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competency for the undertaking may in some measure be de cided from the following learned and correct remark.
• It remains yet to be determined, whether, if the body were placed in this position, it would be a posture chosen to enable it to look towards the east on its resurrection; for such is the position affected in their funerals by those ancient nations who worshipped the sun; such was also that adopted by the Christians, who were only a sect of the religion of Mithra, in which the sun was the object of divine adoration.' · But the times are changed: and our profound antiquaries have, no doubt, before this time joined in the splendid train of the great consul, and been themselves admitted into this sect of the Mithraïc mythology. .
• IX. On the Work entitled Περι θαυμασιων Ακέσματων, (D. mirabilibus Auscultationibus), printed among the writings of Aristotle. By M. Camus. · The critics and commentators upon Aristotle have differed in opinion concerning the author of this collection of extraordinary facts, as well as upon the title itself, which it ought to sustain. Casaubon denominates it Ακοσματα θαυμασια. Ρ. Victorius, as cited by Fabricius, asserts that in one codex he had seen it named Ilagadotwy. The more common mode of entitling it, however, is that adopted by our author; which is variously rendered by the different Latin interpreters-De mirabilibus Auscultationibus, De miraculis Auditis, and De admirandis Nurrationibus, As to the various opinions concerning the writer of this work, M. Camus arranges the authors of them in four classes:--1. Those who affirm that it was written by Aristotle, and that he composed it with the same views as his History of Animals. 2. Those who deny that Aristotle ever composed it, or at least the philosopher of that name who was the tytor of Alexander the Great. 3 and 4. Those who regard it as a production of the Stagirite, but not an express treatise written upon the subject to which it pretends: the former of these asserting, that it contains a mere isolated collection of facts and anecdotes, collected partly by Aristotle himself, and, partly by his assistants; and the latter, that it is a mere compilation from other works of that philosopher, by some unknown and later hand. The opinion of M. Camus is in complete consonance with the third of these classes of critics, with the exception alone that this collection of extraordinary recitals has been considerably augmented by writers posterior to the age of the original author. To this opinion are appended several remarks upon the work itselfgenerally explanatory, and often ingenious.. '
X. 'On Types constructed for Moneys, compared with those for Medals, By M. Mongez. .
The composition and the choice of types for moneys dges
not entirely depend upon taste and inclination; it is subordinate to a knowledge of the art of minting. Medals are frequently struck with not less than twelve or fifteen successive blows of the balance, and during this time, are often exposed to the fire till they acquire a red heat, that they may assume the impression more readily and correctly. Economy, however, and the necessity of a large coinage, render a different proceeding indispensable in the minting of moneys. To attain both these objects, it is requisite to employ great expedition, and to make use of not more than a single stroke of the balance or graver. The types employed must therefore be of very different materials; and we cannot be surprised at finding many of the ancient medals, in the construction of which a vast portion of time and labour was expended, finished in a much more perfect style than the common coins of the present day. If the medal appeared imperfect, it might be struck over a second, or even a third time, with a trifling loss of value; for it was generally composed of bronze : but it is obvious that, in the case of minting, and in the higher coins particularly, this can never be attempted—the artist being limited to the most scrupulous weight, and encountering moreover a loss of metal by a repeti. tion of the impression, which would soon terminate in his ruin.
'XI. Ode of a philanthropic Republican against Monarchy. By M. le Brun.
We cannot trace the philanthropy of M. le Brun in these verses; but he is at least resolved that this hatred of monarchy shall not be so questionable. Exempli gratia:
“O nation! ne cède plus tes droits:
Rien ne détruit l'indomptable nature;
O, with your rights, no more ye people part:
Kings must be kings, and tigers tigers still:
XII. Ode of a philanthropic Republican against Anarchy. By M. le Brun.
Our poet seems to dislike anarchists rather more than kings, violent as his aversion is to the latter; and, if we may judge from the increased degree of spirit, manifested in the present ode, he has been a greater sufferer since the revolution than before it.
• XIII. Observations on the two first Books of the Politics of Aristotle. By M. Bitaubé.'
These observations are divided into three distinct memoirs. · The first offers us an analysis of the principles of Aristotle upon.. the elements of civil society. The second contains an analysis of his principles upon community and the equality of property. of Eurysthes, who was inurdered by the Athenians. M. Mongez denies that they were either of them gladiators, or even heralds. The introduction of his memoir is intended to prove that the former were universally selected, both among the Greeks and Romans, from slaves, or the lowest and most despicable of the people ;, that they were at all times held in utrer contempt; and that we have no proof whatever of the existence of a single sculp, ture in honour of any of them: and he concludes, without any individual appropriation of either of these statues, that the first represents an unknown Grecian hero or gymnastic, whose pron fession was as much honoured as that of the gladiator was
The third examines the opinions of different philosophers and other celebrated writers of antiquity upon the ancient republics. We cannot follow our author with any sort of detail through the whole of this extensive paper, occupying not less than 128 pages. It is sufficient to observe, that M. Bitaubé has studied his subject with a very creditable application ; and has introduced a variety of remarks, many of which, if carried into practice, will assuredly prove advantageous to the welfare of his country. The whole paper is obviously designed for the meridian of the French republic, and the present epoch of its constitution.
XIV. On Gladiators, and two antique Statues known by the Name of Gladiators. By M. Mangez.'.
Of these statues, the first is the gladiator of the Villa Borghese, dug up from the ruins of the ancient Antiurn, now Porto d'Anzio, during the pontificate of Paul V, which extended from 1605 to 1621, The second is generally denominated, from the anguish represented in the muscles of his countenance, the dying gladiator, It formerly embellished the gardens of the Villa Ludovisi ; and an engraving of it was given to the world by Nerrier in 1638, under the denomination of the dying Mirmillo. These are both among the Italian spoils of Bonaparte, and decorate, at the present hour, the Museum of Paris. M. Mongez, in this memoir, follows closely the steps of the learned and, upon the whole, accurate Winkelman; and only differs from him in points in which he is completely supported by historical facts and characteristic sculptures or engravings. It is impossible that both these statues can be designed as representations of gladiators'; for nothing can be more unlike than the one to the other. That of the Villa Borghese, is one of the most beautiful of antiquity; the hair is short, and elegantly curled over the head, according to the Greek costume; the face is without either beard, whiskers, or inustachios; every muscle preserves the most perfect tranquillity; and the general result gives us the idea rather of a god or deified hero than of a man, The countenance of the supposed gladiator of the Villa Ludovisi is, on the contrary, ferocious in the highest degree: every myscle is diagnostic of extreme pain ; the upper lip is surmounted with a broad and savage mustachio; and the hair of the head much longer than in the foriner statue, and falling in disorderly curls over the ears and eye-brows. Winkelman, who admitted that the first might have been a gladiator, and had no objection to the name of Bato, by which it was commonly designated, denied that this last delineated the same profession, and rather believed it to have been the statue of a Grecian herald, and to have represented either Polyphontes, who was slain by Edipus, together with his master Laius, king of Thebes; or Copreas, the herald
vilified; and the second, a slave or barbarian in the act of dying, · He has added three plates, illustrative of his subject and opinion. ..XV. Ossian's last Hymn. By M. Chenier,' in.
The character of M. Chenier as a poet is well known from his former productions; and it will not be impaired by the prea sent effusion, which is in fluent but irregular verse ; carefully manufactured, but deficient in sublimity and characteristic ab, ruptness.
XVI. Project with respect' to several Alterations by which Catalogues of Libraries may be rendered more durable (plus constitutionnels); with Observations on the Character, Quali. ties, and Functions of a true Librarian. By M. Ameilhon.'
We have formerly noticed a memoir on the same subject by M. Camus, inserted in the antecedent volume. The present was written and read to the Institute prior to M. Camus's production, to which in reality it gave birth, and which in some ineasure was designed as an answer to it. This of M. Ameilhon was intended and, in point of regularity, the intention should have been executed to have preceded the other in the list of memoirs į but not having been sent to the Institute tiine enough for appearing in its proper place, the class, to whom it was ad. dressed consented to insere it where it now exists. The plan proposed contaiņs many excellent regulations; and we entirely agree with our author, that the office of a public librarian should be highly honoured and respected, and that the care and protection of public libraries should only be confided to literati of the first degree of inerit.
XVII. Man and his Conscience, a Dialogue. By M. Collin Harleville. .
This colloquy is a verse production, in which the passions, predominant inclinations, and actions of the man, are severely, questioned by the vicegerent of his bosom. The advice given by the latter, whether relative to religion or morals, is altogether unexceptionable.: the former engages to follow it; and they eventually part in perfect friendship.
XVIII. On the different kinds of Spartium spoken of by the Ancients. By M. Aineil on.'
· Spartum or spartium, though now properly confined by botanists to the plant called Spanish-broom, was formerly extended to the genista, or common-broom of the heath. Prior to the use of fax and hemp, it was generally employed in the manufacture of ropes and cordage, whence spartum has been derived by many etymologists from OTELSW, or omegaw, to roll or wind round. M. Ameilhon dislikes the cominon derivation, and of: fers another in its stead. Originally, the Greeks denominated the genista or broom.oxoivos, which, in consequence, became shortly afterwards a common term for a band or cord; as, from juncus in Latin, which is another name for the genista, was perhaps derived the term jung, jungere, to tie or join together. He endeavours to prove that the spot most celebrated for the growth and manufacture of the orxoivos, or broom, was Sparta and its vicinity; and that this Spartan cordage, or oyoivos, was hence, in process of time, designated by the name of the place whence it was chiefly vended, as well as the plant of which it was manu- ! factured; in like manner as we now denominate many of our hempen cloths Russias, and our linens Irishes. There is no end to etymologies; but the present may at least stand till a better take its place.
• XIX. The Siren and the Voyager. By M. Selis.'
Another short colloquy in rhyme, which we have seen inserted in several of our own newspapers ; for which it seems much better calculated, as a mere jeu d'esprit, than for its present position among grave and critical memoirs. .XX. Antiquities of the Town of Treves. By M. Peyre.'
Treves is one of the most ancient towns of Gaul; and it becomes more interesting still by the immense number of ancient monuments which it yet exhibits, by its vast extent, and its situation on the Moselle, a powerful river, which, after mæandering through a valley embellished on either side with the most beautiful hillocks, unites its waters with those of the Rhine, at Coblentz, at the distance of about twenty leagues. Hither Constantine frequently resorted, as to an asylum from concerns of state ; and in earlier periods still it was the Elysium of the Romans. At the present day, its numerous vestiges of antique monuments, its superb Gothic buildings, its magnitcent palaces, its modern churches, enriched with invaluable paintings, and ornamented with marble pillars, the beauty of its streets, and the clear abundant waters that enliven them, its variety of public places, embellished with perpetual fountains, groupes of statues, and other sculptures in bronze and marble, cannot fail to afford infinite entertainment to the young traveler who occasionally makes it his residence. The principal object of M. Peyre, however, is to prove that the extensive range of ruins upon which one of the gates of the town as well as one of the churches are erected, was formerly a bathing-pa
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