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by 7. Reinigg. Collected from his Manuscripts, by E. Schræder. 2 Vols. 8vo. With Plates and Charts. Petersburg.--Caucasus, so celebrated in ancient and modern geography, is one of the primitive mountains of the old continent, which stretches its branches through Asia, and whose population, unlike other mountains, is so numerous, that it is supposed to furnish 600,000 men capable of bearing arms. The Caucasean nations differ in inanners and language, but resemble each other in bravery, independence, contempt of civilisation, and activity. Like the Arabs of the Desert, their time is divided between war and inactivity; nor would the last be interrupted, but for the desire of plunder. From the general resemblance in disposition, they might be taken for the same race; but their features and language differ, so that they must certainly be different tribes, whose origin is lost in the remotest antiquity.. .
The author visited these people five different times. Possessed of a spirit of observation, and acquainted with many of their dialects, he had an opportunity of collecting much new information. He assumed also the appearance of a Mahometan, and practised.physic-two circumstances which procured him access to the principal people, and removed all restraint.
On his return to Petersburg, where he enjoyed the office of counsellor of state, and perpetual secretary of the Imperial College of Medicine, he employed his leisure hours in collecting and arranging his materials, and completing his description of Caucasus and its inhabitants--the result of his numerous visits. Death however checked his labour; but his papers passed into the hands of M. Schræder, who has published them with great care, and enriched them with his own observations and some additions.
The work contains much curious information respecting the topography of Caucasus, the governinent, manners, languages, and religion of its inhabitants. There are few remarks on natural history; not that the author was inattentive to the subject ; but we are informed, in the introduction to the second volume, that this part of the manuscript could not be found.
Another manuscript, which has been preserved by the succes, sors of the author, relates to the opinion, that we may yet discover in the Crimea, and along the shores of the Euxine, the descendents of the ancient Goths, whose language has some ana. logy with the Low Saxon or German. We may find them very certainly in Saxony, Germany, and almost every part of Europe; but the dissertation is curious, and it occurs in the second volume, with the life of M. Reinigg, compiled by Gerstenberg.
The map of Caucasus is drawn by the author, and corrected by himself and lieutenant-colonel Thorzon. A copy of this, with one of the manuscripts, was presented to prince Potemkin, in the possession of whose descendents it may still remain: the original was communicated to the editors by lieutenant-colonel Thorzon. We may be tempted, on a future occasion, to give a fuller account of this work; but we wish to see it in the English language.
SWEDEN. Kong? Vetenskaps Academicus nya Hadlingar, &c. New Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences at Stokholm. Vol. XX. Of the Year 1799. 4to. Stokholm.-We have said, that we must resign every pretension to an extensive account of the memoirs of foreign academies, if we except only those of France. We do it however from necessity only, and with regret-a regret which we feel more acutely on turning over this interesting volume. The only consolation which we feel is, that some of the more important memoirs will occur to us in other collections.
Our readers may recollect—for the labours of this respectable society are not new in our annals—that the annual volume is divided into four parts, each, from its period, styled trimestre. The first contains seven memoirs. 1. On the determination of currents at sea, or a method of finding, while under sail, at three different periods and in three different places, the direction of a current by a signal from the shore. 2. Observations on M. Plouquet's method of deterinining, from the appearance of the lungs, whether a child has breathed. 3. A description of a pellicule (pterygium) attached to the eye from the birth, by J. G. Pipping. 4. Two cases produced by rheumatic affections, fatal in their consequences, by C. M. Bloin. 5. Observations on the tourmalin, by A. Modeer. 6. A description of some new species of Swedish insects, by J. Paykul. One of these is the dysticus, of which the author has described twenty-seven species, unknown to Linnæus in his Fauna Suecica. He has promised to publish the continuation of his discoveries in these memoirs. 7. On the effects which manual labour can produce, applied to machines moved with handles, by J. E. Norberg.
The second trimestre contains eight memoirs. 1. Experiments on living queen bees, by G. Adlermark. 2. A description of a new species of nutmeg from Ceylon and Java, by Thunberg. Myristica glomeraia, foliis oblongis acuminatis subtus tomentosis, floribus masculis, glomerato-capitatis. 3. Lampris, a new species of fish described by A. J. Retzius, unknown to Linnæus and Block, but described by Pennant, Sibrand, Stroem, Duhamel, Brunnich, and La Cépède. Brunnich calls it Zexs guttatus, and classes it among the abdominales— Os edentuJum; maxillis mediis; linguâ carnosâ latâ; membranâ branchiostegâ radiis sex ; foramen longum pone pinnas pectorales ; sternum osseum.' 4. Longitudes and latitudes of different places in Sweden, determined by astronomical and chronometrical observations, by N. G. Schulten. 5. Continuation of the description of new insects, by J. Paykul. 6. Extracts from a
meteorological journal, kept at Umea, in 1798, by D. E. Naezen. 7. A description of some polypi of the lungs, by E. Acharius. 8. Some new species of insects, described from his own collection, by S. J. Ljungh; viz. scarabæus marmon, crysomela bivittata, cicindela varians, papilio brigitta. · The third trimestre contains comparative tables of births and deaths which occurred in Sweden and Finland from 1771 to 1795, by H. Nicander. 2. A species of aphrodita, described by Modeer. 3. A method of finding curves, by means of analytic expressions of their tangents, No. I. 4. Botanical observations, and a description of a spergula stricta, a Swedish plant hitherto unknown, by Olof Swartz, accompanied with a plate.
The fourth contains a continuation of the tables of mortality; from which it appears that the population of Sweden increased, in this period, 15 in every 100. 2. A description of some improvements, applicable to vessels employed in distilling water, by J. E. Norberg. 3. Relation of a journey, undertaken at the expense of the academy of Pello, to examine whether the measure of a degree of the meridian, taken in 1739 by Maupertuis and other French philosophers, was exact, by J. Svanberg. The result is not very favorable to their predecessors' accuracy. 4. Extracts of astronomical observations, made in the observatory of Stokholm in 1799, by J. Svanberg. 5. Extract of meteorological observations made at Upsal during the year 1799, by D. E. Holmquist. The volume terminates, as usual, by lists of works and natural objects presented to the society.
Forsoek om Skaldekonsten, &c. An Essay on the Art of Poetry, in four Cantos ; followed by Remarks on the Swedish Versification. By the Count de Gyllenborg. Stokholm.–Our author is the patriarch of Swedish versification. Half a century is elapsed since the count and Creutz began to enrich Sweden with poetical compositions, which could vie with those of other polished nations. Such are the superiority and influence of these bards, that their works are still read as inodels of good style in that language. Gyllenborg has exercised his talents in many different lines. In the epic, in tragedy, and descriptive poetry, he has not attained the highest rank-nervi deficiunt animique : the spirit which shouid support the whole seems soon to flag. But in the lighier walks, where taste and good sense are chiefly requisite, he is excellent. His didactic satires, his philosophical odes, and his fables, merit our highest commendations.
The present poem is of this superior kind. The first canto treats of the general rules of poetry; the second and third of the different kinds, and their progress in different countries. In the fourth, he assigns to reason, to taste, and genius, their different offices. It may be observed, that he modestly calls his work an Essay on the Art of Poetry.
The count often imitates the grave good sense of Boileau, and the concise style of Pope, whom he calls the Homer of philosophy. But his own theory will not satisfy the philosopher. The definitions and classification proposed in the preface are vague and arbitrary.
The remarks on versification form the subject of a pamphlet. owing to a particular quarrel, which the author should not bave raised into such importance as to give it a place in the art of poetry
Stokholm. 2 Volumes. 8vo. Stokholm.--Not long since a description of the city of Copenhagen was published by professor Nyrup ; and, perhaps from the rivalship formerly noticed, the present author (M. Elers) now presents us with an account of the capital of Sweden. For this purpose he has uniced whatever the archives of the kingdom, public and private collections, could furnish; and though something may be deficient in historical accuracy and elegance of style, yet the work is amply rich in materials for the future historian.
Enough is already known of the situation and topography of Stokholm, the subject of the introduction. We shall speak rather of our author's account of the city and the castle. .
The founder of the capital of Sweden is unknown. The æra is from about 1250 to 1260 ; and the habitations seem to have been first occupied under K. Knut, the son of Eric the Holy.
About seventy years afterwards Birger Jarl introduced agricul. - ture into Sweden, surrounded the city with walls, and built the castle. In the second and third chapters we find the progressive improvements described; but it was only in the reign of Gustavus I. that wooden buildings were forbidden, and various laws enacted for the security and ornament of the city. The great church was erected in 1160, by Birger Jarl, and it contained formerly twenty-three altars and other antiquities. Jņ 1525 the first mass was celebrated in the Swedish language. The toleration was established in 1741, and in 1782 it was extended to the Jews. The marriage of a Jew with a Christian woman was at the same time allowed.
The fourth and fifth chapters contain an account of the establishment of markets, public places, fountains, bridges, churches, &c.
The sixth chapter offers a description of the statues erected in honour of the kings of Sweden. A great part of this would, to the English reader, be uninteresting; but we shall add a short account of that elevated to the honour of Gustavus III., wbich was completed in August 1799. It is situated on the shore, on the spot where the king landed after the war against the Russians; and it will be placed on a pedestal of porphyry. The height is eleven feet. The king is represented standing, holding in his right hand a branch of olive, and resting his left on the rudder of a ship.
In the seventh and eighth chapters the author speaks of some public establishments and buildings. In the ninth, of the extent of the city, and its population, which is estimated at 80,000. The number of houses is classed at 6000, which gives more than ten persons to each house ; but we believe the houses, like those in Edinburgh, contain more than one family. The tenth chapter treats of the ceremonies of coronation, holding of diets, and other solemnities. Eric Knutson was the first king, and was crowned in 1210.
The three chapters of the second part relate to the history of the castle, to the fortifications of the city, and the attacks to which it has been exposed, particularly at the time of the union.
The second volume, which contains an account of the suburbs, is divided into three parts. The first treats of the neighbouring islands. One of these is Ritterholm. Iu repairing a. Franciscan church, the following singular inscription was discovered:- Sex fuerunt eruntque causæ malorum in Suecia : 1. Proprium cominodum; 2. Latens odium; 3. Contemptus legum ; .4. Negligentia communis boni; 5. Favor improvidus in exteros; 6. Pertinax invidia in suos.'
The last two parts of this volume contain the history of the northern suburbs. We remark, in these, the monument erected to the memory of the abbé Micheliessi, the friend of Frederic the Great, by the counts Hoepken and Scheffer; a marble monument to the memory of a French actress, the inscription on which concludes with these remarkable words: Care viator, ut actâ vitæ tuæ fabulâ, felix decedas ;' and the opera-house built by Gustavus III.
A subsequent volume is promised, which will contain the rest of the topography of Stokholm, the history of the government of this city, of its commerce, industry, &c. Should it offer any thing peculiarly interesting, we shall certainly return to it.
DENMARK. K. A. Schonsboe Betrachbungen über das Gewächsreich in Morokko gesammelt. Observations on the Vegetable Kingdom, collected in a Journey through the Empire of Morocco, in the Years 1791, 1792, and 1793. By K. A. Schonsboe. Vol. I. 8vo. With two Plates. Copenhagen.—These Observations were originally written in the Danish language, and appeared in the collection of Memoirs of the Physical Class of the Royal Society of Copenhagen, published by M. Rafn. They are translated into the German by M. Markussen; and from this our account must be taken, as the original is not at present in our hands. The Observations, when complete, will forin a Morocco Flora. The plants are characterised and described according to the Linnæan system, in Latin, and (in the present volume) in German. It extends only to the octandria, except a few plants added in a supplement.