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Asia : if he mean Siberia, he errs toto cælo; and, in the next place, the forms of the ancient vases are so infinitely diversified, that the idea in the eye of plain sense becomes a mere antiquarian dream. In p. 65 he is equally unfortunate, in asserting that the terms bonour and barony were synonymous.' The honour of Richmond contained, if we mistake not, more than a hundred baronies. · The following circumstance in the description of Biggleswade is, we believe, not generally known.
• On the 25th of February, 1792, a smart shock of an earthquake was felt here, about half past eight in the morning. It lasted seve. ral seconds, threw down some old houses, and much alarmed the inhabitants, though no lives were lost. The shock was felt northwards as far as Doncaster, whence it extended to the sea-coast of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire.' P. 75.
The ridiculous fable of the Thames and the Isis is justly opposed.
• The name of this river has occasioned many altercations; and though the general opinion has long been, that it does not receive the appellation of Thames till after its union with the Thame of Oxfordshire, yet this is evidently founded in error; for the former word is found in several charters granted to the abbey of Malmsbury, and likewise in some old deeds belonging to Cricklade, both of which places are in Wiltshire. But the most decisive proof is contained in a charter granted to the abbot Aldheim, where particular mention is made of certain lands upon the east part of the river, “ Cujus vocabulum Temis juxta vadum qui appellatur Summerford;" i.e. whose name is Thames, near the ford called Summerford ; and as this place is in Wiltshire, it is manifest that the river was named Temis, or Tems, in the uppermost part of its course ; and long before its junction with the Thame. This evidence, which is inserted on the authority of Mr. Gough, was unknown to Camden, who imagines the term to be a compound, and has given considerable extracts in his Britannia from a fanciful poem, entitled the Marriage of the Thame and Isis, of which he is said to be the author.' P. 86.
This puerile fable is a disgrace to English topography, and only fit for pedants or school-boys.
In treating of the origin of the order of the garter, our author mentions the story of the countess of Salisbury as an idle tale, and gravely quotes Joshua Barnes and the Phoenicians. We wish Joshua Barnes and the Phænicians were in his belly-to adopt the language of Falstaf,—and firmly believe in the countess of Salisbury and her garter. The author may look at the motto of Edward IV. for another instance of the intermixture of love and chivalry ; but our wise antiquaries seem often inclined to leave human nature on the left hand. In p. 265 there is a pretty wooden print of that noted tree in Windsor forest called Herne's oak, executed by Mr. Anderson, a most ingenious artist, The
account of Frogmore, and the Windsor farms, we shall trane scribe, as a novelty.
• The favourite residence of the queen has become celebrated through the elegant fêtes which have been occasionally given here by her majesty. It is situated about half a mile east of Windsor, and occupies part of a very fertile valley, which divides the little park from the forest, whence the many fine old oaks and elms which still decorate the gardens indicate it to have been separated. That it received its present appellation before Shakspeare's time is evident from some passages in his comedy of the Merry Wives of Windsor. This estate was formerly in the possession of sir Edward Walpole, and is now the private property of her majesty, by whom it was purchased of the honorable Mrs. Ann Egerton in 1792. Since that period it has not only been considerably enlarged, but most materially improved. An area of thirteen acres is laid out in a beautiful pleasure garden, diversified with a canal winding in different directions ; in one part spreading its waters before the front of the house, and again retiring beneath the thick woods. In this sweetly sequestered spot every thing is serene and pleasant. The devious path, the umbrageous thicket, the dilapidated ruin, and secluded temple, all conspire to render it peculiarly interesting. Exclusive of the variety of indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs which are scattered through the grounds, the garden is ornamented with five buildings, respectively denominated the Gothic Temple, the Ruin, the Hermitage, the Temple of Solitude, and the Baro. The Ruin was erected from a design by Mr. Wyatt ; and being seated on the water's edge, partly immersed in woods, and diversified with the creeping ivy and fractured wall, it constitutes a truly picturesque ornament, when seen from many points of view. The Hermitage is a small circular thatched building, situated in the south-west corner of the garden, and completely embowered with lofty trees. It was con structed from a drawing of the princess Elizabeth, whose taste and skill in this polite art are flattering encomiums on her genius and ap. plication. The surrounding 'scenery is judiciously contrived to assimilate with the character of the place the view of every distant object being excluded by trees and underwood. The recent improvements and alterations made in the gardens are very considerable, and are highly creditable to the taste and judgement of the gentleman who directed the operations.
The house, though not large, is a neat modern structure, which has been much improved and beautified by Mr. Wyatt. It is partly built with free-stone, and partly cased; and is decorated with a projecting colonnade towards the south, uniting the principal building with two uniform wings. The apartments are furnished in a plain but peculiarly neat manner. One of them is embellished with thę original sketches by Mr. West, and paintings by miss Moser, that were copied to ornament the throne in the castle ; and several others are decorated with paintings, and variety of drawings.
The Great Park at Windsor reverted to his majesty on the death of the duke of Cumberland, in the year 1791, since which period it has undergone a variety of important alterations. The principal entrance is skirted by a double row of majestic trees, " whose seeming boundless continuity fills the mind with an idea of something like infinitude ; for the line is extended not only along the whole of a very spacious plain, but up the distant hill, over whose summit it appears to curve, so that nothing like termination is discernible.” The eminence here mentioned commands a vast extent of country, of which Windsor town and castle, Eton college, Datchet, Harrow, Highgate, Hampstead, and Stanwell, constitute the leading features, Near this spot is Cumberland lodge, a spacious edifice, where the last duke of Cumberland, and his illustrious predecessor, to whom it was given in the year 1744, formerly resided.
• The park is embellished with some rich forest scenery, and possesses great diversity and inequality of surface; but the circumstances through which it more peculiarly demands attention are the agricultural experiments now making in its different quarters under the direction of his majesty, by whom many improvements in the state and general appearance of the grounds have already been effected. The valleys and low parts have been cleared, to give a bolder effect to the woody scenes on the eminences; and several judicious openings have been contrived to remove the disgusting tameness of parallel lines, and separate the plantations that appeared heavy and formal. When the park reverted to the king, it was fonnd to contain about 3800 acres, abounding with moss, fern, rushes, and ant-hills, and rendered dangerous in many places by bogs and swamps. In this state its scanty produce hardly afforded suf, hicient nutriment for 3000 deer. Since that period “the wet parts have been rendered firm and sound by the Essex mode of under. ground draining; the rushes weakened and destroyed, by draining and rolling ; the moss and small hillocks extirpated by harrowing ; the large ant-hills cleared by the scarifier; the fern weakened by mowing: the irregular banks levelled ; the pits filled up; the valleys opened; the hills ornamented with new plantations ; the stiff lines of trees, the vestiges of hedge-sows, judiciously broken :" and the park, though now reduced to 2400 acres, "s supports the same number of deer as before, in much better health and condition.” The remaining 1400 acres have been disposed into two farms, respectively denominated from the nature of the mode of husbandry by which they were intended to be brought into culture.
• The Norfolk farm consists of about 1000 acres of light soil, bordering on the extensive waste called Bagshot-heath, hitherto considered as too barren for cultivation, though large tracts of similar quality have long since been rendered useful in the south-west part of Norfolk. Half this farm has been allotted to sheep-walks ; the other is disposed in arable land, managed in a five-course shift of 100 acres in a class, and cropped in the following course : first, wheat or rye; second, vetches, rye, and potatoes ; tbird, turnips; fourth, barley or oats ; fifth, clover. The ploughing is chiefly per. formed with the Norfolk plough; and the ground, which in its former state was not worth renting at above five shillings an acre, now produces crops of more value than the original fee-simple of the land. This improvement in a great measure has been owing to the penning of the sheep on the fallows-from 600 to 800 Wilt hire
wethers being commonly kept as a folding stock. The irregularlyformed ground, which surrounds the beautiful lake called Virginia Water, has been disposed into a separate walk for Ryeland wethers, who are supposed to be best adapted to the coarseness of the herbage. The waste water of the lake gives motion to an overshot mill, which has been erected to grind corn for the labourers.
• In breaking up some of the land for this farm, it was found so coarse and tough, that it could not be cleared in the ordinary way without uncommon expense and labour. An experiment was therefore made, which, from the success attending it, seems worthy of in: sertion. « In the early part of the winter it was ploughed to a full depth with a swing plough, whose mould-board was so placed as to lay the turf in an inverted position. This was well trodden with cattle, and rolled, and the sheep occasionally drove over it. In the spring it was harrowed and cropped with oats, which were no sooner off than the surface was again harrowed and dragged, so as to get az much loose earth as possible without bringing up the turf. Early in autumn it was sown with winter vetches, and the beginning of June ploughed crossways, when the turf turned up quite rotten, and the land was got into a clean state by the first week in July. Both turnips and wheat were afterwards sown, and succeeded admirably."
• The Flemish farm contains about 400 acres, situated at the north extremity of the park, and originally intended to have been inanaged in exact accordance with the system employed in Flanders. This is a four-course shift, yielding an alternate crop for man and beast. The soil, however, being found strong and cohesive, the plan was in part relinquished, for the following more congenial mode : first year, wheat ; second, cabbage or clover; third, oats ; fourth, beans. The arable land on this farin is 160 acres. . The comparative advantages of the labour of horses and oxen, have long divided the opinions of experimental agriculturalists. The practice of his majesty has induced him to decide in favour of oxen, which have been found “ to answer so well in his different farms, parks, and gardens, that not a horse is now kept” for the purposes of husbandry. The oxen kept on the farms, and in the park, are 200. Forty are yearly purchased as succession oxen ; 40 are fatted and sold; and 120 are under work. The absurd practice of coupling the latter with yokes is abandoned, and collars only are used : in this state their step is more free,' and their labour performed with much greater ease. The kinds employed are suited to the soil and busiDess. On the light soils the Devonshire sort are used ; on the strong and heavy the Herefordshire ; for carting, harrowing, and rolling, the Glamorganshire. The working oxen are mostly divided into teams of six ; and as one of that number is daily rested, no ox labours more than five days in the week. This treatment enables the animal to retain his strength with the ordinary keep. Harder labour and higher feed would be injurious ; for the nature of the ox will not admit of his being kept in condition, like a horse, arti
ficially, by proportioning his food to increased exertions. Their , summer food is only a few vetches, and what they obtain froin
the leasowes or coarse meadows: in winter they have cut hay and wheat straw, one third of the latter being mixed with two-thirds of the former.
• Besides the improvements that have been effected in the park with respect to agriculture, several valuable plantations have been made on the high grounds, and the natural beauty of the scenery increased by the grand masses of wood which begin to overrun the eminences. Many parts display a pleasing variety of hill, valley, wood, and water, where the picturesque and romantic are the prevailing characteristics. From some points the views are pecuharly interesting their general composition bearing a striking resemblance to the celebrated scenery of the New Forest. Virginia Water terminates with a cascade, executed from designs by Paul Sandby, esq.
This was formed with large masses of stone, obtained from the sandy soil of Bagshot-heath, by boring to various depths. These are placed with some degree of taste and judgement, though the disposition of the whole is rather stiff and formal. The surplus waters How over the top, and are broken into several streams by projecting stones.' P. 266.
In forming artificial cascades, it might be advisable to have models taken from nature in Switzerland and other distant countries, so that any charge of formality might be obviated. The cascade of Virginia Water always pleased us; and, notwithstanding the common advance of this charge against it, we have seen natural cascades far more formal.
The account of Stoke Pogis becomes interesting from its having been the residence of Gray, perhaps the most strictly classical poet in the English language, and we must highly applaud Mr. Penn's taste and liberality in erecting a monument to that exquisite writer. Our readers will be pleased with the entire history.
• Stoke Pogis is a large scattered village, which obtained the appellation Pogeis from its ancient lords of that name. The heiress of this family, in the reign of Edward the Third, married lord Molines, who shortly afterwards procured a license from the king to convert the manor house into a castle. From him it descended to the lords Hungerford, and from them to the Hastings, earls of Huntingdon, and seems afterwards to have been the residence of the lord-chancellor Hatton. Sir Edward Coke having married an heiress of the Huntingdon family, became the next possessor; and here, in the year 1601, he was honoured with a visit from queen Elizabeth, whom he entertained in a very sumptuous style. It was afterwards the seat of Anne, viscountess Cobham, on whose death the estate was purchased by Mr. William Penn, chief proprietor of Penn-syl. vania in America, and now belongs to John Penn, esq. his grandson.
• The old manor house furnished the subject for the opening of Gray's humorously descriptive poem called the Long Story, in which the style of building and fantastic manners of Elizabeth's reiga are delineated with much truth.
• Gray, when a student at Eton, occasionally resided with his