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From The Leisure Hour.
JAVA.

and a number of firms have offices and

agencies in all the seaports. Under the This magnificent islanıl, once in the system of cultivation, the planters possession of England, but now the reserving a third of the produce and property of the Dutch, is nearly the handing two-thirds to the government, size of Great Britain, and has a popu- there is room for a large amount of lation about half as great. But out of compulsory service · little different the eighteen million scarcely thirty from slavery, at least in the districts thousand are Europeans. The bulk of requiring field labor for coffee and other the people are Javanese of the Malay produce. race, with about two hundred thousand Somabaya is the principal place of Chinese, and of Arabs, Hindoos, and export for sugar, and there are large other races little more than twenty-five ship-building docks there, besides a thousand. A large part of the island is great floating dock, a naval arsenal, and uncultivated, with mountains, forests, extensive forts and batteries to protect swamps, and great volcanic tracts, wild the harbor. The government monopoly and esolate. But the parts under in sugar ha of late years been much culture are amongst the most fertile relaxed, owing to the action of the and productive in all the tropics. Tea, Liberal party in Holland. Up till now, coffee, spices, sugar, indigo, tobacco, the sugar-planter made his bargain with tin, are among the numerous products the government, by which, in return for exported, and which bring great wealth certain payments he received a fixed both to the planters and to the trading portion of land and so much forced labor companies of the Netherlands.

from the natives on the estate. This The capital, Batavia, the chief city of system is gradually being brought to a Dutch India, has a population of about close, but it is strange that the governseventy thousand, and there are sev- ment still cling to their monopoly in eral other towns, Buitenzor, Bantam, coffee and sugar. There are

a few Samarang, Rembang, with large popu- large estates in private hands, which lation. Banjumaas, the capital of a were organized by their owners when rich district, nominally under a native the island belonged to Great Britain, ruler, is said to have fifty thousand in- and the enlightened Sir Stamford Rafhabitants. The religion of the natives fles was governor. One large estate, is Mohammedan mostly, but there are near the seaport of Cheribon, has a popstill many heathen throughout the isl- ulation of about forty thousand natives and, and the Christianity of the Dutch on it, and they furnish the necessary is not of a very decided or aggressive cultivation for the estate, keep the roads kind. Batavia has an English Church and bridges in repair, and for this they and chaplain, and other Europeans have receive no less than four-fifths of the chapels and ministers according to their whole crop, the remaining fifth going creed.

to the proprietor. There is much to Batavia not being healthy at most interest a traveller in Java in studying seasons, the residents of position resort the land tenure and cultivation system to Buitenzor, forty miles distant, where as practised by the Dutch, and the many there is better climate and magnificent striking scenes of tropical vegetation scenery on every side. The governor- will reward the lover of the beautiful general has his palace here, a handsome and picturesque in nature. edifice with splendid grounds and gar- The flourishing condition of Singadens. Hotel life in Java is very luxu- pore must have considerable effect on rious to Europeans, and the mansions the prosperity of the Javanese ports, of the wealthy planters abound in every but the wealth of the island is great, comfort. There is a large trade carried and the Dutch are justly proud of their on with America as well as Europe, I possessions in the East.

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Fifth Series, Volume LXXXII.

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No. 2553. – June 3, 1893.

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From Beginning
-Vol. OXOVII.

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CONTENTS.
I. HIPPOLYTE TAINE. By Gabriel Monod, . Contemporary Review,

" THE HINT O' HAIRST." By Menie Mu-
riel Dowie, author of “A Girl in the Kar-
Conclusion,

Chambers' Journal, .
III. THE COUNCILS OF A NATION,

Blackwood's Magazine,
IV. THE FINANCIAL CAUSES OF THE FRENCH

REVOLUTION. By Ferdinand Rothschild.
Conclusion,

Nineteenth Century,
V. OUR ARCTIC HEROES,

Cornhill Magazine,
VI. MY PUPILS IN THE GREAT KARROO, Macmillan's Magazine,
VII. A JEWISH WELDING,

Woman,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For EIGHT DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

A DREAM OF OUR BIRTH.

Through tangled paths of such a world as EACH man, before he takes his mortal

this !birth

As from the visions of a quiet sleeping Ere yet upon him rises life's sad sun That ends in nightmare, they awaken weepDwells in the Eden of a perfect earth,

ing. Where living unpolluted waters run :

Weeping -- and yet they know not why Thoughtless of sin, and ignorant of sorrow,

they weep, He passes peacefully from morn to morrow.

For earth is very fair, and God is kind ; There, as on earth, the measured seasons And as we oft, on rising from our sleep, roll,

Lose memory of the dreams we leave be

hind, With days of innocence and nights of

So do these sons of God and heirs of glory rest.

Lose all remembrance of their earlier story. Haply such labors as delight the soul, With fruit that neither moth nor worm And yet the dreams have not deserted quite ; molest,

Some gleams of mystic memory linger Are there the sinless spirits' recreation,

still, Blest with contentment in a lowly station.

That make us vaguely struggle for a light

To clear the vapors that elude our will. Sealed to their vision is the Book where lie

Sometimes a sudden flash, as quickly fleeing, The countless mysteries of good and ill ;

Points through the shadows to a former They live forever in the Father's eye,

being. And love unquestioning his ways and will.

Sometimes a visitant with pinions bright No problem agitates their reason's powers, Pierces the cloud of misery and sin ; As that of life and death perplexes ours. Sometimes in solitude of silent night

The doors are opened, and we enter in ; We cannot say their knowledge is so high : Sometimes we hear a sound of distant singThey are contented with the light of

ing, heaven,

Like bells of buried cities strangely ringing. Nor seek to know the infinitudes that lie Beyond the sphere which to their sight is Do there not come strange voices from the given,

sea, Better and wiser in this pure condition Callings and whispers from the winter Than we with all our restless mad ambition. wind,

That strike upon the ear familiarly, There are the fairest of this earth's de

And waken ghostly echoes through the lights —

mind ? Its pride of forests and its wealth of Do not the forests from their green depths

seaSpread out before their eager happy sights, And in their sylvan solitudes enthral us ?

Without the sully of mortality. No sign of death is there forever telling Like cuckoo-calls across a land of flowers, That they have fallen from a loftier dwell- That grow the fainter as the year grows ing.

late,

So through our life, but most in earlier Ah, with how sudden and how deep a woe

hours, There comes that death to them which We bear some instincts of a former state ; we call birth !

But when the Present's battle-cries awake That leaving of their paradise to go

us, From tearless Eden to distressful earth ; These softer whispers of the Past forsake How loth they leave, with glances backward

turning To where the angel stands with symbol Born to a land of sin and strife and woe, burning.

Where good and evil blindedly embrace

We win the passports that shall let us go Poor exiles from a dear delightful home, From stress of travail to a nobler place ; The stainless fields of innocence and Knowing the certain goal of our endeavor bliss,

Must be to rise and live with God forever. Whose light must vanish from them as they

ARTHUR L. SALMON.

Blackwood's Magazine. roam

call us,

us.

BY GABRIEL MONOD,

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From The Contemporary Review. mistress, and scientific truth for his
HIPPOLYTE TAINE.

end and aim ; each stroye to hasten the

time when a scientific conception of FRANCE is discrowned. A little the universe should take the place of while ago it was her privilege to pos- the theological conception ; but while. sess two of those encyclopædic minds M. Taine believed it possible, without which contain in themselves the whole ever venturing beyond the narrow limits knowledge of their time, which sum up of acquired and demonstrable fact, to all its tendencies, intellectual and moral, lay the foundations of a definite system, and look out upon nature and history M. Renan delighted himself with the from an elevation which enables them visionary glimpses of sentiment and to obtain something like a bird's-eye reverie into the domain of the uncerview of the universe. Within five tain, the unknown, and even the unmonths these two men, so unlike in knowable, and loved to throw fresh personal character and in the qualities doubt upon established conclusions, of their work and thought (and there- and to warn other people against a fore all the more, the two of them, an fallacious intellectual security. Moreincarnation of the diverse aptitudes of over, the action of Renan had sometheir race and country), these two, uni- thing contradictory about it. He was versally recognized as the most authen-claimed by thinkers of the most oppotic exponents and the most authoritative site tendencies. He paved the way, to teachers of the generation which flour- some extent, for the momentary reacished between 1850 and 1880, have tion we see around us against the posibeen taken from us in the plenitude of tive and scientific temper of recent their powers, M. Renan in October, at times. In his irony, as in his flights of the age of sixty-nine, and M. Taine in fancy and of hope, he seems to: soar March, at the age of sixty-four.

above his time and above his own work. I will not indulge in the easy and M. Taine's work, on the other hand, deceptive pastime of drawing a parallel while more limited in range, has a solid between them, nor weary the reader unity and a rigid logical cousistency ; with a catalogue of forced and illusory and it is in strict relation with the time likenesses and contrasts in order to pass in which he lived, at once acting powa judgment on their relative merits as erfully upon it, and giving it its fullest idle as it would be impertinent. I will and most complete expression. only point out in passing that both these mep - true children of our democratic modern society — rose, by dint TAINE was the theorist and the phiof their own genius and efforts, om a losopher of that scientific movement position of humble obscurity to fame which in France was the successor of and honor ; that each (like so many of the romantic movement. The romantic the great writers of this century — like movement itself — the work of the gen. Chateaubriand, like Victor Hugo, like eration of 1820-1850 — had been a reacLamartine) lost his father in early life, tion against the hollow, conventional, and was brought up by a mother whom and sterile art and thought of the

age he tenderly loved; and that, apart which preceded it. To the narrow and from the circumstances which drove rigid rules of the classical school of the the one from his seminary and the decadence it opposed the broad prinother from the public schools, the life ciple of the freedom of art; for the of each was unmarked by any adven- servile imitation of antiquity it substiture other than the adventures of the tuted the discovery of new fountains of intellect, and was devoted without in- inspiration in the works of the great terruption to literary or professorial masters of all times and countries ; labors, lightened by the simple pleas- while the dull uniformities of a mechanures of the fireside or the circle of ical style gave place to the varying friends. Each took science for his I caprices of individual taste, and the

I.

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narrowness of a tame and timid ideol- | shape for himself a vague and purely ogy to the broad horizons of a spiritual subjective ideal, it held fast to one comeclecticism which found room and rec- mon principle of life and art, the search ognitiou for all the great doctrines that for truth — truth, not as an abstract in their turn have swayed and capti- intellectual idea, subjective and arbivated the minds of men, and which trary, not as one of those visions of the even professed to reconcile philosophy imagination which people dignify with with religion. But, brilliant as was the name of truth, but truth objective this epoch of our intellectual history, and demonstrable, sought for and with its men of genius and its works of seized upon in the concrete reality, art — much as it did for the emancipa- that is to say, scientific truth. This tion of taste and thought, and much as tendency of the time was so general, so it gave to both art and literature of life profound, so truly organic, that it charand color and newness, it still fell short acterizes, consciously or unconsciously, of fulfilling the hopes it had inspired. every form of intellectual production. It was mistaken in asserting as a basal We note its presence no less in the principle of art that liberty which is paintings of Meissonier, of Millet, of only one of its essential conditions. Bastien Lepage, and the open-air paintWith its superficial eclecticism, its con- ers than in the plays of Augier, no less fused syncretism, it was lacking in unity in the poetry of Leconte de Lisle, or of action, in definiteness of aim, in Hérédia, or Sully-Prudhomme than in organic principle. It had replaced the historical works of Renan or of conventions by new conventions, the Fustel de Coulanges, no less in the antiquated rhetoric of the classic writ- novels of Flaubert, Zola, or Maupassant ers by a rhetoric which from the first than in the writings of philosophers day seemed also faded ; it had fallen, like Taine himself. in its turn, into vague declamation and The movement had had illustrious noisy commonplace ; and it had made precursors; Héricault and Stendhal, the fatal mistake of supposing that ef- Balzac, Mérimée, Sainte-Beuve, and forts of imagination and flights of fancy Auguste Comite, and others besides could take the place of serious study these, had anticipated it. But it was and acquired knowledge, and that the not till after 1850 that scientific realism secret things of history and the human became the organic principle of intelheart could be got at by guess-work and lectual life in France. By that time it delineated with a clever sweep of the pervaded everything. Alike in poetry brush, Its philosophy, at the same and in the plastic arts we find the same time, had fallen into utter helplessness, striving after technical accuracy, the while obstinately refusing the fresh same effort to come to closer terms impulsion of the spirit of research with nature, to adhere more strictly which was even then creating a new to the historic verity. The novelists, science of nature and of man, and re- whether they are describing the present laying the experimental bases of psy- or reanimating the past, become scrupuchology.

lous in their observation of life and The generation which came to its full manners, and exacting in their demand age about 1850, or within some twenty for positive evidence. Flaubert emyears after, while it retained to a great ploys the same methods in depicting extent the legacy of the romantic school the manners of a Norman village as in

- its rejection of the antiquated rules describing those of the. Carthaginians of the classicists, its assertion of the during the war of the Mercenaries. freedom of art, and its hunger for life, Bourget analyzes the characters in a and color, and variety — nevertheless novel with the precision of a profestook a very distinct departure of its sional psychologist; and Zola goes the own. Instead of leaving an open field length of introducing physiology and for the play of individual sentiment or pathology. The poetry of Hérédia and imagination, and allowing every one to Leconte de Lisle is steeped in erudition,

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