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Society, which has been usually confounded with the nobility! indeed in Scotland, where the Saxon government never extended, they were really of superior rank, and in some other districts their holdings were of a different description: :- The tains, 'thanes, or gentry, who held of the king daring the Saxon period, in this tract, held their teinland, by payment of two ore for every plough-land, by assisting in building the Houses of the king, in the same manner as if they had been villeyns; in making the fisheries, and the inclosures and toils within the woods : if they failed, they forfeited two shillings, and after that were obliged to attend till the work, whatsoever it was, was 'completed. They were also to send, for one day in the month of August, men to cut the royal corn, or forfeit the like sum.. The royal manor was at that period at Derby, and contained six berewicks or townships; had fif. teen carácæ, or pfough-lands, a forest two leagues long and one . broad, and an aërie of hawks.. . If any of these thanes committed a theft, or forestell, i, e. obstruet any one on the way, probably for the purpose of forestalling, or committed beinfor, i. e. fies his country on the commission of any crime, or broke the peace of the king, he forfeited forty shilings.
If any of them either drew blood from, or ravished a woman, or did not attend the seyre-mote, or county-court, without a reasonable excuse, they were fined in ten shillings, and if they departed out of their hundred, and did not answer at the court, on being summoned by the prapositus, or hundred-greut, forfeited 'five shillings. This court appears to me to have been the fole-mote, where all the freemen of the kingdom were obliged to appear annually, with their arms, according to their degrées, for the inspection of their officer, who was to examine whether they were in good order.
If the hundred-greve directed any of them to do his service, and he refused, a fine was imposed of four shillings.
• If any of them was desirous of quitting the royal lands, he might, on payment of forty shillings, be at liberty to go wheresoever he pleased. If any wished to succeed to the lands of his father, he must pay an acknowledgment of forty shillings; which if he refused to do, both land and money fell to the king.
* These thanes were the gentry of the Saxon times. They were not created, but received rank according to increase of property. At that period there were 'corls and ceorls (earls and churls), thegt and theoden, thanes, and under-thanesi “ For, if a churl thrived so as that he had fully five hides of his own land, a church, a kitehen, a bell-house and a gate, a seat and several offices in the king's hall, then was he henceforth the thein's right worthie. And if a thein so thrive that he served the king, and on his progresse ryd in his householde ; if then he had a thein that followed him ; the which to the king's five hidés (ploughlands) had, and in the king's palace his lord served, and thrice with his errand had gone to the king, he might afterwards, with his fore othe his lord's part play at any great need. And if a thein did thrive so that he became an earl, then was. 'he afterwards worthic the rights of an earl; and if a merchant se
thrived that he passed thrice over the wide sea by his own crafe, he was thenceforth a thein right worthy." Let me add, that, so late as the reign of Henry I. they were placed in rank immediately after ears, and before the knights.
By this we may see a wise policy in those carly times, by the great encouragement given to industry; that promotion attended frugal ambition, and sloth was punished with a continuance in a low and servile state.
Verstegan, p. 233, translates theyx or thegn, as free servants, “ Hence," says he, “ cometh thyen or thiene, to serve ; and that the prince of Wales's motto, Ich dien, I serye, is derived from the word Ik thian, and sh in our more ancient language being indifferently used.? - P.6.
The evidence of the Roman road passing over the river at Latehford, though supported by the learned Whitaker,' our author thinks of little value, as the rampart was thrown up in modern times by his ? honest friend Matthew Lyon, to form an elevated retreat for sheep in the time of high floods. Antiquarianism has produced many a sickly offspring; and the learned Whitaker is one of its weakest sons. We have often met him on this ground, and treated him with little ceremony. Mr. Pennant himself frequently sneers at him, but seldom troubles himself to oppose him,
The account of Sankey Brook navigation is antiquated, and its present state might have been added. The sanie observation may be extended to the duke of Bridgewater's canal, and many similar undertakings. The state of the manufactures has also been greatly altered: some have fourished exceedingly, and many new ones been introduced; others, on the contrary, have considerably declined :--but it is not our business to introduce a supplement to the Tour,
ind - The acĉount of Knowsley, the seat of the earl of Derby, and the eventful history of that family, was to us interesting, as it contains many facts not generally known. • The description's of churches and monuments are perhaps too extensive; but tastes differ :--we would preserve the essential facts without the detail. The account of Latham-house, and the Roman antiquities at Ribchester, are in a great measure interesting, but admit not of an extract. We shall select a short specimen of our author's manner from his description of Bolzon-hall, one of the gloomy residences of our ancient gentry, whose modes of life merit a description before the memory of them be wholly lost, if it were only to serve as a contrast to the satirists of the present manners. Nothing could be more truly uncomfortable,
• I crossed the Ribble at Sawley-bridge, and, after a short ride, visited Bolton-hall. This is one of the few ancient houses which fxisted at least prior to the reign of Henry VI., belonging to some of the common gentry. It is a very plain building the hall is ascended to by several steps ; it is very dark, has a timbered roof, and a narrow gallery, whose floor and stair-case is formed of massy oak, The situation is on one of the collines of the country, finely backed with wood, but little less gloomy than when it gave protection to the vagrant Henry, 'wha by turns took shelter in the different houses of this neighbourhood. He left here behind him, as memorials, a pair of boots of brown tanned leather lined with fur, the soles of a most uncommon narrów form, the legs furnished with buttons in the spatterdash fashion, the tops great and high.'
Here are also a pair of his gloves, which show him to have had a very small hand: these are likewise furred, but with no finer mate. rials than the hair of the common deer. I was also shown the spoon that Henry used to eat with; and a well, in which he is said to have bathed, which was for a long time as much venerated by the country people as that of our St. Winifred; for the poor prince, from the innocency of his life, and his great sufferings, wanted nothing but canonisation to make him as respectable a saint as most in the popish calendar.
* This place is at present owned by Christopher Dawson, esq. in right of his mother and aunt Pudsey, heiresses of the estate. The Pudseys had been many centuries in possession : they came originally from Barford upon the Tees, and are said to have sprung from a natural son of Hugh Pudsey, bishop of Durham, who died in 1194. In the reign of Edward II. one of his descendents married one of the co-heiresses of John de Bolton; and from that time the family have chiefly resided here, Barford having been long since alienated. The other daughter' bestowed her share of the Bolton estate on Salley. abbey. Bolton-church is about half a mile north of the hall, is de. dicated to St. Peter, and a rectory in the gift of Mr. Dawson. It has in it several memorials of the Pudsey family---such as an ancient font, said to have been brought from Forset-church in Richmond. shire, in which parish stands Barford, their former seat. About the font are the arms of Percy, Clifford, Tempest, and Hamerton. Pudsey and Laiton quarterly ; Pudsey per se; Banks per pale; Pud. sey and Tunstal; and this inscription --Orate pro animabus Dni Radulphi Pudsey milit. et Emme uxor. ejus, et Dom. G. Pudsey, fil. ejus, quondam rector. eccl. istius.
• A very curious' altar-tomb, with a slab of black marble on the top, ten feet long, five feet nine inches wide, and nine inches thick. On it is most curiously engraven the figure of a Pudsey in armour, with his arms, three mullets on his breast ;'his head resting on two deer; a vast sword hangs on one side of him, a shorter on the other. On one hand are two of his wives, on the other a third-all in niantles down to their heels, long petticoats, vast spreading caps, and (with most taper waists. Beneath the parents are three rows of their offspring, to the amount of twenty-five, distinguished by their dresses as warriors, prelates, abbots, gownsmen ; besides nine daughters, in the dress of the times; and over each is the person's name, and an engraven arch of Gothic foliage. 1 It is probable that the tomb here described was designed for Henry Pudsey of Bolton, esq. (who had a dumerous issue), as appears by the following inscription, formerly thereon :- Hic jaceg Henricus Pudsey arm. Dns de Bolton, qui construxerat hanc cantariam M°CCCCĆ°IX° : et Margareta, uxor ejus, quæ obiit Ao Dni M°CCCCC° : quor. animabus propitiétur Deus.”* (MSS. in Bibt. J. C. Brooke de Coll. Arm.' P. 103.
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The introduction of the following descriptions requires no apology.
I breakfasted at the hamlet of Malham, about a mile and a half farther ; took a walk by the side of the Air here, 'a rapid torrent, through a stony valley, to visit the celebrated Gordale Coves, a vast chasm open to the sky, embosomed in rock; one side projects, and in a manner wraps round the tremendous concavity, and impends so as to form a vast hollow beneath, sloping inwards from top to bot
The material is a solid limestone, with only fissures enough to admit the growth of a few large junipers above. Out of the cončavity, at a vast height, bursts forth a copious stream, which must have had a fine effect; but the passage having been destroyed by a great flood, much of its beauty is lost. This and another stream from Gordale-scar, a tremendous precipice a little to the west, form the river Air, which, passing by Gargrave near Skipton by Leeds and Ferry: bridge, empties itself into the Ouse below Armyn-chapel.
• Mr. Lightfoot observed several very rare plants about these picturesque scenes. At Malham Crag, the draba muralis, Fl. Ang. 1, 278; and the draba incana, Fl. Sc.'I, 338; both called in English whitlow. grasses, from their supposed virtue in that disorder of the fingers : the actea spicata, or herb Christopher, Fl. Angl. 1, 228; it is also called bane-berry, a stinking plant, chiefly among the repellents, yet to be used with caution, as the berries are venomous ; perhaps it lies under worse repute, as toads delight to shelter under its shade : the polemonium cæruleum, or Greek valerian, and a variety with a white Aower; the saxifraga bypnoides, or moss saxifrage, Fl. Sc. 1, 224; and the satyrium albidum, or white satyrion : and on the stones of the rie vulet, which issues from the crag, the lichenoides gelatinosum foliis angustioribus uniformibus of Dillenius.
"At Gordale Cove are found also the Greek valerian, and the thalictrum minus, or small bastard rhubarb, or meadow rue, whose leaves, mixed with other pot-herbs, says old Gerard, do somewhat move the belly,
I returned to Malham; ascended a steep hill, and crossed a range of mountains over a bad and unfrequented road, with a most dreary prospect around, of vast extent of stony mountain, mixed with scanty pasturage. Gordale-scar appeared to great advantage beneath, the sun shining full on it, and showing its precipitous surface as smooth and resplendent as glass.
I saw Malham-turn in a bottom amidst the hills, a small lake about two miles round, famous for trout and perch. The waters which flow from this lake immediately sink under ground, and form a subterraneous river about half a mile in length, and appear again, in open day, bursting out from the precipice of Gordale-scar. The stones on the hills I was traveling over were, abundantly , scattered about, and of singular structure, flatted at top, and lami. nated beneath, evidently the work of water, and the nodular subsidences at the great event of the deluge.' $. 108.
Among the plants (of Ingleborough) the botanist will find that pigmy willow the salix herbacea, Fl. Sc. 12, 600; and the 'S. reticu, lata, or wrinkled willow, 601. The sweet plant the rhodiola rosea, or rosewort, Fl. Sc. 11, 619, grows here ; useful to the Greenlanders for food; to the natives of the Feroe Isles in the scurvy; the fresh roots, applied in form of a cataplasm, are said to relieve the head-ach and to heal malignant ulcers: a water, fragrant as that of roses, may be distilled from them. Those elegant plants the saxifraga oppositi.
folia and autunnalis, Fl. Sc: 1, 222, are to be met with here ; and the actea spicata, spoken of before.
My friend met with here the epilobium angustifolium, or rosebay. willow herb, Fl. Sc. 1, 196, a flowering plant worthy of our gardens. We have of late discovered that the down of the seeds has been manufactured, with cotton or beaver's hair, into stockings, fil. leting, bindings, &c. The down is obtained by drying the seedvessels in an oven, then thrashing and riddling the seeds from the down, which is carded with the cotton or fur. The beastly Kamtschadales brew 'a sort of ale from the pith, and have invented an intoxicating liquor from the infusion of the leaves, they also eat the young shoots which trail beneath the ground.
• To these plants I must add the ophrys cordata, or heart-shaped tway-blade, Fl. Sc. 1, 524 ; the sedum villosum, or marsh stonecrop, Fl. Se. 1, 237, and the lichen aphthosus, or green-ground liperworl; Fl. Sc. 11, 848. It takes its trivial name from the use made of ir by the people of Uplaed in Sweden, who, in cases of the aphtha or thrush in children, give them an infusion of this plant in milk. A decoction of it in water is besides used in Sweden, which operates as a purge and vomit, and is efficacious in worm complaints,
The lycopodium alpinum, and selago, Fl. Sc. 11, 687, 690, are common amidst these hills : the last is a most valuable plant in the northern regions. The Swedes make of it coarse mats: the Rusșians use the powder of the capsules to heal galls in children, chopo ped skins, or other’sores; the Poles, with a decoction of it, foment the heads of those afflicted with the filthy disorder of their country, the plica Polonica, and, as is said, effect the cure.
It is observed that the capsulęs emit a light yellow powder, tvhich flashes with a small explosion at the flame of a candle. Even this has been turned to use, and serves to make artificial lightening at theatrical entertainments,
• About the town of Ingleton are also a few scarce plants ; such as the serapias latifolia, and S. longifolia, Fl. Sc. 1,526, 528 ; the white hellebore, and the neesewort of Gerard, 442; and, to conclude the list, that rare and singular flower the Cypripedium calceolus, Fl. Angl. 11, 392, or calceolus Dna Maria, or our lady's slipper of old Gerard, 443, so named from its form, is sparingly met with in a wood adjoining to this place, and again near Clapham. The oddity of the plant