles (Plut). We have in our and formed them into a sea, from national Museum about sixty tons of whence they flow to the ocean. Thus, Dinocrates' stones.

sire, shall a memorial be left worthy Our architect, after completing his of your greatness.” Alexander was work at Ephesus, and moved by the amused at the audacity of the man, and vivid art of the portrait-painter, deter- dismissed him ; nevertheless he rememmined to personally interview the great bered him when he wanted to build monarch, and therefore, setting out for Alexandria, and the tradition of its his camp as he returned from his East- planning is quite in keeping with the ern triumphs, he cast about for a theatrical character of the clever fellow. device by which he could gain his audi- He cast his Macedonian cloak down as ence and likewise flatter his sovereign. the design, giving it “a circular border Now there was one weakness, or it may full of plaits, and projecting into corhave been a noble yearning, in the ners on right and left," as Pliny says, great conqueror's heart, that, just as and made the new port the sweep of his own reputed father had claimed the the neck and the Pharos and Lochias God-like hero Hercules as sire, so Alex- promontories the jewelled clasp. A ander desired it might be proved that relic of the tradition may perchance be no earthly parent had begotten him seen in the name Pharos, which means (Alexander). Some men did, indeed, a loose cloak or mantle, as possibly a say that he was not Philip's son, but of recollection of his work at Ephesus in Nectanebo, an Egyptian mage and the point Lochias, a title of Diana. lover of Olympias, and perhaps it was Another tradition connected with the to solve all doubt that Alexander city's origin is that Alexander marked thought he would remove his parent- its circuit himself, dropping a white age beyond human reasoning. How- powder to indicate its limits; but, this ever, he had not as yet finally fixed failing, he took the sacks of flour or upon Jupiter Ammon, and the crafty grain heaped up to feed the workmen, sycophant Dinocrates deemed that he and employed that. To his dismay would best flatter the great king by a next day he was told that all his labor reference to the grandfather. Anoint- had been in vain, for that as soon as he ing, therefore, his body with oil, and had departed down swooped the blackwreathing his temples with Herculean birds doubt those grey-backed poplar, with the skin of a Nemean lion crows with their robes of powdered over his shoulder, and nourishing a satin — and ate up all his plan ; but club, he approached the court of the those priests of the fowls of the airking, and stood prominently forth in the augurs. with their ever-pleasant his singular garb.

? lore, reassured him that it was a most must have said his Majesty, to which favorable sign, and that it foretold, the unabashed self-advertiser replied, what came so true, that nations should

66 Who are you


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