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THE WAKING OF SPRING.
To us who must follow where love doth go, Now she has risen from the narrowed rift Than to those who never his footstep know. That was her grave, and, standing tall To them is the loss - to us is but gain ; and sweet,
There is no such thing as to love in vain. Fair scented breezes blow around - her Academy,
F. P. feet, And softened odors round her presence
drift. Now buds the primrose pale ; white violets
NAY ! let it pass ! Their påler faces where the hedgerows |'Twas but a hasty word, meet ;
Unthinking uttered as unwilling heard The honeysuckle round the lovers' seat Although upon my ear it strangely jarred, Opens her blue green leaves, and wakens A lifelong friendship shall not thus be swift !
Nay ! let it pass ! For all the world doth wake when Spring doth·wake,
Nay ! let it pass ! And once again love calls, and life is fair ; I will not answer so, The heart that seemed too sad a thing to Lest words on words to greater diff'rence break,
grow ; Beating responsive, gives a truce to care : Unguarded moments come to all — to me For Spring is here, and once more for her Oft needs the trust of loving charity ; sake
Then let it pass !
Then let it pass,
And not a thought remain
That bears not with the failings of a friend..
Yes ! let it pass !
JAMES Rock. “Nothing is sweeter than love; nothing stronger, nothing higher nothing fuller or better in heaven and in earth.” – Of the Imitation of Christ, Book III., Chapter V. Thomas A'Kempis.
UNTIL THE EVENING. Is it so hard a fate indeed, Ever to follow where love doth lead ? TIRED with the daily toil for daily bread, Never to catch a glimpse of his face,
The spirit slaving for the body's needs, Yet always to feel in every place,
The brain and nerve are dulled, and the
heart bleeds Forever to follow upon his track,
And breaks with grief of brooding thought. Knowing that never can love turn back ?
unsaid : But though love passeth thus on before, Yet earth is never the same as of yore;
Were we but born to labor and be fed ? Never the same as before he came,
To spend our souls in lowly, trivial deeds,
Mere sordid coin the crown of what sucAnd brightened all life with his burning
ceeds ? flame, What though he paused not before our Ah! yet press on, though with a fainting
treaddoor, Nor linger'd to cross our threshold o'er?
Till evening ends our work and stills our It was but an instant we saw him there,
cries ; Gazed deep in his soul, and found it fair ; Then we may find our lowness is our Found it so fair that never again
height, Can we, who looked deep in love's eyes in Our crown, the tasks we wrought with vain,
sobbing breath ; Ever regret the days past by
As common things a sunset glorifies, Ere we heard the footstep of love draw nigh. This life, at last, may robe itself in light All our life will he lighten the way ;
And stand transfigured at the touch of We follow him onwards, and brighter the death. day
Chambers' Journal. A. ST. J. ADCOCK.
THE COLLEGE OF FRANCE.
From The Fortnightly Review. papal authority, both at the college of
Sapienza and at the school of young THERE are men in all times who Greek, which Leo X. himself instituted, have an intuition of human progress, Long before also, under Clement V., who are able to single out the com- the Council of Vienne had decreed the mencement of the right path among the creation of chairs of Oriental languages numberless roads of error. Of such which, however, were never instituted, men consisted the little band of scholars probably from the difficulty of finding who at the beginning of the sixteenth occupants in the early part of the fourcentury were the pioneers of an institu- teenth century. The Paris professors tion which now occupies a unique posi- were content to remain inactive without.. tion in the world.
making any attempt to follow such good To appreciate the difficulties with examples, and when Francis I. began which these men had to contend and to to reign, their ignorance of Greek and forin a correct idea of the genesis of the Hebrew was very great. Of Homer, movement, it is necessary to glance at Æschylus, and Sophocles they knew the conditions of the times.
nothing, but Aristotle was known to The College of France had its birth them by Latin translations, and his sysat that critical period when Europe was tem of philosophy, being recognized as awakening to the new life of the Re- harmless by the faculty of theology, naissance. The cumbersome parapher- constituted their chief pride, although nalia of the scholastic methods was they knew it indifferently and becoming inadequate to meet the intel- pounded it badly. Aristotle was lectual wants of France. The famous tradition, and for two centuries no trivium of the Schoolmen, with its degrees had been granted by the unilimiited trinity of subjects, was proving |versity to those who had not made itself too artificial to remain unchal- themselves proficient in the opyavov. lenged. It had served too long as a the only portion of Aristotle's works cloak for ignorance and empiricism ; with which they were familiar. The fresh light was needed and independent profession of teaching had become scholarship was ready to offer it. The crowded with men whose attainments university which for three centuries were no longer worthy to command the previously had attracted students from high emoluments which they exacted every part of the Continent when learn- for an unnecessarily long course of ing was in clerical hands, was beginning studies. Many of them confined their to lose its reputation. Its doctors no labors to presiding at public competilonger attracted the immense audiences lions, deputing the work of tuition to of their predecessors, for their teaching badly paid subordinates, while they led had grown obsolete, and the students of a life of ease in ermine-trimmed gowns the period sought newer modes of and in the enjoyment of many privithought and wider fields of search. leges. Towards the Papal See they beThe different colleges of the university haved almost with indifference, and being governed by the Sorbonne, no when the Concordate was entered into innovations could take place in them between Leo X. and the king, they rewithout its sanction, and the prestige of fused to recognize it. Their allegiance their ancient fame had made the Sor- to the pontiff was confined to matters of bonnists extremely arrogant as well as doctrine, and they were unwilling to heedless of the changes which were extend it to any change which affected taking place in other countries. They
1 " Videre est anno 1517 Academiam Parisiensem were, indeed, less enterprising than the
libertatibus ecclesiæ gallicanæ maxime addictam, popes, for notwithstanding all that has summis viribus eniti, ut articuli de clero clerique been said of the part played by the disciplina inter Franciscum et Leonem X nuper papacy in the Renaissance, it is unde- compositi quod Concordatum nuncupant, supreme
curie auctoritate neque approbentur neque proniable that Greek and Oriental lan- mulgentur.” – Jourdain, Index chronologious charguages were being taught at Rome by tarum.
their material interests, preferring to ever, just to him to notice that from remain entrenched behind a formidable one motive or another he did not regret array of special charters which had the proposal and he did it the honor of been lavished upon them by popes and reflecting upon it for ten years. kings for centuries. I have not found The idea had taken root in the minds that a careful perusal of all their of men possessed of more tenacity pompous Latinity leads to any other than the irresolute monarch - men who conclusion than that the chief aim of knew the necessities of the times and the university from the beginning of the the inferiority of what the university sixteenth to the end of the eighteenth had to offer to meet them. They never century was to guard its privileges as wearied until, in 1530, the king was injealously as possible and to fiercely duced to appoint four professors, whom oppose all who in any way interfered he chose without reference to their with its prerogatives, whether Jesuits, university degrees, for some had none, Lutherans, heretics, or innovators. but for the special knowledge they were
This then was the declining state of known to possess of Greek, Oriental the University of Paris when Budé, the languages, and mathematics. He called king's librarian, principally seconded by this nucleus of the greater college, Etienne Poucher, the archbishop, who which he hoped to found some day, by seems to have been more liberal-ıninded various names, amongst which were than his colleagues, called the attention “ Royal readers,” “Royal interpret
” of Francis to the college, which had ers," " King's readers in the University recently been established at Louvain of Paris," and there was even a“ Greek under the patronage of the great Eras- writer " attached to his person, though mus, for the purpose of teaching by what his functions were it is difficult to inore perfect methods thau had hitherto
say. been known, even in the Low Coun- Numerous overtures had been made tries Latin, Greek, and Hebrew.1 to Erasmus to undertake the rectorship, The king was generally as ready to but he was either too highly paid by adopt a new idea as he was to tire of it Charles V. or too well informed of the after he had adopted it; but he was emptiness of the French treasury. He anxious to be known as a patron of hesitated for a long time and then learning and he took an interest in the finally declined when he saw the progsubject, promising his aid in the foun- ress of the Reformation and the indation of a similar college in Paris. creasing hostility of the Sorbonne. In
But amid the difficulties of the times, the strict sense of the word, the newly in the disastrous state of the finances appointed professors were peripatetic, caused by the Italian war, his acts were for no house was assigned to them. not always in accordance with his They were obliged to deliver their lecwishes ; in fact, they often took a very tures in hospitable colleges and, in opposite direction, and, if the portrait some instances, at street corners — a which Michelet gives of him be true, he fact which has been humorously alluded was utterly wanting in the strength of to by Rabelais, whose satires are perpurpose required for the pursuance of haps the best commentaries on the such a scheme as the new college manners of the times. The tuition which, after all, he seemed only to have they offered was entirely gratuitous. wished for in a timid, half-hearted way. There were no fees, no college disciHe was frightened, also, at the rapid pline ; all that was required from the strides which the Reformation was taking, and did not venture to aid it by a
2 “Pantagruel bien records des lettres et admo
nitions de son père, voulut un jour essayer son too open recognition of liberal studies, sçavoir, De faict, par touts les carrefours do la notwithstanding all the promises he ville mist conclusions, en nombre de neuf mille made by acts and charters. It is, how- sept cents soixante et quatre. . . . Et première
régents, artiens et orateurs et les mist touts de 1 Le Collége des Trois Langues.
cul.” – Pantagruel, Ch. x.
ment en la rue du Feurre tint contre toute les
students was a display of zeal and free-man of the world who had been at great dom from absolute poverty. From the pains to acquire the encyclopædic kind very commencement the Sorbonnists, of knowledge then in vogue. Paradis, as the heads of the university, de- a converted Italian Jew, was also known nounced the system as scandalous and in society ; he taught Greek and Heheretical, for it not only brought to brew, and Marguerite d'Angoulême light, by comparison, the deficiencies of was one of his pupils. . Oronce Finé their teaching, but it alsó tended to was unobtrusive mathematician, draw away from them the pupils by while Guidacerius and Postel whose fees they thrived. They be- Orientalists of merit. These were the grudged the professors their salaries, men who were bold enough one day to which they seemed to consider an issue public notices that on a certain alienated portion of their rights. In date and at a certain hour they would this last respect the danger was more interpret the Psalms in the Hebrew apparent than real, for numerous let- text or comment upon the Proverbs of ters among the archives exist to show Solomon. Here was the opportunity that the king was in the habit of pay, which the Sorbonne longed for. It ing, by orders on the treasury, which caused the notices to be torn from the were of so little value that several of walls, and Noël Beda petitioned the the royal readers lived in penury or Parliament, demanding that the royal sought assistance from their friends readers should be prohibited from erand relatives, while one of them was plaining any portions of the Scriptures obliged to discontinue his vocation for until they had first obtained the perwant of the means of subsistence.1 mission of the faculty of theology. Danes, one of the best of the early The Sorbonnists affected to think that professors, was obliged to suspend his the vulgate itself was in danger, but the lectures, being literally menaced with advocate who defended the fessors starvation.
so successfully attacked and proved the Yet because they were the cham- ignorance of the academicians, that the pions of progress and reason was on court rendered a colorless judgment their side, their lectures were followed which left the king's readers free to by the Eighest ranks of a society which continue their lectures. Subsequently, was especially fond of learning and not however, when the placards became too slow to recognize originality and excel- numerous and the chairs of the Sorlence of method. Among them there bonne were deserted for those of the cannot be said to have been any very professors, the king intervened in favor striking personalities, and it is unneces- of the older institution, and the nassary to give their biographies. For the cent college was neglected for a long present purpose a few indications will period by both king and Parliament, suffice. Vatable, who taught Hebrew, confronted as they were by such queswas a temperate, meditative man who tions as the dissensions in the royal seemed destined for a monastery. Cal- family, the foreign wars, and the spread vin and Ramus were his pupils. Danes of Calvinism. Then came the king's : the Hellenist, was, on the contrary, a captivity in Spain, during which the
lectures were entirely suspended. 1 The termination of a letter from Tusanus and This was the first stage of the moveVatable to Monseigneur du Bellay shows this clearly. After referring to some of the more for- ment, but a new era commenced with tunato professors who had friends at court, and the appearance on the scene of a man had, therefore, succeeded in being paid, it says: who had been a pupil of the readers, “Nos, qui non lenioribus, ut lenissime dicamus, but who had distanced all his masters. docendi laboribus assidue conflictamur, præteriti,
This interim fame premimur, Johanni Stracelio
was Ramus, to whom M. collegæ nostro jam ut necesse fuit, ad tempus Charles Waddington devoted an admiintermissis prælectionibus, in patriam se, ad cor- rable monograph some years ago. Rarogandum a suis, qua pie utatur, pecuniam conferre quam contumeliam, non ejus privatum sed Galliæ mus, by his genius and lucidity, gave totius communem nemo est qui non existimet." the real impulsion, and yet Francis,
with all his pretended culture, was un- | three languages in public, and that as able to discern his merit. He had those languages were now, thanks to passed through the university with him, in a flourishing condition, he had distinction, but when he took his de-ordered honest salaries and a few privgree the thesis he chose was a violent ileges to be allowed to the professors attack on the doctrines of Aristotle, who taught them. But the stipendis Which, as I have said, were, in a crys- were never regularly paid, and the royal tallized form, the great subject of the linguists continued to work chiefly for university. The doctors of the Sor- the honor of their profession. bonne were dismayed at his boldness, The opportunity which Ramus awaitbut he spoke with so much good sense ed came a few years after Henry II. and so convincingly that his oration was had succeeded to the “ Chevalier King. received with the greatest favor by his He was appointed to a chair of philosaudience. He then resolved to study ophy a subject he had been prohibthe less known writings of Aristotle ited from teaching since his trial — and which were not included in the six he came back into the arena with fresh books of the “Organon,” and the fruits vigor and even more advanced opinof his investigations were two books ions. “I will not stop,” he said, “ until published in 1543, entitled “Institu- I have delivered logic from the darktiones Dialectica ” and “ Animadversi- ness of Aristotle.” He was now able ones in Dialecticum Aristotelis." From to make known the result of all his the moment of their appearance there researches and classifications. His revwas trouble in the academic halls, and elations of unsuspected things astonthe discussions they excited were long ished the whole of literary Paris and and acrimonious. It seems incredible made him very popular. In his enthusito-day that a hostile criticism of a Greek asm he dealt heavy blows at accepteä writer's works should be the cause of ideas, and did not pause to reflect that litigation, and yet Ramus was forced to old institutions which have once renundergo a trial for it. Before the court dered good service have still a claim to he treated all the narrow arguments of be treated with respect even when they the Sorbonnists with contempt, and he have become obsolete. To Aristotle he puzzled his judges by quoting the re- suddenly opposed Socrates, and loudly marks of Cicero and Quintilian on proclaimed that the latter was the true Aiistotle. He was too erudite for his philosopher. Here was a heresy inaccusers, and they were obliged to con- deed ! Who at that period had ever tent themselves with a "remonstrance” heard of the philosophy of Socrates ? which they succeeded in obtaining What had he written ? Nothing ! Some against him. Being now precluded of the Sorbonnists had heard of him from teaching conscientiously, he ap- through Plato, but when Ramus dared plied himself to private study in his to say that he was superior to Aristotle, College of Presles, waiting until an the indignation of the university reached opportunity should arise of coming for its climax, and the rectors, Charpentier ward as an educational reformer. Up and Galland, being unable to coerce to his death Francis had been unable to Ramus while le enjoyed the king's discover any funds with which to endow protection, wrote pamphlets against him his. colloge. A short time previously, couched in abusive language according however, his conscience seems to have to the fashion of the times. He took reproached him, for he granted a char- no notice of them, but continued his ter in which he informed all whom it austere life of research, devoting an might' concern that the knowledge of hour daily to his lecture. Routine bad languages being a gift of the Holy grown to be a law. The pronunciation Spirit, he had already appointed a cer- of Latin was governed by the strictest tain number of persons 1 to teach the and most grotesque rules, and it is
amusing to think that it required all the 1 Personnaiges.
efforts of the royal professors to rescue