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no question as to his personal courage. That writer, who certainly evinces n That attribute he evinced with utter animus, may be warranted in statin recklessness when arriving, as was his that “the czar has been frequently ad wont, too late for a deliberate and careful cused of cowardice an indictment t survey, he galloped round the Turkish which, it must be admitted, many un positions on the morning on which began deniable facts lend a strong coloring o the September bombardment of Plevna, probability ; ” and he further tells o in proximity to them so dangerous that the emperor's aversion to ride o his staff remonstrated, and that even horseback, and of his dread of a hors the sedate American historian of the even when the animal is harnessed to war speaks of him as having “ exposed vehicle.” There is something, how himself imprudently to the Turkish ever, of inconsistency in his observatio pickets.” His son, the Grand Duke that “ Alexander III. may well be Nicholas, jun., in 1877 scarcely of age, contrast to his grandfather without de was nevertheless a keen practical sol- serving the epithet craven-hearted. dier, imbued with the wisdom of getting The melancholy explanation of th to close quarters and staying there. He strange apparent change between th was among the first to cross the Danube czarevitch of 1877 and the czar of 189 at Sistova under the Turkish fire, and may, indeed, lie in Mr. Lanin's state he fought with great gallantry under ment that “ Alexander's nerves hav Mirsky in the Shipka Pass. The broth- been undoubtedly shaken by the terri ers, Prince Nicholas and Prince Eugene ble events in which he has been a spec of Leuchtenberg, members of the impe- tator or actor." The term, surely rial house, commanded each a cavalry should not have been “shaken,” bu brigade in Gourko's dashing raid across “shattered,” if Mr. Lanin's testimon the Balkans at the beginning of the or information is to be accepted on campaign, and both were conspicuous this point. In 1877 Alexander did no both for soldierly skill and personal gal- know what “ nerves meant. He wa lantry in the desperate fighting in the then a man of strong, if slow, menta Tund ja valley. The Grand Duke Vladi- force, stolid, peremptory, reactionary mir, the second brother of Alexander the possessor of dull but firm resolu II., headed the infantry advance in the tion. He had a strong though clums direction of Rustchuk, and served with seat on horseback, and was no infre marked distinction in command of one quent rider. He had two ruling dis of the army corps in the Army of the likes : one was war ; the other wa Lom. A younger brother, the Grand officers of German extraction. The lat Duke Alexis, the nautical member of ter he got rid of ; the former he re the imperial family, had charge of the garded as a necessary evil of the hour torpedo and subaqueous mining opera- he longed for its ending, but, while tions on the Danube, and was held to lasted, he did his sturdy and loyal bes have shown practical skill, assiduity, and to wage it to the advantage of the Rus vigor. Prince Serge of Leuchtenberg, sian arms; and in this he succeedec younger brother of the Leuchtenbergs staunchly fulfilling the particular dut previously mentioned, was shot dead by which was laid upon him, that of pre a bullet through the head, in the course tecting the Russian left flank from th of his duty as a staff officer at the front of Danube to the foothills of the Balkan a reconnaissance in force made against He had good troops ; the subordina the Turkish force in Jovan-Tchiflik in commands were fairly well filled ; ar October of the war. He was a soldier his headquarter staff was efficient of great promise, and had frequently General Dochtouroff, its sous-chef, w: distinguished himself.

No unworthy certainly the ablest staff-officer in tl record, it is submitted, earned in war by Russian army. But Alexander was ] the members of a family of which, ac- puppet of his staff ; he understood h cording to Mr. Lanin, “personal cour business as the commander of t. age is not the striking characteristic.” Army of the Lom, performed his fur

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tions in a firm, quiet fashion, and enjoys the same advantage. The conwithal was the trusty and successful spirators on Elizabeth's side work by warden of the eastern marches.

the simple and easy process of not His force never amounted to fifty mentioning all the facts in the case, and thousand men, and his enemy was in that case the extraordinary one which considerably greater strength. He had makes the question of the guilt of the successes, and he sustained reverses, English queen an exact parallel to the but he was equal to either fortune ; charges against the Queen of Scots. always resolute in his steadfast, dogged Cumnor Hall was Elizabeth's Kirk-ofmander, and never whining for rein- Field ; Leicester was her Bothwell ; forcements when things went against Amy Robsart answers to Darnley ; and bim, but doing his best with the means if Elizabeth be really involved, her sin to his band. They used to speak of was greater than Mary's, for Darnley him in the principal headquarter as the had given Mary cause of deadly hatred, only commander who never gave them and Amy Robsart had done nothing to any bother. So highly was he thought harm Elizabeth. Here the writer must of there that when, after the unsuccess- frankly confess that he cannot believe ful attempt on Plevna in the September Elizabeth to have been guilty, while in of the war, the Guard Corps was arriv- his heart he is unable to acquit Mary. ing from Russia, and there was the But this belief is rather the result of temporary intention to use it with other intuition than of evidence. troops in an immediate offensive move- When Mary, Elizabeth's guest, was nient across the Balkans, he was named her prisoner in 1568, she was inforto take the command of the enterprise. mally tried, by a secret and slovenly triBut tliis intention having been pres- bunal, for being “act and part” in the ently departed from, and the reinforce- murder of Darnley, on the ambiguous ments being ordered instead to the evidence of the Casket Letters. The Plevna section of the theatre of war, English Commission decided nothing, the czarevitch retained his command except that Elizabeth was too good and on the left fank, and thus in mid-De- pure to admit Mary to a personal intercember had the opportunity of inflicting view. Elizabeth herself was anxious a severe defeat on Suleiman Pasha, not to see her captive, and she thus had just as in September he had worsted an excuse for not seeing her. But had Vehemet Ali in the battle of Arkova. the latter met in private, Mary might It is sad to be told that a man once so have appealed to Elizabeth as a sister resolute and masterful should now be in inisfortune. Seven short years ago the viction of shattered nerves ; it is Elizabeth had been in as manifest dansadder still to learn that he is a mark ger from a charge of complicity in murfor accusations of cowardice which der as Mary now was.

Much more Ir. Lanin appears to regard as well certainly and openly than Mary, before founded. He never was a gracious, far Darnley's death, ever encouraged Bothless a lovable man ; but, if Mr. Lanin's well, had Elizabeth encouraged the suit statements are accurate, his bitterest of Leicester. Meanwhile Leicester, or, enemies may well pity him now. He to speak more correctly, Lord Robert was a brave man fifteen years ago. Dudley, was a married man. His wife ARCH. FORBES. died suddenly and strangely. Eliza

beth was not advised by a council of her nobles to marry Dudley. She was

not beset and carried off by Dušlley. From Blackwood's Magazine. Mary, on the other hand, had her noSCANDAL ABOUT QUEEN ELIZABETH.

bles' request that she should marry THACKERAY says that Queen Mary Botliwell under their own hands, and has still admirers who “conspire for she might at least plead that Bothwell

He might have added forcibly carried her away, whatever we that the less fascinating Elizabeth also may think of the value of that plca.

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her in history.”

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Herein alone lay the difference between sion, or been resolute where he was her case, on a first view, and Eliza- irresolute, and “ made sikker,” as in beth's. Elizabeth did not marry Dud- the case of the Red Comyn. ley, though Cecil thought she did ; The fairest way of stating the circum Mary did, under stress of events, marry stances is to follow Mr. Froude, who is Both well. Had Elizabeth married not prejudiced against Queen Elizabeth, Dudley, and been attacked by the Duke and who discovered a curious comproof Norfolk and other nobles ; had she mising letter at Simancas. The point been defeated and fled into Scotland ; established by this letter is absent from had the Catholic cause been victorious ; the article which Canon Jackson wrote had Elizabeth been tried in Scotland as for the defence in the Nineteenth CenMary was tried in England, — then the tury (March, 1882). Nobody will accuse two cases would have been absolutely Canon Jackson of intentional unfairparallel. If no letters of Elizabeth's to ness. He was communicating certain Dudley were produced, on the other fragments of information found by himhand Elizabeth had told the Spanish self among the interesting manuscripts ambassador that Dudley's wife was of Lord Bath at Longleat, and no doubt “ dead, or nearly dead,four days be- his preoccupation with these may have fore Dudley's wife (who was in her obscured his general view of the probusual health) died by accident, or by lem. Still, as Thackeray says, he murderous design. This remarkable 66 conspires ” by this doubtless unwitstatement of Elizabeth's is carefully ting suppressio veri. left out of view by one of the persons In 1559 it was highly desirable that who “ conspire for her in history.” Elizabeth should marry, and secure the

It is plain, at least, that when Eliza- succession. On April 18 and 29, 1559, beth refused to see Mary in 1558, she De Faria, the Spanish ambassador, acted with sagacity. For Mary had an wrote to Philip : “ They tell me she is arrow in her quiver which must have enamored of my Lord Dudley, and will

- the statement that Eliza- never let him leave her side.” Now beth had been almost exactly in her Dudley had married, in 1550, when he own position. This has always been was about nineteen, Amy, daughter and evident to readers of Mr. Froude's first heiress of Sir John Robsart. Sir John's volume on the reign of Elizabeth, wife had been a Mrs. Appleyard, and though Mr. Froude, while bearing he had a son John, Amy's half-brother, heavily on Dudley, does not press for a of whom more hereafter. About the moment on the case as regards the married life of Amy and Dudley we queen. Probably most people take know little. Dudley was in the Tower their vague ideas of the affair from for Lady Jane Grey's affair, and was “Kenilworth,” in which Scott uses his released in January, 1554. customary freedom with facts. He Amy, as a letter of hers shows, was in dates " Kenilworth ” in 1575, when a position of trust, paying money for Amy Robsart had for fifteen years lain Dudley to some poor people in Dudley's in her grave in St. Mary's Church in absence, and staying with a Mr. Hyde, Oxford. He introduces Shakespeare as an old friend of the Dudley family, not already the author of “The Winter's far from Abingdon. Elizabeth came to Tale,” and, in brief, " composes ” his- the throne in November, 1558, and torical events as artists select and com- made her old companion Dudley her pose the features of nature in landscape. master of the horse. At this time he Scott absolves Leicester (as he calls was much about the queen's person by lim), and casts the blame on the vil- virtue of his office, moreover, lany of Varney, his man. Now, though will never let him leave her side,” says Varney does not appear conspicuously De Faria. It is now that Amy goes in the affair, Scott may have guessed to Cumnor Place, of which Forster right; retainers of Dudley may conceiv- was tenant; while Mrs. Owen, the ably have gone beyond their commis- I wife of its owner (the queen's physi

gone home

In 1557,

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cian), with two other ladies, Mrs. Fors- | Lord Robert Dudley “has sent instructer and Mrs. Odingsell, a sister of. Mr. tions to have his wife poisoned,” and Hyde's, were also there.

"all the dallying with us

(about the “Mr. Forster purchased the house queen's marriage) “is merely to keep from Dr. Owen after Amy's death,” Lord Robert's enemies in play till this and on his own death left it with a villany can be executed. I have learned charge on it, to Leicester. While they also certain other things as to the terms resided at Cumnor Hall, Amy and the on which the queen and Lord Robert Forsters had different servants. Fors- stand towards each other, which I ter died in 1572. Scott, who publishes could not have believed,” though he his epitaph, observes that his character, did believe that Elizabeth was possessed as given that authority, differs of a devil 13 On December 27, De. greatly from the churl of “Kenil- Quadra writes to the Bishop of Arras : worth." He was Leicester's chief con- "You would be astonished to know troller of expenses. Canon Jackson the things which take place here, but shows that Amy had millinery to her the less they are spoken of the better. heart's desire, though in the novel she I will not write of them.” had only one opportunity of “ shop

We now enter the last year of Amy ping.” When she went to Cumnor is Robsart's life, 1560. On August 27 not absolutely certain 6 not much be- Cecil “ dare not write" -to Throgmorfore the very last year of her life” ton in Paris

6 that he might speak. (1560), thinks Canon Jackson.

God send her Majesty understanding.” To return to De Faria's letters. In On September 25 Randolph answered a April, 1559, “Dudley is in such favor lost letter of Cecil's, of September 11. that people say she” (the queen) “ vis-Cecil's first words, compared with the its him in his chamber day and night.” reports bruited abroad by the French, This was not part of Dudley's duties as "so passioned my heart, that no grief master of the horse. “Nay, it is even that ever I felt was like unto it.” reported that his wife has a cancer on What had Cecil written on September the breast, and that the queen waits 11 ?. The news of Amy Robsart's death only till she die to marry him.” 2 was publicly known in London on that

Thus in April, 1559, Leicester was on day ! very familiar terms with the queen. We now come to the darkest hint of On no such terms was Mary with Both- all. The dates must be kept carefully sell. Meanwhile Leicester's wife, at in mind. On September 8 Amy RobCumnor probably, is believed to be sart died. On September 11 De Quadra dangerously ill. There was no truth in wrote to the Duchess of Parma. His that report. Whether the state of af- letter, in Mr. Froude's book, is headed fairs was conducive to Any's happiness “ London, Sept. 11..” He writes to any reader may conceive. On Septem- give information about “great and unber 7, 1559, Lady Sidney told the new expected matters.” Spanish ambassador, De Quadra, that i. “On the 3d” the queen had told there had been a plot to murder Eliza-him she would marry the archduke. beth and Dudley. Elizabeth, there

.

2. “She has just now!! (September fore, pretended to think of marrying 11) “told me dryly that she does not the Archduke Carlos. In October the intend to marry, and that it cannot Duke of Norfolk was speaking against be.” Dudley. Elizabeth also quarrelled with Between September 3, when the Cecil,

" for what cause God knows,' queen was determined to marry, and probably about Dudley. On November September 11, when she was deter15, 1559, De Quadra told Philip that rined not to marry, Amy had died, and

Leicester was free. i Canon Jackson, Nineteenth century, 1882, p.

3. De Quadra goes on : : Simancas MSS., ap. Froude, 1. 85. London,

3 Froude, i. 148.

After my

18.

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conversation with the queen” (which, Ross, “What a queen, and what a minas will be seen, must be that of Sep-ister !” tember 3)“ I met the Secretary Cecil.” These are the circumstances, these Now De Quadra, by "after my conver- words of the queen and Cecil, which sation with the queen," may mean Canon Jackson never even distantly

some days after,” but nobody would alludes to in his argument for the deread his words in that sense. Every fence. The queen's cause has also one would take them to mean, on Sep- been advocated by Mr. Gairdner.2 tember 3. Cecil said he wished to re- Mr. Gairdner tries to explain away tire from affairs. Dudley was “master Cecil's remarks to De Quadra. Cecil of the business of the State, and of only wanted to frighten De Quadra, the person of the queen,” with the in- and “his words must be construed actention of marrying her. The queen cording to the object he has in view." was moping in her palace,“ to the peril Cecil may have heard gossip about the of her health and life." “ Last of all, poisoning, “and even thought it nct he said that they (who?) were incredible." This is making a pretty thinking of destroying Lord Robert's character for Cecil; he not only tattled wife. They had given out that she against the honor of his queen, but he was very ill, but she was not ill at all ; tattled falsely. Mr. Gairdner omits to she was very well, and was taking care mention, as bearing on Cecil's real not to be poisoned.”

opinion, his letter to Throgmorton of So said Cecil on September 3, as far August 27 : I dare not write that I as we can gather.

might speak. God send her Majesty “The day after this conversation" understanding.” He admits Randolph's (September 4), “ the queen, on her re- acknowledged receipt of “information turn from hunting, told me that Lord of an extremely agitating kind,” as Mr. Robert's wife was dead, or nearly so, Froude calls it (September 11, Septemand begged me to say nothing about it. ber 23). These two coincidences Assuredly it is a matter full of shame Cecil's not daring to write what he and infamy. Since this was writ- thinks on August 27, and his desolating, ten” (on September 11) “ the death of secret letter to Randolph - coincide Lord Robert's wife has been given out with his conversation with De Quadra, publicly. The queen said, in Italian, and leave no doubt as to what was in Que si ha rotto il collo (she has broken his mind - the purposed poisoning. her neck). It seems that she fell down Now gossip about poisoning was natua staircase."1 Elizabeth, who was too ral, and not very important, when the pure to breathe the same air with Mary queen was so familiar with a married Stuart, was, according to her own min- man living apart from his wife. But ister, moping for love of a married when a minister believes in the story,

She stayed in the house to the alludes to it in private letters, and disperil of her royal health. On receiving cusses it with a foreign ambassador, news that the married man's wife was things look very black. Yet Mr. Gaird“dead or nearly so," she went out ner does not allude to these letters of hunting, and, for whatever reason, Cecil's. Mr. Gairdner next tries to could not keep her story to herself. show that when the queen told. De Yet the married man's wife was alive Quadra that Amy was “dead, or nearly and well, and only died, by an accident, so," she spoke after the event. But four days later. After which Elizabeth Amy was found quite dead; we are not renounced her express promise to marry merely“ nearly dead” when we have another suitor, the archduke. Of Ce- broken our necks, or had them broken cil, who told the tale, and of Elizabeth, for us. There could be no mistake we may say, as some one quoted by Mr. about the matter. It is precisely the Froude said of Mary and the Bishop of expression, “ dead or nearly so," which

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1 Sima icas MSS., ap. Froude, i. 278–281.

? Historical Review, i. 235.

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