lace. If this be true, it must have been elevated upon a prodi.'' gious scale indeed an observation, nevertheless, which by no means opposes the idea ; for many of the warm baths of the ancients were constructed upon the most grand and luxurious plan imaginable. Those of Dioclesian, for example, if we may credit the testimony of Pietro Rossini, were so immense, that not less than three thousand two hundred persons were able to bathe at the same cime without seeing each other. The author has subjoined seven plates, illustrative of his conjecture. In ..XXI. Ode. By M. Lebrun.'. .

With this paper the volume closes. M. Lebrun's Ode is a paraphrase on the .Exegi monumentum ære perennius'of Horace, in which he takes care to assure himself of at least as large a portion of immortality as the Roman bard. A note, suppended to the first page of the poem, informs us that this piece, as is obvious, is intended to terminate the volume of M. Lebrun's Odes.' This information is highly necessary; for, in its present position, we could not avoid thinking, as we began to read it, that it had a direct and entire reference to the present volume of the Memoirs of the National Institute : and it still seems to us to answer a kind of double purpose. As to the Odes of M. Lebrun himself, we know but little of them ; yet the present will not save him from the perdition he seems so much to despise..

To the Memoirs is added an Appendix, comprising a notice of a book printed at Bamberg in 1462 by Albert Pfister, and contained in a volume presented to the National Library in the month of Pluviose, year 7. By M. Camus. The book here particularised is an imprinted missal in small folio, and in the German tongue. It consists of three parts: the first being a dialogue between Death and a person who has lost several beloved friends by his ravages--here entitled Complaints against Death, but by M. Heineche, who has also described the same book, an Allegory on Death. The second part comprehends the four histories; to wit, of Joseph, Daniel, Judith, and Esther.' The third, is a Biblia: Paupersim, or: Poor Man's Bible; by which denomination is meant extracts from the Bible:collected about the ninth century, for the use of those whose: poverty prevented them from purchasing the Bible at largell or whose constant routine »of labour: from perusing it. M. Camusica tends that the present is the only copy: extant of this drettet early publication, and that it is the identical volume announced by M. Steiner, in Meusel's Historical, Literary, and Bibliograst phical Magazine, printed at Chemnitz in 1792, to have been then just discovered. The chief'use of the book, so far at least as it appears to us, is to prove that the art of printing wasi known at anæra somewhat earlier than that to which its invention is ordinarily attributed... fi...!;; ... ... Ocool cu

We have now finished odr review of the second voluine pab. lished by each of the three classes into which the National Institute is divided; and are in consequence enabled in some measure to appreciate the talents of its contributors, and the utility of their lahours. Having already offered a few observations upon the papers afforded us by the Physical and Mathematical department, we shall here confine ourselves to the two classes whose inémoirs are alone noticed in the present article : 'and the first extraordinary fact that strikes us, is the paucity of those who have contributed tờ the publication. Upon the avesage, every class consists of about one hundred members, each of whom ought to have contributed, in turn, something worthy of public inspection. The first volume, however, of the class of Moral and Political Sciences consists but of seventeen memoirs, and these the production of eleven inembers alone. This want of variety in the first volume we were ready to suppose orj. ginated from the actual state of France, and the infancy of the establishment itself; and we had no doubt that it would be amply compensated in the volume which was to succeed. Our readers will, however, be astonished to find, on a re-perusal of our analysis, that the second volume of the same class comprises not more than twelve inemoirs, which are the joint production of only five contributors out of very nearly one hundred members, of whom this class consists. The class of Literature and Polite Arts, as embracing a greater variety of subjects, presents us, undoubtedly, with a greater variety of writers; but our readers will think the same observation applicable, when, on a retrospect, they calculate for themselves that the first volume of this department contains not more than twenty-nine memoirs, composed by twenty-one members, several of which are short poetical effusions; and that the second comprises only twenty memoirs, of which thirteen are the production of five members alone. Is it that the great body of the Instituce are indolent or incapable, that the entire task of composition is thus devolved on a handful of the more active and industrious ? or that, as sometiines: unfortunately occurs in other public societies, it requires no sinall. degree of personal interest to obtain an introduction to the public eye.? Be this as ic may, the want of a sufficient váriety both of writers and subjects' cannot but be felt by every one who critically peruses the labouts of the Institute, and is the unquestionable cause, why complete treatises on particular topics, amounting occasionally to up. wards of 200 pages, and constituting each of them a bulky vo. lume of itself, are thrust into the present publication under the misapplied namc of Memoirs. As to the style of the writers here presented to us, we may say of all of their in general, that it is too loose and diffuse ; that, in many instances, no clear idea is communicated of the author's object and intention;, while, in ipany of the more abstruse and metaphysical papers, when an idea is once attempted to be rendered precise, and, if we may he allowed the expression, tangible, it is lost in a wood of words, and we are compelled to begin the hunt again, and retrage the ground we had already trodden. Were most of the articles compressed into half the space, they now occupy, they would be at least: doubled in their valuci the writer's object would in general be rendered, far inore clear and comprehensive; and he would be disburdened, in inany instances, of a vast incumbrance of idle and affected learning, which discovers inore of the superficial pedagogue than the profound bụt unobtrusive scholar. ro

These and other similar objections--we now speak from personal knowledge—have bitherto operated against presenting the Memoirs of the National Institute to the public in an English dress. We know that arrangements for this purpose have been twice attempted by different scholars well qualified for the task ; but, from the defects 'we have now summarily pointed out, the version in 'both instances has been 'relinquished, and we have now no idea of seeing any such attempt revived. .

The National Institute is howeyer but at present in its infancy; it has had many difficulties and perplexities to struggle with ; it was born in the midmost uproar of thunder and tempest; and perhaps we should, after all, rather express out surprise that it has been capable of maintaining its existence at all, than that it should have made no further progress towards perfection. Constituted as it seems to be for many of the best purposes of science, the sincerest wish of our heart is-Esto PERPETUUS:': * We have received the third volume of the different classes, and shall commence a critical analysis of them in our next Appendix.“


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yigimi ta si ve bungeni ART. V.-Vie Polémique de Voltaire, ou Histoire de ses. Proscrip

tions, avec les Pièces justificatives. Par G****yParis. 1802. Polemic Life of Koltaire, or Histong of his Proscriptions , with windir 2. catory Papers. By G****y. 8vo. a Imported by De Boffeast


HIHEvanity and irritability of Voltaire are well known; and the arch-poet of France, with Boileau, and our own count tryman Pope, may well justify the sarcasm, and establish the title of 'genus irritabile. Neither could beat a brother near his, throne;' and Jean Baptiste Rousseau, Quinasilio and Theobaldo with many others, might have descended to posterity with no inti considerable credit, had they not encountered, the grey gooset; quill of these satirists, Perhaps, indeer, we išjur i Plops and

Boileau by classing them with Voltaire. They were goaded by abuse long before they retaliated; but they retaliated at last with little mercy, and not always with justice or discrimination. Voltaire, on the contrary, had always a quill to direct on every side where he did not find a flatterer, or sometimes where any thing smart or witty occurred. Neither friendship nor obligations could check the sarcasm which he thought might in the end redound to his own credit. It is not singular, therefore, that his polemic life fills a large volume. We have read it with pleasure, because it recalls the little disputes which once entertained us; and with some information, as explaining what, perhaps from the distance of the scene, was before unaccountable. The work commencés with spirit and elegance. : )

· The life of the great Condé, painted in the gallery of Chantilly, represented, on one side, the Historic Muse tearing from the collection of that prince's actions the leaves that contained those in which he opposed his king and his country: on the other side the hero stops the trumpet of Fame, preparing to publish both his good and his bad actions. If the statues erected to Voltaire had thus represented him treading under foot the infamous collection of pamphlets published in violation of truth and decency, and the poet rejecting, with an air of indignation and tears of penitence, that pen of iron and dirt, which has mangled religion and destroyed the characters of literary men, we would willingly have dispensed with the publication of the present work. But far different were these sentiments from those of the hero of literature. He never wished to check the progress of those publications which have sullied his glory. In his extreme age we have seen him give a new current to the bitterness of his bile; direct fresh attacks against Christianity, and those who defended and respected it. We may say that his genius acquired new vigour when inspired by hatred or impiety,'

M. G****y next explains his object more clearly, 'and the plan which he has followed; but the work does not require such minute detail. · We shall give the outline of the contents, and some specimens of the author's manner, which is on every occasion manly and judicious. He shows a regulated zeal in favour of religion, decency, and propriety, which strongly interests us in his favour. . · The first antagonist of Voltaire was Jean Baptiste Rousseau, the Pindar of France. The genius of Jean Bapriste, who must not be confounded with Jean Jacques, was not of the first class; and he had faults-sufficient to justify the criticism, though not to justify the critie, who had been patronised by Rousseau in his early youth, and was only offended by his

not joining in general indiscriminate applause of Voltaire's first works, particularly that of Zara.

The abbé Desfontaines offended Voltaire by some judicious and moderate reflexions' on the Death of Cæsar; but, if we recollect rightly, however judicious, they were by no means moderate. Voltaire, however, did not carry his resentment so high as in the first instance; and the effects are little known beyond the country which gave them birth.

Maupertuis, president of the Berlin Academy, was another antagonist of Voltaire ; and at this moment we cannot properly appreciate the merits of the dispute. The author, as usual, adopts the cause of the president. Maupertuis was not a very acute philosopher, nor a brilliant genius*; and Voltaire, who undoubtedly irritated him by accusing him of plagiarism from Leibnitz, was irritated in turn by the king's adopting the cause of the president. We find in this volume an explanation of Frederic's conduct; which Voltaire, in his Memoirs, represents as unreasonable and capricious. Voltaire cannot answer for himself; but this narrative is supported by collateral evidence. We shall add Voltaire's letter to the secretary of the Berlin Academy, as it has never yet been published in his works.

Mr., eternal, Secretary, .I send you the death-warrant which the president has issued against me, with my appeal to the public, and the pros tections sent me by all the physicians and apothecaries of Leipsic. You see that the president does not confine himself to the experiments which he projected in the northern regions, and that he is resolved to separate in the north my soul from my body. It is the first time that a president has wished to kill one of his counsellors. Is this the principle of the least action +? What a terribie man is this president ? He declares himself guilty of forgery on one hand, and assassinates on the other; and proves the existence of a God by “ . In truth I have seen nothing like it; but, sir, I have made one little re

flexion. When the president has killed, dissected, and buried me, he must pronounce my éloge to the Academy, according to laudable customs. If this should be his lot, he will be somewhat embarrassed. We know how much he was so with the marshal de Sch-metteau, to whom he had given some uneasia ness during his life. If you, sir, make my funeral oration,

* Even his accuracy in the measurement of a degree of the meridian in the arctic circlc has lately been impeached.

† The subject on which it was asşerted that Maupertuis had stolen from Leibnitz.

App. Vol. 34.

20 .

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