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Art. 34. -A Letter to Sir Walter Farquhar, Bart, on the Subject of a · particular Affection of the Bowels, very frequent and fatal in the Easto
Indies. 8vo. 25. Cadell and Davies. 1801. ' We are much pleased with this short account of a disease which to us is new. The author relates, with great simplicity and candour, but with equal judgement and discrimination, the appearances of the disease, and its remedies. It would be well if other complaints were so satisfactorily described.
• The disease of which I speak, and which is, by much, the most acute and fatal I have met with in India, is an inflammation of the colon, attended, from the beginning, with a severe fixed pain above the pubes ; with extreme difficulty of making water, and frequently an entire suppression of urine. There is, at the same time, a violent and almost unceasing evacuation from the bowels, of a natter peculiar to the disease, and which I cannot describe more correctly, than by observing that it exactly resembles water in which raw flesh had been washed or macerated. There is always a very high fever, with unquenchable thirst and perpetual watchfulness. The pulse is extremely hard, frequent, and strong, resembling that which takes place in the highest degree of pleurisy or the most acute rheumatism; and there is a burning heat in the skin, which leaves a sensation on the finger, as if it had touched a piece of heated metal.
• The fixed pain above the pubes, together with the peculiar evacuation above described, and the suppression of urine, may be regarded as the diagnostics of this disease, which will, on every occasion, sufficiently distinguish it from all other disorders of the intestines. These three leading symptoms are so constant and invariable, that, having always found them existing together when I was first called to see the patient, I had often great difficulty in ascertaining the exact order in which they arose ; for the first approaches of disease are either disregarded or not accurately marked by the persons affected. Some of the patients told me that the fixed pain and purging began at the same time; others, that the pain preceded; and others, that they had been suddenly seized with a purging, which, after a few hours' continuance, was followed by the fixed pain and strangury. This last, though a constant, is, no doubt, a secondary symptom, depending on the previous affection of the colon : but with respect to the fixed pain and evacuation, they appeared, in all severe cases, to have begun so nearly at the same time, that I could not determine, with precision, which followed or which preceded the other.' P. 3•
From dissection, the colon seems to be primarily affected, and the bladder suffers only from communication, as the lower part of the large intestine is generally inflamed. Tenesmus sometimes occurs ; but the distinction between it and dysentery is sufficiently obvious from what we have transcribed. Bleeding seems useful; but opium, given in the commencement, is the most effectual remedy. If delayed till the fever supervenes, it is injurious, and can only be admitted on the decline of the complaint. The remedies then are enollient clysters and drinks, with fomentations above the pubes, which are more useful than blisters. Similar symptoms occasionally succeed after the usual fluxes of India : but they then are only a sé. condary complaint, and are to be managed in the same way. Art. 35.- Some few Cases and Observations on the Treatment of Fistula • in Ano, Hemorrhage, Mortification, the Venereal Disease, and Stric, tures of the Urethra. By John Andrèe, M. D. & c. 8vo. 25. Nicol.
These cases have unaccountably escaped us ; which we regret the more, as in some points to which they refer we have been obliged to find our own way without assistance. Fortunately we have not greatly differed from our author. Fistula in ano may, he remarks, be often cured without the operation, by attending to the patient's health, and avoiding irritation, or using only a gentle compress. Indeed the health should be particularly attended to; for they are often depositions from the mere efforts of nature, and, on the discharge being stopped, the original disease returns. · In hæmorrhages from wounds, the artery, when tied, should always, in our author's opinion, be brought to the sight. In a violent internal hæmorrhage from the intestines, he succeeded by placing the patient in a washing-tub, and repeatedly pouring pails of cold water on the belly.
In mortification, attended with pain, Dr. Andree thinks opium even a superior medicine to the bark. As an antisyphilitic, he conceives the nitrous acid not effectual, though it may relieve some obstinate Venereal symptoms when mercury has been long .continued and disagrees. He dissuades the application of mercurial ointment to chancres, and prefers dry lint. Some fixed pains, which remain after salivation, he remarks, are often rheumatic, and may be cured by the sarsa, a milk diet, and free air. In this observation most practitioners will agree with him.
Some cautions are added respecting the use of caustics; and Dr. Andree advises that they be not employed till bougies have absolutely failed. Art. 36.-Experiments upon the Circulation of the Blood, throughout
the vascular System : on languid Circulation : on the Motion of the Blood, independent of the Action of the Heart: and on the Pulsations of the Arteries. By the Abbé Spallanzani. With Notes, and a Sketcb of the Literary Life of the Author ; by J. Tourdes, M. D. &c. Translated into English, and illustrated with additional Notes ; by R. Hall, M. D. &c. 8vo. Is. Boards. Ridgway. 1801. We noticed the original of this work in the Appendix to our 29th volume, p. 544, and need only announce the present translation. It appears sufficiently correct and elegant. The additional notes are not numerous, nor are they important. ART. 37.--The Doctrine of Phlogiston established, and that of the
Composition of Water refuted. By Joseph Priestley, LL.D.F.R.S. &c. 8vo. 35. 6d. "No Publisher's Name.
This is the lelum imbelle, sine ictu, of a veteran in the science of the. 'conquered Priam. To engage in the coutroversy at present would
be useless : but many facts which readily admit of solution, accord. ing to the new doctrine, are urged with a pertinacity bordering on prejudice. It is singular, that, in theology as well as philosophy, Dr. Priestley will allow no one to change his opinions except himself.
AGRICULTURE, &c.' ART. 38.—The System followed during the two last years by the Board
of Agriculture further illustrated; with Dissertations on ihe Growth and Produce of Sheep and Wool, as well Spanish as English. Also, Observations upon, and a new Plan for, the Poor, and Poor Laws.
To which are added Remarks on the Modes of Culture and Implements of Husbandry, used in Portugal ; and an Inquiry into the Causes of the late Scarcity, and Means proposed to remedy it in future. By
John, Lord Somerville. Illustrated with Plates. 410. il. Is. Boards. Miller.
This system, the observations on the English wool, and the su. periority of the Rhyeland sheep, have been already before us in dif. ferent publications; and we have expressed our full approbation not only of the plan of manufacturing English cloths with English wool, but of the great probability of being able to effect it, if the whole system be not entirely destroyed by the gross Leicestershire and Lincolnshire breeds. No observation that we have yet been enabled to make has convinced us that the meat and the wool are not materially injured by thus adding to the bulk and the fat of the animal.
The other parts of this volume are highly useful, particularly the employment of oxen in drawing, as managed in Portugal. It reminds us of an omission in our account of the Agricultural Survey of Lincolnshire, where this subject particularly occurs, and where the slowness of oxen is considered as a drawback upon their other advantages. We intended to have remarked that this is only a partial inconve. nience, and by no means to be put in competition with the other circumstances which lead us to the employment of other animals in husbandry, as preferable to oxen. The remarks on the poor's laws are not of peculiar importance. Art. 39.—The Gentleman and Farmer's Assistant ; containing, first,
Tables for finding the Content of any Piece of Land, from Dimensions taken in Yards. Second, Tables, showing the Width required for an Acre in any square Piece of Land, from one to five hundred Yards in Length. Third, Tables, showing the Number of Loads that will manure an Acre of Land, by knowing the Distance of the Heaps. Fourth, a Table for measuring Thatcher's Work, from one to sixtyfour Feet long, and from one to twenty-five Feet high. By John Cullger. 12mo. 2s.6d. Bound. Scatcherd.
This is a useful work for both gentlemen and farmers ; as from it they may with great ease measure their land, determine upon the most profitable method of manuring it, and decide with accuracy upon a variety of expenses incidental to agriculture.
EDUCATION. ART. 40.-A Rhetorical Grammar : in which the common Improprieties in
Reading and Speaking are detected, and the true Sources of elegant Pronun iation are pointed out. With a complete Analysis of the Voice, showing its specific Modifications, and bow they may be applied to different Species of Sentences, and the several Figures of Rhetoric. To which are added, Outlines of Composition, or, plain Rules for writing Orations and speaking them in public. The Third Edition, with considerable Alterations and Additions. By John Walker. 8vo. 78. Robinsons. 1801.
The candour and good sense of this respectable author bespeak our applause ; and on an examination-for, though it be the third edition, we have again looked it over-we find no reason to resign our prepossession. His arguments and illustrations equally claim our applause ; yet we think, with him, that the pupil will follow the example rather than investigate the foundation of the precept. Be it so : this will not lessen the merit of the writer ; for those who have learnt the learned languages without the rules of grammar would however have found themselves more complete masters with their assistance. The author's account of the great improvements in this edition we shall select.
« The present edition is almost a new work. The praxis of sen. tences, so arranged as to lead the pupil froin the easiest to the most difficult, seemed better calculated for the lower class of pupils in reading than for students in rhetoric, and therefore this has been omitted. The want of rules for composition, so essential in rhetoric, has been supplied from the best source-Blair's Lectures ; and what was deficient even in these has been furnished from professor Ward's Lectures on Oratory :-So that with the original matter on the ele. gant pronunciation of words, on accent, emphasis, and inflexion of voice, and the proper pronunciation of the figures of rhetoric, it is presumed the present work is the most perfect of its kind in the language.' P. v. Art. 41.-Elements of Elocution : in which the Principles of Reading
and Speaking are investigated; and such Pauses, Emphasis, and Inflexions of Voice, as are suitable to every Variety of Sentence, are distinctly pointed out and explained; with Directions for strengthening and modulating the Voice, so as to render it varied, forcible, and bara monious. To which is added, a complete System of the Passions; showing how they affect the Countenance, Tone of Voice, and Gesture of the Body; exemplified by a copious Selection of the most striking Pas. sages of Shakspeare. The whole illustrated by Copper-Plates, explaining the Nature of Accent, Emphasis, Inflexion, and Cadence. The Second Edition, with Alterations and Additions. By John Walker. 8vo. 75. Boards. Robinsons.
This is a work of the same author, which equally merits our com. mendation. We cannot, as a second edition, engage in a very extens sive analysis; yet can safely recommend it to the attention of public
speakers, who will certainly find it a work of value and importance. It is not showy and flowery, but judicious and intrinsically valuable. The alterations in this new edition we shall also add in the author's own words.
• When the first edition of this work was published, I considered the human voice as divisible into two inflexions only. Some time after, upon re-considering the subject more maturely, I found there were certain turns of voice which I could not distinctly class with either of these two inflexions. This discovery mortified me exceedingly. I feared my whole labour was lost, and that I had been fatiguing myself with a distinction which existed no where but in my imagination. None but those who have been system-makers can judge of the regret and disappointment which this apprehension occasioned. It did not, however, continue long. The same trial of the voice which assured me of the two opposite inflexions, the rising and falling, soon convinced me that those inflexions which I could not reduce to either of these two were neither more nor less than two combinations of them; and that they were real circumflexes; the one beginning with the rising in Mexion, and ending with the falling upon the same syllable; and the other beginning with the falling, and end. ing with the rising on the same syllable.' P. xi.
POETRY. ATR. 42.-More Wonders ! an Heroic Epistle to M. G. Lewis, Esg.
M.P. With a Prescript extraordinary, and an Ode on the Union. By Mauritius Moonshine. 480. 25. Barker. 1801.
The object of this epistle is to abuse Mr. Lewis, for making his Tales of Wonder a selection instead of an original work, and to ridicule the use of goblin machinery. This is done in decent rhymes, which no person can object to while he is reading the pamphlet, nor remember when he has laid it down ; e. g.
• Oft, in youth's idle summer, have I stray'd,