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the fact that it is a meeting point for the roads from and benevolent institutions. Kaschau is the centre of Samarkand, Bokhara, Hissar, Balkh, and Maimene, and the trade for the surrounding counties in wine, gall-nuts, serves as the mercantile centre for the surrounding steppes, salt, and most descriptions of grain, and from its comthe market where horses are obtained for the caravans, and mercial importance forms a kind of provincial capital. where the Turkomans and Uzbegs dispose of the products About 3 miles north-west of the town are the baths of of their camps (carpets, seats, &c.). The knives and weapons Bankó, with alkaline and ferruginous springs. The popumanufactured in Karshi are known as far as Persia and lation of Kaschau in 1880 amounted to 26,422 (in 1870 Arabia, and its coppersmiths turn out excellent work. it was 21,742), consisting of Magyars, Germans, Slovaks,

KÁRWÁR, or CARWAR, the chief town and headquarters and Ruthens." The majority are Roman Catholics. station of North Kánara district, Bombay, 50 miles south Kaschau consisted originally of two villages, Upper and Lower east of Goa, 14° 50' N. lat., 74° 14' E. long. It was once Kassa, of which the latter was created a town and granted special an important place of commerce; the East India Company privileges by Béla IV. (1235). Under Stephen V. (1270) the two had a factory there in the year 1663. It is the only safe separate portions were united, and raised to the rank of a royal

In 1290 it was surrounded with walls. The subsequent harbour all the year round between Bombay and Cochin. history presents a long record of revolts, sieges, and disastrous In the bay is a cluster of islets called the Oyster Rocks, conflagrations. In 1430 the plague carried off a great number of on the largest of which is a lighthouse. There are two the inhabitants. In 1458 the right of minting money according smaller islands in the bay, which afford good shelter to

to the pattern and value of the Buda coinage was granted to the

municipality by King Matthias I. The bishopric was established native craft and small vessels during the strong north-west in 1804. În the revolutionary war of 1848-49 the Hungarians winds that prevail from February to April. The average were twice defeated before the walls of Kaschau by the Austrians annual value of the imports at Kárwár port during the under General Schlick, and the town was held successively by the five years ending 1873–74 was £244,469, of the exports

Austrians, Hungarians, and Russians. £310,884. Population in 1872, 13,263.

KASHGAR, or KÁSAGHAR, an important city of eastern KASAN. See KAZAN.

Turkestan, in 39° 24' 26" N. lat., 76° 6' 47" E. long., KASANLIK, or KEZANLYK, a town of Roumelia, in 4043 English feet above the sea-level. It consists of two the vilayet of Adrianople, is situated at the foot of the towns, Kuhna Shahr or "old city," and Yangi Shahr or Balkans, about 5 miles south of the Shipka Pass, in a new city,” about 5 miles apart, and separated from highly fertile plain watered by the Tundja and its nume one another by the Kizil Su, a tributary of the Tarim rous tributaries. Throughout the plain there are exten- river, which receives and deposits in the distant lake sive fields of roses grown for the manufacture of attar of Lob Nor the drainage of the vast semi-desert plain roses, which is exported largely to western Europe. Maize included between the Kuen-lun, Thian Shan, and Pamir is also grown; and cattle and sheep are reared in consider- mountains. Situated at the junction of routes from able numbers. The town is surrounded by valuable woods the valley of the Oxus, from Khokand and Samarkand, of walnut trees. The Russo-Turkish war of 1877–78 Almati, Aksu, and Khotan, the last two leading from has done serious injury to the prosperity of the whole China and India, Kashgar has been noted from very region, and has told on the production of attar of roses, early times as a political and commercial centre. Like all which formerly was estimated at about 200 gallons for other cities of Central Asia, it has changed hands repeatedly, the Kasanlik district. The population is variously esti- but its greatest modern prominence is probably due to mated at from 10,000 to 12,000. Two-thirds of these are its having formed a few years ago the seat of government Bulgarians and Christians; the remainder are Turks. of the Amir Yakub Beg, surnamed the Atalik Ghazi, who

KASCHAU (Hung., Kassa ; Lat., Cassovia), an ancient established and for a brief period ruled with remarkable royal free town, and capital of the cis-Tisian county of success a Mohammedan state comprising the chief cities of Abauj, Hungary, is pleasantly situated on the right bank the Tarim basin from Turfan round along the skirt of the of the Hernád, in a valley surrounded by sloping vineyards, mountains to Khotan. During his rule both Russian and about 130 miles north-east from Budapest, with which city, British missions visited Kashgar, and it is chiefly to this as also with Cracow, Lemberg, and other centres, it is circumstance that we are indebted for a full and tolerably connected by railway, 48° 42' N. lat., 21° 17' E. long. recent knowledge thereof. Kuhna Shahr is a small fortified Kaschau is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop suffragan city on high ground overlooking the river Tuman. Its of Eger (Erlau), the headquarters of the general adminis- walls are lofty and supported by buttress bastions with tration for the county, and has royal and magisterial courts loopholed turrets at intervals; the fortifications, however, of law, as well as boards of assay, finance, and postal are but of hard clay, and are much out of repair. The direction, and the supervision of the tobacco manufacture. city contains about 2500 houses. Beyond the bridge, Kaschau is one of the best built towns in Hungary, and a little way off, are the ruins of ancient Kashgar, consists of the inner town, intersected by the Csermel, which once covered a large extent of country on both which forms an island and is crossed by several bridges, sides of the Tuman, and the walls of which even now and three suburbs (upper, middle, and lower) approached are 12 feet wide at the top and twice that in height. by a broad glacis. The most remarkable edifice, considered This city-Aski Shahr as it is now called—was destroyed the grandest masterpiece of architectural skill in Hungary, in 1514 by Mirza A babakar on the approach of Sultan is the cathedral of St Elizabeth, situated in the great Said Khan's invading army. About 2 miles to the north square, and built in a faultless Gothic style. Commenced beyond the river is the shrine of Hazrat Afak, the saint about 1270 by Stephen V., the structure was continued king of the country, who died and was buried here in 1324-82 by Queen Elizabeth, wife of Charles I., and her 1693. It is a handsome mausoleum faced with blue and son Louis I., and finished about 1468, in the reign of white glazed tiles, standing under the shade of some magniMatthias I. (Corvinus). The interior was transformed in ficent silver poplars. About it Yakub Beg erected a comthe 18th century to the Renaissance style, and restored in modious college, mosque, and monastery, the whole being 1859–65. The church of St Michael and the Franciscan surrounded by rich orchards, fruit gardens, and vineyards. or Garrison church date from the 13th century. The The Yangi Shahr of Kashgar is, as its name implies, quite royal law academy, founded in 1659, and sanctioned by modern, having been built in 1838. It is of oblong shape golden bull of King Leopold I. in 1660, has an extensive running north and south, and is entered by a single gatelibrary; there are also a museum, a Roman Catholic upper way. The walls are lofty and massive, and topped by gymnasium and seminary for priests, and other schools turrets, while on each side is a projecting bastion to protect

the curtains by a flank fire. The whole is surrounded by interval, during which the Kara Khitai, a nomad race from the a deep and wide ditch, which can be filled from the river, north-east under rulers called the Gur Khans, became suzerains of at the risk, however, of bringing down the whole structure, the Kashgar borders. This great conqueror in the space of six years

Kashgar, the growing power of Jenghiz Khan began to overspread for the walls are of mud, and stand upon a porous sandy overran the entire country from Azerbijan on the west to the Indus soil. In the time of the Chinese, before Yakub Beg's sway, on the east, and from the steppes of Kipchak on the north to Seis. Yangi Shalır held a garrison of six thousand men, and tan on the south, laying waste and butchering with a ferocity which was the residence of the amban or governor. Yakub

is said to have left its traces for centuries after. The invasion of erected his orda or palace on the site of the amban's Jenghiz Khan had given a decided check to the progress of the

Mohammedan creed, but on his death, and during the rule of the residence, and two hundred ladies of his harem occupied a Chaghatai Khans, who became converts to that faith, Islam began commodious enclosure hard by. The mixture of the various to reassert its ascendency. In 1389–90 Timur the Mughal undertypes seen in the markets of Kashgar has struck more

took a campaign for the conquest of Moghulistan, and one of his than one traveller. A square-faced flat-nosed Calmuck, with Moghulistan was at this time under the governorship of Rhudadad,

armies ravaged Kashgar, Andijan, and the intervening country. high cheek bones and a ruddy hairless countenance, stands a beneficent and popular ruler, who at a later date entertained the next to an Afghan of gigantic proportions, with nut-brown famous embassy sent from Shah Rukh to the emperor of China. complexion, handsome features, and glossy black beard, Kashgar next passed through a troublous time, and in 1514, on while one's eye rests next on the fair, full face and Dutch Ababakar, who with the aid of ten thousand men built the new

the invasion of the Khan Sultan Said, was destroyed by Mirza built frame of the Andijani, who is jostled in turn by the fort with massive defences higher up on the banks of the Tuman. familiar black-skinned and oily-faced Hindustani Mussul- The dynasty of the Chaghatai Khans collapsed in 1572 by the disman, the muddy-complexioned opium-smoking Chinaman, memberment of the country between rival representatives; and soon and the brown-skinned bewhiskered and gentle-looking taineers (Ak and Kara Taghluk), arose, whose dissensions and war

after two powerful Khojah factions, the White and Black Moun. Badakshi, with high full forehead, long arched finely fares, with the intervention of the Calmucks of Zungaria, fill up carved nose and oval face of the true Aryan stamp. The the history till 1759, when a Chinese army from Ili invaded the population of Kashgar at the time of the visit of Sir country, and, after perpetrating wholesale massacres, finally conDouglas Forsyth's mission in 1873 was about 112,000.

solidated their authority by settling therein Chinese emigrants, With the overthrow of the Chinese rule in 1865 the together with a Manchu garrison. "The Chinese had thoughts of

conquests towards western Turkestan and Samarkand, manufacturing industries of Kashgar declined, and in the the chiefs of which sent to ask assistance of the Afghan king case of some of the profitable arts altogether disappeared. Ahmed Shah. This monarch despatched an embassy to Peking to Silk culture and carpet manufacture have flourished for but the embassy was not well received, and Ahmed Shah was too

demand the restitution of the Mohammedan states of Central Asia, ages at Khotan, and the products always find a ready sale much engaged with the Sikhs to attempt to enforce his demands at Kashgar. Other manufactures consist of a strong by arms. The Chinese continued to hold Kashgar, with sundry coarse cotton cloth called kham (which forms the dress of interruptions from Mohammedan revolts, -one of the most serious the common people, and for winter wear is padded with occurring in 1827, when the territory was invaded and the city

taken by Jahanghir Khojah ; Chang-lung, however, the Chinese cotton and quilted), boots and shoes, saddlery, felts, furs general of Ili, recovered possession of Kashgar and the other revolted and sheep skins made up into cloaks, and various articles cities in 1828. A revolt in 1829 under Mohammed Ali Khan and of domestic use. A curious street sight in Kashgar is pre- Yusuf, brother of Jahanghir, was more successful, and resulted in the sented by the hawkers of meat pies, pastry, and sweet- of the district of Alty Shahr (the "six cities”), as it was then named, meats, which they trundle about on hand-barrows just as

Until 1846 the country enjoyed peace under the just and liberal their counterparts do in Europe ; while the knife-grinder's rule of Zahir-ud-din, the Chinese governor, but in that year a fresh cart, and the vegetable seller with his tray or basket on his Khojah revolt under Kath Tora led to his making himself master head, recall exactly similar itinerant traders further west.

of the city, with circumstances of unbridled licence and oppression.

His reign was, however, brief, for at the end of seventy-five days, ou The earliest mention of Kashgar of which we have any authen the approach of the Chinese, he fled back to Khokand amid the tic record is during the second period of ascendency of the Han jeers of the inhabitants. The last of the Khojah revolts (1857) was dynasty, when the Chinese general Pan-Shan conquered and wrested of about equal duration with the previous one, and took place under from the hands of their masters the Hiungnu, Yutien (Khotan), Wali-Khan, a degraded debauchee, and the murderer of the lamented Sulei (Kashgar), and a group of states in the Tarim basin almost traveller Adolf Schlagintweit. The great Tungani revolt, or insurup to the foot of the Thian Shan mountains. This happened in 76 rection of the Chinese Mohammedans, which broke out in 1862 in B.C., about the time that the Chinese and Roman empires attained Kansuh, spread rapidly to Zungaria and through the line of towns their furthest expansion of dominion westward and eastward respec- 1 in the Tarim basin. The Tungani troops in Yarkand rose, and tively, and were separated only by the breadth of the Caspian. (10th August 1863) massacred some seven thousand Chinese, while Kashgar lies in the country which Ptolemy calls Scythia beyond the inhabitants of Kashgar, rising in their turn against their the Imaus ; in this he has a Kasia Regio, possibly exhibiting the masters, invoked the aid of Sadik Beg, a Kirghiz chief, who was name whence Kashgar is formed. Next ensues a long epoch of reinforced by Buzurg Khan, the heir of Jahanghir, and Yakub Beg, obscurity. The Chinese lost their hold over the western provinces, his general, these being despatched at Sadik's request by the ruler of and Ptolemy found no successor to continue his investigations into | Khokand to raise what troops they could to aid his Mohammedan the countries of the far East. In 634 Tai-tsung re-established friends in Kashgar. Sadik Beg soon repented of having asked for Chinese sway over eastern Turkestan and Sulei (Kashgar), and a Khojah, and eventually marched against Kashgar, which by this other places were converted into garrison towns. It was shortly time had succumbed to Buzurg Khan and Yakub Beg, but was deafter this that Hwen Tsang passed through Kashgar (which he calls feated and driven back to Khokand. Buzurg Khan delivered himKie-sha) on his return journey from India to China. The Buddhist self up to indolence and debauchery, but Yakub Beg, with singular religion, then fast decaying in India, was working its way to a new energy and perseverance, made himself master of Yangi Shahr, Yangigrowth in China, and contemporaneously the Nestorian Christians Hissar, Yarkand, and other towns, and eventually became sole master were establishing bishoprics at Herat, Merv, and Samarkand, whence of the country, Buzurg Khan proving himself totally unfitted for they subsequently proceeded to Kashgar, and finally to China itself. the post of ruler. Kashgar and the other cities of the Tarim basin In the 8th century came the Arab invasion from the west, and we remained under Yakub Beg's rule until 1877, when the Chinese find Kashgar and Turkestan lending assistance to the reigning regained possession of their ancient dominions after a campaign queen of Bokhara, to enable her to repel the enemy. But although which, originally organized years before, and conducted in the the Mohammedan religion from the very commencement sustained most leisurely fashion, was characteristic of the measured tenacity checks, it nevertheless made its weight felt upon the independent and resolution with which this nation follow up a settled policy. states of Turkestan to the north and cast, and thus acquired a Since the reoccupation of the country by the Chinese, trade has steadily growing influence, which, aided as it was through the chan. much declined, especially with India, this traffic being regarded as nels of trade, facilitated the spread of the faith, and brought it into illegal by the Chinese authorities. Heavy exactions are made for serious collision with the Chinese religion, a struggle which has en military purposes, and considerable emigration has taken place to dured down to our day, and can by no means be said to be unlikely Ladak and India.

(C. E. Ď. B.) to recur. It was not, however, till the close of the 10th century KÁSHÍ, the name given to the glazed and coloured that Islam was established at Kashgar, when a prince of the hereditary family of Bughra Khan became a convert thereto, and en

ornamentation of Mohammedan buildings in parts of Persia forced it upon his subjects at the point of the sword. After an and India, and to the art of making it. The work is of

two kinds--on clay (bricks or tiles), and on cakes of lime come from the pen of Major Biddulph, the only European mortar. For surfaces of one colour, domes, &c., both known to have visited the state, and we here enter a very kinds are used, differing only in the shape of the tiles or few corrections or new particulars from his work. The inortar-cakes. Figured patterns are differently treated geographical position of Kashkâr is likely to give it great with the different materials. On clay tiles, the designs interest in the future. A considerable part of Upper with their several colours are laid on by stencilling, and Kashkâr belongs to Yassin, in the Gilgit basin (see Gilgit, the tile then glazed. Designs in coloured mortar work vol. x. p. 597). Indeed the left bank of the Chitral have each separate piece of colour on a separate cake of river, down to within 20 miles of Chitrâl itself, belongs to hardened mortar, cut to the required shape; and these, Yassin. The chief place of this Upper Kâshkâr is Mastûj glazed separately, are afterwards cemented together on the (vol. x. p. 596). The rulers of the two states are of the walls of the building, or first made up into complete panels, same blood, sprung from a Khorâsâni adventurer who imwhich are then set in their place on the walls. The designs migrated hither about the first half of the 17th century, are commonly foliage and flowers, or geometrical figures and are respectively descended from two brothers of his and interlacing arabesques, and inscriptions in Arabic and family, Shâh Kator and Shâh Khûshwakt, who lived a Persian characters, and are, many of them, very beautiful. century later. The two royal families are hence known

The colours chiefly used are blue, green, yellow, purple, as Katôré and Khushwakté respectively; they generally brown, and white. A tile is first painted over with a act in concert, though neither is dependent on the other. very fine clay paste, to make a smooth surface on whic We know not the origin of the former name, but most to apply the colour; and similarly the little mortar cakes probably it is connected with an ancient tribal name in are first painted, on the side to be coloured, with a thin KâFIRISTÂN (q.v.). The ruler of Chitral is known both liquid glass. It is perhaps owing to defect in this part of as Mihtar, or “Prince,” and by the pretentious title of the process, or to imperfect burning, that the tile figured Badshah. He las five viziers, of whom the chief, or work on some old buildings, particularly on the south side, Dewân-begi, has charge of the king's slave-agency, an has flaked off. The glazed work on mortar, and on tiles of important part of the reigning system. Under this the one colour, is generally more permanent.

rulers of Chitrâl have come to regard the sale of their The best specimens of káshi work in India are at Tatta subjects as a legitimate and ordinary supplement to their and Hyderabad in Sind, and at Multán and Lahore in the revenue. But of late the market has become circumscribed. Punjab. There are also buildings thus ornamented, chiefly The population of the kingdom is estimated at 200,000, of the time of Akbar and Jahangir (16th and 17th cen not including the tributary tribe of Bashgali Kafirs, who turies), at Delhi, Agra, Gwalior, and some other places, but occupy a nearly parallel valley on the west, confluent with the best and most numerous are in the western provinces that of Kâshkâr. The ethnology of Kâshkâr is very above named, particularly at Lahore and at Tatta. The intricate. The largest, and probably aboriginal, population buildings at Lahore having the finest figured káshí work are called Kho. Their language, Khowar, is closely allied are the mosque of Wazir Khan, the gateways of certain old to the dialects of the Kafir tribes. There are also tribes in pleasure gardens, and the Gola Sarai. There is a tomb a depressed position, immigrants froin the other side of the at the same place (the tomb of Abdur Razzák) built in watershed, and speaking the language of Munjân, a hill the early part of the 16th century, which bears the name canton of the Oxus valley, calling themselves Yidghah. of the blue dome, its covering being of clay bricks coloured In the lower part of the valley is a race, also with a peculiar blue on the narrow exposed face. Another, built about language, called Gabar (mentioned by Sultan Baber), and fifty years later (the tomb of Shah Músa), is known as the some broken tribes of Siâhposh, &c. All these constitute

It is covered with little mortar blocks, in the lower or ryot class, who alune pay regular revenue, shape half cylinders, coloured and glazed on the flat face, cannot hold slaves, and are styled fakir mushkîn (“poor and with two deep nicks on the rounded back to give a beggars "). Above them are several privileged classes, hold on the plaster in which they are set. A celebrated descended from the founders of the reiguing family, or from tomb at Meshhed in northern Persia bears the same name, older ruling families also of foreign blood. We may

add and likewise another at Kirman ; the domes of these that Chitral is identical with the Shang-mi of Hwen Tsang buildings, however, though called green, are in reality (644 A.D), see J. R. As. Soc., new ser., vol. vi. p. 114. A blue. At Tatta the káshí work is all on clay tiles ; there somewhat later Chinese record gives, as an alternative name is no inlaid work of coloured mortar. The finest of the of Shang-mi, Khiu-wei, which evidently contains the Kho buildings at Tatta, a mosque built by Shah Jahán, has just mentioned. In this Kho also we have probably an elelately had the defective parts of the figured tile-work ment of Choaspes, the Greek name of the Chitral river. restored.

A singular point in Chitral history is the fact that it was The art is now carried on at Tatta, at Hala, a village 30 invaded by a Chinese army about the middle of last miles north of Hyderabad, and at a few other places. century, probably in 1759–60, and continued to send

KASHIN, a district town of Russia, in the government occasional tribute to China at least to 1769, i.e., twelve of Tver, 125 miles north-east of the government town, near years after the battle of Plassy. This was brought to the Kashinka, a subtributary of the Volga. A consider notice by the present writer in 1872 (J. R. G. S., xlii. able trade is carried on in the despatch of grain to St 477), when tracing the curious history of the name Bolor. Petersburg. The chief buildings are the cathedral and And now Major Biddulph has found in the country itself three monastic establishments. Kashin, first mentioned the memory of the Chinese invasion, and thus entire about 1238, was in the 14th century a separate principality corroboration of the identification of the Chinese Poloeul which contended with Tver for pre-eminence in the region. or Bolor with Kâshkâr.

(H. v.) There are still some remains of the defences erected in KASHMIR, or CASHMERE, an elevated and enclosed 1661. Population, according to St Petersburg Calendar valley in the Himalaya mountains, north of the Punjab. for 1874, 7346.

It is surrounded by lofty hills, with one opening on the KÂSHKÂR, also called CHITRAL, from the residence west, by which flows out from the valley the river Jhelum. of the prince, a high-lying Mohammedan state anong the The enclosing hills on the north and east belong to spurs of Hindu Kush, has been already spoken of under the Bára Lácha chain, and on their outer side is the HINDU Kush (vol. xi. p. 838). Since that was published, broad mountainous region which holds the valley of the a work (I'ribes of the Hindoo Koosh, Calcutta, 1880) has upper Indus, and which, beyond the Indus, culminates in

XIV.

green dome.

the great parallel range of Karakorum or Mustágh. On to the gorge at Baramúla. From this point the stream is the west and south, the hill boundary, which joins the more rapid through the narrow valley which conducts it other half of the enclosure at the south-east end of the westward 75 miles to Muzaffarábád, where it turns sharply valley, is the Panjál or Panchal range, which on its outer south, joined by the Kishanganga. At Islámábád, about side sends down its branches southward, through the 40 miles above Srinagar, the river is 5400 feet above seaJamú territory, to the plains of the Punjab. The length level, and at Srinagar 5235 feet. It has thus a fall of of the Kashmir valley, including the inner slopes of its about 4 feet per mile in this part of its course. For the surrounding hills, is about 120 miles from north-west to next 24 miles to the Wúlar lake, and thence to Baramúla, south-east. Its greatest width is about 75 miles. The its fall is only about 24 feet in the mile. On the 80 miles low and comparatively level floor of the basin is 84 miles of the river in the flat valley between Islámábád and Baralong and 20 to 24 miles broad. Its lowest part is 5200 múla there is much boat traffic; but none below Baramúla, feet above the sea, and its mean height 6000 feet. till the river comes out into the plains.

This valley is but a small portion, in area, of the On the north-east side of this low narrow plain of the dominions of the maharajá of Kashmir, which, in addition Jhelum is a broad hilly tract between which and the higher to the Jamú territory on the south (the previous posses- boundary range runs the Kishanganga river. Near the sion of the present maharaja's father, Ghulab Singh, before east end of this interior hilly tract, and connected with the he acquired Kashmir), include Baltistan and Gilgit on the higher range, is one summit 17,839 feet. Around this north, and Kishtwar and Ládák on the east. On the west peak and between the ridges which run from it are many Kashmír is separated from the valley of Khagán by a con- small glaciers. These heights look down on one side into tinuous range of high hills, and from the British district of the beautiful valley of the Sind river, and on another into Hazára by the river Jhelum.

the valley of the Lidar, which join the Jhelum. Among Jamú, to which Kashmir was annexed in 1846, occupies the hills north of Srinagar rises one conspicuous mountain the southern slopes of the Panjál range, with a strip of mass, 16,903 feet in height, from which on its north side plain country at their foot, and extends about 220 miles descend tributaries of the Kishanganga, and on the south from east to west, with a greatest direct breadth, north to the Wangat river, which flows into the Sind. By these south, of about 75 miles. All the rest of the maharájá’s rivers and their numerous affluents the whole valley of dominions is hill country.

Kashmir is watered abundantly. The hills forming the northern half-circuit of the Kashmir Around the foot of many spurs of the hills which run valley, and running beyond, include many lofty mountain down on the Kashmir plain are pieces of low table-land, masses and peaks, the most conspicuous of which, a little which are called karéwa. These terraces vary in height outside the confines of Kashmir, is Nanga Parbat, a at different parts of the valley from 100 to 300 feet above grand hill (35° 15' N., 74° 35' E.), rising 26,629 feet the alluvial plain. Those which are near each other are above the sea, with an extensive area of glacier on its mostly about the same level, and separated by deep ravines. eastern face.

The great ridge which is thrown off to the The level plain in the middle of the Kashmir valley is south-west by Nanga Parbat rises, at a distance of 12 miles, fine clay and sand, with water-worn pebbles. The karéwas to another summit 20,740 feet in height, from which run consist of horizontal beds of clay and sand, the lacustrine south-west and south-east the ridges which are the northern nature of which is shown by the shells which they contain. watershed boundary of Kashmir. The former range, after The hills surrounding the valley are chiefly gneiss and running 70 miles south-west, between the valleys of the schists. In the Lidar valley are slate and sandstones of Kishanganga and the Kunbár or Nain-súkh, turns south- the Carboniferous period over green slate of a period ward, closely pressing the river Jhelum, after it has received corresponding to Silurian. The irregular ridges of the the Kishanganga, with a break a few miles further south Panjál range are granite and gneiss, with schists and slates. which admits the Kunhár. This range presents several Limestone is found in parts of the east and west ends of prominent summits, the two highest 16,487 and 15,544 the valley, and in the hills upon the Mánas Bal lake. In feet above the sea. The range which runs south-east from various places are marks of glacial action, down to a height the junction peak above-mentioned divides the valley of of about 500 feet above the level part of the basin. From the Kishanganga from that of the Astor and other tribu- the plain rise isolated hills of trap; among these are the taries of the Indus. The highest points on this range, Hari Parbat and the Takht-i-Sulimán at Srinagar, on the where it skirts Kashmir, are 16,795, 16,930, and 17,202 former of which stands the fort, and on the latter a confeet above the sea. For a distance of more than 50 miles spicuous and well known ancient Hindu temple. No from Nanga Parbat there are no glaciers on this range; fossils have been found in Kashmir below the rocks of the thence eastward they increase; one, near the Zojí-lá Pass, is Carboniferous period. The chief mineral resources of the only 10,850 feet above the sea. The mountains at the east maharaja's dominions are outside the Kashmir valley, end of the valley, running nearly north and south, drain specially in Ládák. inwards to the Jhelum, and on theother side to the Wardwán, In the hills of the north boundary are two passes, the a tributary of the Chenab. The highest part of this eastern Burzil (13,500 feet) and the Kamri (13,200). By the boundary is 14,700 feet. There are no glaciers. The former is the direct route between Srinagar and Iskardo. highest point on the Panjál range, which forms the south It is usually practicable only between 15th July and 15th and south-west boundary, is 15,523 feet above the sea. September. The road from Srinagar to Lé in Ládák goes

The river Jhelum or Behat (Sanskrit Vitasta)--the by the Zojí-lá Pass (11,300 feet), near the north-east corner Hydaspes of Greek historians and geographers—Hows of the valley. Only a short piece of the road, where snow north-westward through the middle of the valley. After accumulates, prevents this pass being used all the year. a slow and winding course it expands, about 25 miles At the south-east end of the valley are three passes, the below Srinagar, over a slight depression in the plain, and Murgil (11,600 feet), the Hoksar (13,315), and the Murbul forms the Wúlar lake and marsh, which is of ill-defined (11,550), all leading over to the valleys of the Chenáb and extent, but may be called about 10 miles long and 6 broad. the Rávi. South of Islámábád, on the direct route to The hills which this lake touches at its north end give it Jamú and Siálkót, is the Banihál Pass (9200 feet). a more defined margin on that side. Leaving the lake on Further west on the Panjál range is the Pir Panjál or the south-west side, near the town of Sópúr, the ri Panchal Pa (11,400 feet), with a second pass, the Rattan pursues its sluggish course south-westward, about 18 miles, Pír (8200 feet), across a second ridge about 15 miles south

west of the other. Between the two passes is the beauti- | banks, the strange tall shadowy wooden houses, and the fully situated fort of Báramgali and a well-known rest- craggy hills. There is no place or season which has not house for travellers. This place is in the domain of Raja something to show of real beauty. The rapturous praises of Móti Singh of Púnch, cousin and tributary of the maharaja Mohammedan writers may be often extravagant; and it is of Kashmir. At Rájáori, south of these passes, the road with some of their materials, reproduced with more modern divides : one line leads to Bhimbar and Gujrát, the other additions, that Moore has built up great part of his romance; to Jamú and Siálkót by Aknúr. Next, south-west of still few will really think that here extravagance and fiction Baramúla, is the Hajji Pír Pass (8500 feet), by which have left truth much too far behind. crosses the road to Púnch. From Púnch one road leads Many Englishmen every year resort to Kashmir for down to the plains at the town of Jhelum, another east- shooting. The game is in consequence now only to be ward through the hills to the Rattan Pír Pass and Rájáori. found within reduced areas of the more secluded little Lastly there is the river pass of the Jhelum, which is the valleys and more difficult hill sides, and many sportsmen easy route from the valley westward, having two ways now cross over into Ládák. The animals chiefly sought in down to the plains, one by Muzaffarábád and the Hazára both countries are the Ovis ammon, Ovis poli, antelope, ibex, valley to Hassan Abdál, the other by the British hill már-khór or wild goat, musk deer, Tibetan stag, brown station of Marri (Murree) to Ráwal Pindi.

and black bear, and leopard. In various parts of Kashmir The valley of Kashmír, sheltered from the south-west are to be found the fox, lynx, weasel, marmot, and hare. monsoon by the Panjál range, has not the periodical rains The black and grey monkey (langúr) is common on the of India. Its rainfall is irregular, greatest in the spring Panjál range. Kashmir has the snow pheasant, snow owl, months. Occasional heavy storms in the monsoon pass wild goose, duck, and teal; and the eagle is also found. over the crests of the Panjál and give heavy rain on the The Kashmir valley has a large number of old buildings elevated plateaus on the Kashmir side. And again clouds of the Hindu period, interesting from their style, which is pass over the valley and are arrested by the higher hills ' peculiar to Kashmir, and from the traces which many of on the north-east side, on which they pour themselves. them bear of Greek art. Their ruinous condition is ascribed Snow falls on the surrounding hills at intervals from ' partly to Sikandar the idol-breaker, partly to earthquakes, October to March, and sometimes in great quantity. In which are frequent in Kashmir. The most ancient of the valley the first snow generally falls about the end of these buildings (about 220 B.c.) is the temple of Shankar December, and never to any great amount. The highest Acharya (or, as it was formerly called, of Jaiasht Iswar), monthly average of temperature from May to October, at on the hill at Srinagar, known as Takht-i-Sulimán, or Srinagar, is 89° in the shade at noon. There has been no Solomon's Throne,--a designation thought to be a Moregular wiuter register ; but the temperature is never very hammedan adaptation of the name of Rájá Sandhaman, low.

who repaired or rebuilt the temple. The other Hindu For all crops except rice, which is irrigated, the rain is buildings mostly belong to the time from the 5th to the ordinarily sufficient. Barley, sown in November, ripens in 10th century. The chief points which distinguish them June, wheat in July. Rice, sown in May and June, ripens from Hindu buildings in India are the trefoil-headed doorin October. Millet, maize, and buckwheat, also turnips, ways and recesses, high pediments, high straight-lined pease, and mustard, are grown in considerable quantity. pyramidal roofs, and Auted pillars.

There is no natural forest in the level parts of the valley. The temple of the sun at Marttand or Matan has been of the cultivated trees the finest is the plane (chinár), one of the finest. It occupies a very striking position on which grows to a large size, and is of great beauty. The a karéwa or natural terrace about 3 miles from İslámábád, principal other trees of the valley are the poplar, willow, and commands a splendid view of the valley of the Jhelum. cypress, walnut, apple, pear, quince, apricot, cherry, mul- Of the others the most worthy of notice are the remains berry. Vines are grown extensively, commonly trained of two of the four temples at Avantipúr, 15 miles southup poplar trees. There are many kinds of grape. On the east of Srinagar; the temple of Bhúmzo near Marttand, hills around are deodar, Pinus excelsa and Gerardiana, built in a cave; Páyach, on the karéwa of Naunagar near Picea Webbiana, hazel, birch, viburnum, juniper, rose, &c. Avantipúr, a small temple, the whole superstructure built The herbaceous plants and flowers are very numerous. of six stones ; Pandrétan, 3 miles south-east of Srinagar, The umbelliferous plant called prangos, growing on the standing with its floor below the water, in a tank; Bhániár drier hills, is much valued as winter food for sheep. In ' (Bhawániár) and Kutrúi, a few miles west of Baramúla, spring the bright orange-coloured colchicum shows itself both backed by fine wooded cliffs crowned with deodars. in great quantity; and in autumn are seen many acres of A mound, with masonry in and about it, at the village of saffron with its beautiful light purple flowers, grown in Ushkara near Baramúla, is supposed to be the remains of large fields divided into small square beds. Saffron was a Buddhist tope (stúpa), the place taking its name from among the articles of annual tribute to the Mughal Hushka, one of the Tartar kings of Kashmir. emperors. The Dal lake at Srinagar is full of reeds and Srinagar, the capital (34° 4' 6" N., 74° 48' 5" E.), said water plants, Potamogeton, Nymphæa, Nelumbium, &c. to have been founded by Pravara Sén, in the beginning of On this lake there are floating gardens : a shallow layer the 6th century, is built on both banks of the Jheluin. It of soil on sheets of the great leaves of water lilies is made is a somewhat confused mass of houses, many of them built to grow quantities of vegetables. The curious singhara, of wood, with balconies and carved lattice windows, and or horned water nut (Trapa bispinosa), which grows in projecting upper stories propped on poles, and overhanging great quantity in all the lakes, is much used for food, pre- the narrow streets or the little canals which in some parts pared in various ways. Since 1874 hops have been grown are the streets. The city has seven bridges across the river, experimentally for the Murree Brewery Company, with fair built of beams laid on stone and timber piers. In the fort success, in five different parts of the valley.

on the south side of the river is the palace. There are Much has been said and written about the beauty of the several small Hindu temples in the town. The two chief vale of Kashmir. Spring encircles a fresh, green, smiling mosques are the Jámi' mosque and that of Shah Hamadán, valley with a noble belt of glistening snow-capped ridges; the latter one of the most conspicuous buildings, with walls autumn fills the eye with the wonderful richness of the of stone and timber, low sloping wooden roof, and little many-coloured foliage. At all times flows on the quiet wooden spire. On the shores of the Dal lake are the old glassy river, showing back the groves and avenues upon its pleasure-gardens of the Mughals.

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