KAPURTHÁLA, or KOPURTHELLA, a native state in tinued to be maintained until the time of the crusades. the Punjab, India, lying between 31° 9' and 31° 39' 30" From this centre the sect diffused itself thinly over Syria, N. lat., and between 73° 3' 15" and 75° 38' 30" E. long. spread into Egypt, and ultimately reached south-eastern Area, 800 square miles; estimated population, 250,000. Europe. Anan, who is said to have died in 765 A.D., was The Kapurthála family at one time held possessions on the author of a commentary on the Pentateuch and other both sides of the Sutlej, and also in the Bari Doáb. The works in Talmudic Hebrew and Arabic,—all of which cis-Sutlej estates and scattered possessions in the Bari unfortunately, are lost; for our knowledge of the disDoáb were escheated owing to the hostility of the chief in tinctive principles maintained by him we are thus left the first Sikh war, but the latter possessions were after- entirely dependent on the hostile indications of opponents. wards restored to the family in recognition of the loyalty In general we know that he showed great bitterness against of Rájá Randhir Sinh during the mutiny of 1857, when the Talmud and its upholders (the “Rabbanites ") for their he led a contingent to Oudh which did good service. He falsification of the written law by arbitrary additions and also received a grant of estates in Oudh, 850 square miles subtractions, but there is nothing to indicate that he himin extent, and with an estimated population of 220,000. self had the insight or the fervour by which he could have In these tracts, however, he exercises no sovereign powers, become the pioneer of any really great reformation in occupying the status only of a large landholder. His total religion or morals. The questions in dispute appear to revenue is estimated at £170,000, subject to a charge of. have turned entirely on points of very minute detail. £13,000 payable to the British Government in commuta- Several of them related to the regulation of the calendar, tion of military service.

the new moon, for example, being fixed by the Karaites KARÁCHI. See KURRACHEE.

by direct observation, not by astronomical calculation, and KARA-HISSAR is the name of several towns in Asiatic the intercalary year also being determined empirically; Turkey. (1) AFIUM KARA Hissar has been already others related to paschal and pentecostal ritual, such as noticed, vol. i.. p. 244. (2) Eski KARA HISSAR, lies 10 the precise hour for killing the lamb or for burning its miles to the north of Alium. It is identified with the remains. The differences which affected social life most ancient Synnada, which in the time of Pliny was the chief deeply were those relating to Sabbath observance and the town of a considerable district. The quarries of Docimia, forbidden degrees of marriage, the Karaites not recognizing which furnished the famous Synnadic or Docimitic marble, any distinction between relationships of consanguinity and are about 24 miles distant, and in the town numerous those of affinity, while in their zeal to avoid all risk of traces have been found of ancient sculpture in various infringement of the sacredness of the day of rest they prostages of execution (see Hamilton's Asia Minor, i. 461, hibited the burning of any light at all in their houses ii. 177; and Texier, Asie Mineure). (3) The eastern from sunset to sunset. Little information as to the KARA-Hissar, usually distinguished by the prefix Shabin Karaites can be derived from their liturgies, which are (i.e., "alum "), is situated in the vilayet of Siwas, about comparatively modern ; though differing from those used 70 miles east of Niksar, on a northern tributary of the by the Rabbinical Jews, they are not characterized by any Lycus. It is the seat of a mutaşarrif or vice-governor, marked divergence in principle. The controversies as to and on a hill to the east there is an old castle which the rule of faith which so deeply divided the Christian must at one time have been of military importance. The church in the 16th century gave to this obscure sect an population is estimated at 11,000, mainly Mohammedans, illusory and passing importance, the Catholics frequently though Armenians also form an important element. The hurling the epithet Karæi, in token of contempt, at the district is rich in mineral products-silver, lead, copper, Protestants, who in their turn willingly accepted it as and iron; but only the alum mines, yielding from 120 to sufficiently descriptive of their attitude towards Scripture. 250 tons per annum, are worked. The remains of the The Karaites never have been numerous; the present comcitadel, the ruins of a Byzantine church, traces of Roman munity in Jerusalem numbers only about ten families. brickwork, ancient coins, and a few Greek and Latin They occur in Constantinople and elsewhere in Turkey, inscriptions, all go to show that Kara Hissar has passed but are chiefly met with in southern Russia, and especially through many vicissitudes. The old town was evidently in the Crimea, where in 1874 they numbered some 6000, built not at the foot but up the steep slope of the hill, tier chiefly in Eupatoria, Theodosia, and Sebastopol. In the above tier. In 1473 Kara-Hissar made voluntary sub- Crimea their historical capital and chief synagogue was mission to Sultan Mohammed II. A full description, formerly the “Jews' Castle” (Tshufut-Kale), near Bakhwith a plan of the town and neighbourhood, is given by chisarai. The place is now deserted; its cemetery was the Barth in Petermann's Mittheilungen, Ergänzungsheft, 1860. seat of Firkowitsch's notorious forgeries (inscriptions of See also Taylor's “Journal,” &c., in Journ. Roy. Geogr. 1st century), by which he sought to establish a fabulous Soc., 1868.

antiquity for his sect. According to Strack (A. FirkoKARAITES, or CARAITES, a Jewish sect of the Middle witsch u. seine Entdeckungen, 1876) the oldest tombstones Ages, claiming to be distinguished by adherence to Scripture do not go back beyond the 14th century. The modern as contrasted with oral tradition, whence the name (from Karaites are generally well spoken of for their honesty, 8p, as if “readers,” scripturarii; sometimes also 177292?) perseverance, and simple habits of life; but their enslaveThey have frequently been identified with the Sadducees ment to tradition is quite as complete as that of any Talor with the Samaritans, with neither of whom have they mudist could possibly be. any historical connexion or much spiritual affinity. The

Among the older authorities may be mentioned Morinus, Exercit. schism arose at Baghdad about the middle of the 8th Bibl., lib. ii. ex. 7, 1669; and Triglandius, Diatribe de Şecta century, when the hereditary claims of Anan, a learned Karæorum, 1703. See Grätz, Gesch, der Juden, especially in vol. v., Talmudist, to the office of Resh Galutha were set aside by 1860; and Fürst, Gesch. des Karüerthums, 1865. the Gaonim or heads of rabbinical schools at Sura and KARAKORUM, or KARAKORAM, a name applied to a Pumbeditha because he was believed to undervalue the city, a mountain range, and a mountain pass in Central authority of the Talmud. An appeal by Anan to the Asia. For the range and pass see KUEN-LUN. The caliph proved unsuccessful, and he appears even to have ancient city or rather camping-ground of Karakorum (the been imprisoned for some time; but ultimately he was Caracaron of Marco Polo), was situated near the upper permitted to migrate along with his followers to Palestine, course of the Orkhon, a tributary of the Selenga. Founded, where they erected in Jerusalem a synagogue which con- | according to Chinese authority, by Buku, khan of the

Uigurs, in the 8th century, it was at the time of Jenghiz | health of Karamzin began to decline, and the emperor the chief seat of Togrul Wang, Marco Polo's Prester John, Nicholas, who had succeeded to the throne in that year, and under Jenghiz's successor Okkodai it became what it and continued the favours which his brother had bestowed continued to be till 1256, the capital of the Mongolian on the historian, ordered a frigate to be got ready, that he power. It was visited by Carpini (1246) and Rubruquis might visit a warmer climate to recruit his failing powers. (1253). Some ruins of earthworks are still to be traced. It was, however, too late; on the 22d of May (old style)

See Rémusat, Rech. sur la ville de Karakorum ; Yule, Marco 1826, Karamzin died in the Taurida palace. A monument Polo ; Geographical Magazine, 1874.

was erected to his memory at Simbirsk in the year 1845. KARAMZIN, NIKOLAI MIKHAILOVICH (1765–1826), As an historian Karamsin has deservedly a very high reputation. Russian historian, critic, novelist, and poet, was born at Till the appearance of his work little had been done in this direction the village of Mikhailovka, in the government of Oren- in Russia. The preceding attempt of Tatistcheff was merely a rough burg, and not at Simbirsk as many of his English and Ger- sketch, inelegant in style, and without the true spirit of criticism. man biographers incorrectly state, on the 1st of December notes to his volumes are mines of curious information. The style (old style) *1765. His father, an officer in the Russian of his history is elegant and flowing, modelled rather upon the army, of Tartar extraction, was anxious that his son easy sentences of the French prose writers than the long periodical should follow his own profession. The idea was not, how- paragraphs of the old. Slavonic school. Perhaps Karamzin may

justly be censured for the false gloss and romantic air thrown over ever, persevered in, and the future author was sent to the early Russian annals, concealing the coarseness and cruelty of Moscow to study under Professor Schaden, whence he after the native manners ; in this respect he reminds us of Sir Walter wards removed to St Petersburg, where he made the Scott, whose writings were at this time creating a great sensation acquaintance of Dmitrieff, a Russian poet of some merit, author. Karamzin'appears openly as the panegyrist of the anto, and occupied himself with translating essays by foreign cracy ; indeed, his work has been styled the “ Epic of Despotism.” writers into his native language. After residing some time He does not hesitate to avow his admiration of Ivan the Terrible, at St Petersburg, he went to Simbirsk, where he lived in and considers him and his grandfather Ivan III. as the builders retirement till induced by a friend to revisit Moscow, haps at that time more under the influence of Western ideas, he

up of Russian greatness, a glory which in his earlier writings, perThere, finding himself in the midst of the society of learned had assigned to Peter the Great. In the battle-pieces (e.g., the men, he again betook himself to literary work. In 1789 description of the field of Koulikovo, the taking of Kazan, &c.) we he resolved to travel, and visited Germany, France, Switzer- find considerable powers of description; and the characters of many land, and England. On his return he published his Letters

of the chief personages in the Russian annals are drawn in firm and of a Russian Traveller, which met with great success. They

bold lines. The study of ethnology and historical criticism has

advanced so much since the days of Karamzin that some of his work are elegantly written, and show the feeling of a poet for has necessarily become obsolete, but it will always be read with the scenery of the countries through which he passed, but pleasure and advantage. No translation into English of this opus to many readers of the present day they will appear insipidly version. of the

magnum has appeared, although even modern Greek boasts its

version. Of the French translation by MM. Saint Thomas and sentimental. These letters were first printed in the Moscow Jauffret Karamzin himself had a mean opinion ; he declared that Journal, but were afterwards collected and issued in 6 vols. the average number of mistakes in each of the many volumes was (1797-1801). In the same periodical Karamzin also pub

two hundred. As a critic Karamzin was of great service to his lished translations of some of the tales of Marmontel,

country ; in fact he may be regarded as the founder of the review

and essay (in the Western style) among the Russians. He had read whose sickly elegance was then in fashion, and some of his extensively, and modelled himself upon Addison and others of own original stories, among which may be mentioned Poor our best writers. As a novelist and writer of tales he imitated the Liza and Natalia the Boyar's Daughter. To judge by the sentimental school then in vogue throughout Europe. As a poet cheap editions which are continually appearing, these tales he occupies a subordinate place, but his productions are above still find readers in Russia. The best of them is Marfa the sentiments expressed are those of a benevolent and healthy;

mediocrity. Many of his lyrics are graceful and melodious, and the Posadnitza of Novgorod, but all are more or less dis- minded man. The little poem entitled The Grave deserves special figured by the sentimentalism already referred to. In 1794 mention. and 1795 Karamsin abandoned his literary journal, and

KARASU-BAZAR, a town of Russia, in the governpublished a miscellany in two volumes, entitled Aglaia, in ment of Taurida, near the rivers Tunas and Karasu, in which appeared, among other things, “The Island of 45° 3' N. lat. and 34° 26' E. long., 27 miles from SimBornholm” and “Ilia Mourometz," a story based upon the pheropol on the road to Theodosia. The site is low, but adventures of the well-known hero of many a Russian it is surrounded by hills, one of which, the Ak-Kaya legend. In 1797-99 he issued another miscellany or or White Rock, not only affords protection from the north poetical almanac, The Aonides, in conjunction with Der- wind, but so reflects the sunshine upon the town that it zhavin and Dmitrieff. In 1798 he compiled the Pantheon, enjoys a much milder climate than the surrounding region. a collection of pieces from the works of the most celebrated The dirty streets full of petty traders, the gloomy bazaar authors ancient and modern, translated into Russian. with its multitude of small shops, the market squares, Many of his lighter productions were subsequently printed the blind alleys, the little gates in the dead court-yard by him in a volume entitled My Trifles. In 1802 and walls, all give the place the stamp of a Tartar or Turkish 1803 Karamzin edited the journal The European Mes- town, and remind the visitor that here was after 1763 senger. It was not till after the publication of this work the seat of the Crimean khans. In 1861 there were that he realized where his strength lay, and commenced his twenty-four mosques, but several have fallen into decay; History of the Russian Empire. In order to accomplish the in one of them is the tomb of Yakubaga-Rudzvitch, the task, he secluded himself for some years; and, on the cause founder of the well-known Crimean family. Of the numeof his retirement becoming known to the emperor Alexander, rous caravanserais, the Tash-Khan is the most notable Karamzin was invited to Tver, where he read to the em- —a strong half-fortified building erected in 1656. Placed peror the first eight volumes of his history. In 1816 he on the high road between Simpheropol and Kertch, and in removed to St Petersburg, where he spent the happiest the midst of a country rich in corn-land, vineyards, and days of his life, enjoying the favour of Alexander, and sub- gardens, Karasu-Bazar used to be a chief seat of commermitting to him the sheets of his great work, which the cial activity in the Crimea ; but it is gradually declining emperor read over with him in the gardens of the palace in importance. The population consists of Armenians, of Tzarskoë Selo. He did not, however, live to carry his Greeks, Jews, Tartars, and (in smaller numbers) Russians. work further than the eleventh volume, terminating it at The bulk of the trade is in the hands of the Armenians, the accession of Michael Romanoff in 1613. In 1825 the and they are also the owners of the great proportion of

the buildings in the town. About 2000 of the Jews are arms and other weapons. Trade is still carried on by what are known as Krimtchaks, or sometimes as Con- barter, there being neither coinage nor fixed market-place stantinopolitan Jews. From the ordinary“ rabbinical in the country. Foreign wares--iron, cotton, silk, combs, Jews" of Russia they differ by wearing the Tartar costume mirrors, soap, &c.-are introduced by merchants from and by the use of the Tartar tongue, instead of the Kashgar and Hissar, who receive in exchange mainly cattle, German jargon. They are engaged in making leather, hides, and skins. Gold, however, is found in various Tartar knives, Tartar embroidery, and similar articles. The places, more particularly at Sarym Saly (according to population of Karasu-Bazar is given by the St Petersburg Abramof); and there are salt-pits in the mountains near Calendar for 1874 as 14,397. Round about the town Langar-sha. The chief town, Harm or Gharm, is a place lie cemeteries of unusual extent.

of some eight hundred houses (Arandarenko says three By Thunman and others Karasu-Bazar has been identified with hundred and forty) situated on a hill on the right bank of the Greek town of Mauron-Kastron, but Professor Bruhn thinks the Surkhab. With the exception of about five thousand that, as there has never apparently been any fortress at Karasu-Bazar, the site of the “Black Castle" is more probably at Mangup-Kale.

tents of nomadizing Kirghiz, the inhabitants of KaraThe caves of Akkaya, however, give evidence of early occupation of tegin are understood to be Galtchas--by some identified the spot. When in 1736 Khan Feta Ghirei was driven by the with, by others distinguished from the Tadjiks. They Russians from Bakhchisarai he settled at Karasu- Bazar, but next speak a Persian dialect and profess the Mohammedan faith. year the town was captured, plundered, and burned by General Schuyler, who met with some of them at Khokand, deDouglas. In 1784 it was the temporary seat of the Russian adminis. tration of the Crimea.

scribes the Karateginese as swarthy, thickset, good-natured KARATCHEFF, a town of Russia, in the government fellows, who, gathered in a circle, would after prayers and of Orel, near the river Snezheti, 59 miles north-west from supper tell tale after tale and legend after legend till they Orel on the railway to Smolensk. The population is given dropped off to sleep. It is calculated that the settled popuin the St Petersburg Calendar for 1874 at 10,023. A yearly fair is held in the adjoining village of Berezhka, and

the number of households being 36,672, distributed among

four hundred settlements. a good trade is carried on in agricultural produce, as well as in the oil, wax candles, ropes, &c., furnished by the local Karategin has hardly been touched by European exploration industry.

(the first expedition was that of Oshanin in 1878); and of its his.

tory almost nothing is known. The native princes or shahs, who Karatcheff is mentioned as early as 1146. In the 17th century claimed to be descended from Alexander the Great, were till 1868 it was one of the frontier or “watch" towns of Russia towards the

practically independent, and kept up a considerable degree of Crimea, and sent out its scouts as far as Kursk. About half the inhabitants perished of the plague in 1654. Only since 1778 has by Khokand, but eventually Bokhara took advantage of intestine

state. Their allegiance was indeed claimed in an ineffective way the town been at the head of a district in Orel ; it formerly feuds to secure their real submission. Some geographers (Kiepert, belonged to the governments of Kieff (1708) and Bielgorod (1732).

for example) have been disposed to recognize in Karategin the KARATEGIN, a country of Central Asia, now subject Parætaceni of Alexander's historians, and Colonel Yule has conto Bokhara, consisting of a highland district between the jecturally identified it with the Holumo (Garma ?) of Hwen Tsang.

See Abramof in Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc., 1871; Arandarenko's Hissar and the Darwaz chains. It is bounded on the N. by paper in the Russische Revue, epitomized in Das Ausland, 1878; the Russian province of Ferghana (Khokand), on the E. by and letters from Oshanin in Globus, 1878. See also Colonel Yule's Kashgar, on the S. by independent Darwaz, and on the W.

essay prefixed to Wood's Journey to the Source of the River Oxus,

1872. by Hissar and other Bokharian provinces. The plateau is traversed by the Surkhab or Kyzyl Su, a right-hand tribu KARAULI, or KEROWLY, a native state in Rajputana, tary of the Oxus, which rises in the Alai mountains, and India, lying between 26° 3' and 26° 49' N. lat., and for the first 132 miles of its course “runs through gorges between 76° 35' and 77° 26' E. long. It is entirely of extreme wildness.” Below the hamlet of Khantia-hota surrounded by neighbouring states, and has an area of (according to Abramof), the valley widens considerably, about 1260 miles, and an estimated population of 140,000. and at Sar-i-pul, the only point where it is crossed by a Almost the entire territory is composed of hills and broken bridge, the river has a depth of 7 feet. With the neigh- ground, but there are no lofty peaks, the highest having bouring lands Karategin has no communication except an elevation of less than 1400 feet above sea-level. The during summer, that is, from May to September. The Chambal river flows along the south-east boundary of winter climate is extremely severe even in the more popu- the state. Iron ore and building stone comprise the lous districts ; the snow begins to fall in October, and it is mineral resources of Karauli. The prevailing agricultural May before it disappears. During the warmer months, how- products are bájra and joár, which form the staple food ever, the mountain sides are richly clothed with the foliage of the people. The only manufactures consist of a little of maple, mountain ash, apple, pear, and walnut trees; the weaving, dyeing, wood-turning, and stone-cutting. The orchards furnish, not only apples and pears, but peaches, principal imports are piece goods, salt, sugar, cotton, bufcherries, mulberries, and apricots; and the farmers grow so faloes, and bullocks; the exports rice and goats. The much corn that the surplus is a regular article of export to Brahmans form the most numerous class of the population. the neighbouring states. Every householder has a portion The Minas, who come next, make up the bulk of the cultiof the soil which he can call his own; but if he leave it vating class. The Rájputs, although numerically few, confallow for more than three years in succession, he runs the stitute the most important section. These belong almost risk of having it confiscated by the Government. Some entirely to the Jadu clan; they make good soldiers, but proprietors possess as much as from 300 to 500 acres, and are indifferent agriculturists. The feudal aristocracy of keep from ten to twelve yoke of work oxen and from six the state consists entirely of Jadu thakúrs conuected to twelve labourers. The necessity of storing fodder to last with the ruling house. They pay a tribute in lieu of for five months tends to keep low the number of domestic constant military service, but in case of emergency or on cattle. Both cattle and horses are of a small and hardy occasions of state display they are bound to attend on the breed. The wild aninials—bears, wolves, foxes, jackals, chief with their retainers. The mahárajá is the head of the lynxes, martens, otters, &c.—are of no small economic im- clan, which claims descent from Krishna. portance; but the hunters and trappers are obliged to sell KARAULI, or KEROWLY, the capital of the above state, their pelts to the Government at half the market price. is situated in 26° 30' N. lat. and 77° 4' E. long. The Rough woollen cloth and mohair are woven by the na res town, wh is fortified, is surrounded by a wall of sandduring their long winter; and they make excellent firestone, and is also protected on the north and east by deep



winding ravines. The streets are narrow and irregular, for home consumption. The growth of the more lucrative crops and alınost impassable for wheeled conveyances ;

there is on the increase. Grain and raw materials are exported to however, many costly houses and handsome temples, the Umballa, Hissár, and Delhi, --- the return trade consisting of Euro

pean piece goods, salt, and refined sugar. A considerable quantity sole building material being sandstone. The population is

of cotton is woven for local use. Sal-ammoniac is obtained from estimated at 28,000.

the clay of Kaithal and Gúla tahsils to the value of £3450 per KARCZAG, or KARDSZAG, a corporate town of Hungary,

Karnál town has a few blanket factories, and ornainental and formerly the capital of the district of Great Cumania glass-ware is made at Pánipat. The Grand Trunk Road connects

Karnál with Delhi and Umballa. The district is administered by. (now included in the county of Jász-Nagy-Kun-Szolnok),

a deputy commissioner. In 1872–73 the revenue was £78,847, lies about 88 miles east-south-east of Budapest, with which of which £67,048 was derived from the land ; and education was city it is connected by railway, in 47° 19' N. lat., 20° 56' afforded by 99 schools, with 2541 pupils. E. long Karczag is a large straggling town, and contains Karnál, as almost every town or stream is connected with the

No district of India can boast of a more ancient history than Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Protestant churches, legends of the Mahábharata. The city of Karnál itself is said to royal and magisterial courts of law, and tax and post owe its foundation to Rájá Karna, the mythical champion of the offices. The soil of the surrounding country is exceedingly Kauravas in the great war which forms the theme of the national humid and fertile, and enormous quantities of melons, epic. Pánipat, in the south of the district, is said to have been

one of the pledges demanded from Duryodhana by Yudisthira as the fruit, grapes, wheat, maize, rape-seed, and mangcorn are

price of peace in that famous conflict. In historical times the grown. In the more marshy places water-fowl and plains of Panipat have three times proved the theatre of battles tortoises are caught in large numbers. Population in which decided the fate of Upper India. It was here that Ibrahim 1880, 15,962, almost exclusively Magyars.

Loli and his vast host were defeated in 1526 by the veteran army KÁRIKAL, a French town and settlement in India, of Baber; in 1556 Akbar reasserted the claims of his family on the

same battlefield against the Hindu general of the house of Sber situated on the south-east coast, within the limits of Tanjore Shah, which had driven the heirs of Baber from the throne for a district, 10° 55' 10" N. lat., 79° 52' E. long., with an area brief interval; and at Pánipat too, on the 7th of January 1761, the of 52 square miles, and a population of 92,516. The site Marhattá confederation was defeated by Ahmed Shah Duráni. was purchased by the French from the Tanjore rajá in 1738. introduce themselves, and in 1767 one of their chieftains, Desu

During the troublous period which ensued, the Sikhs managed to It was captured by the English in 1760, restored in 1765, Sinh, appropriated the fort of Kaithal, which had been built during again taken in 1768, and finally restored in 1816. It the reign of Akbar. His descendants, the Bháis of Kaithal, were

Different forined the base of Lally's operations against Tanjore. The reckoned amongst the most important cis-Sutlej princes. town is neatly built on one of the mouths of the Kaveri portions of this district have lapsed from time to time into the

hands of the British. The towns are not generally in a flourishing (Cauvery), and carries on a brisk trade with Ceylon, condition, but the district possesses considerable commerce and Èurope, and the French colonies, exporting rice, and great agricultural resources. importing chiefly European articles and timber. A chef Karnál, a municipal town, the headquarters of the de l'administration, subordinate to the government at above district, 29° 42' 17" N. lat., 77° 1' 45" E. long., Pondicherri, is in charge of the settlement.

with a population in 1868 of 27,022. The civil station KARMATHIANS. See ARABIA, vol. ii. p. 259, and stretches to the west of the town. The Government mainMOHAMMEDANISM.

tains a large stud farm. There is a brisk trade with Delhi KARNAK. See ARCHITECTURE, vol. ii. p. 390, and and Umballa; country cloth is manufactured for local EGYPT, vol. vii. p. 777.

consumption, and blankets for export, the latter trade emKARNÁL, a district in the lieutenant-governorship of ploying about one hundred looms. the Punjab, India, lying between 29° 9' and 30° 11' N. KAŘNÚL, a district in Madras, India, bounded on the lat., and between 76° 13' and 77° 15' 30'' E. long., bounded N. by the Tungabhadra and Kistna rivers and by Kistna on the N. by Umballa (Ambala) and the Patiala state, district, S. by Cuddapah and Bellary, E. by Nellore and W. by Patiála and Jind states and by Rohták district, S. Kistna, and W. by Bellary, lies between 14° 54' and 16° by Delhi district, and E. by the Jumna river. The area 14' N. lat., and between 77° 46' and 79° 15' E. long., is 2351 square miles. Karnal forms a portion of the low with an area of 7151 square miles. dividing ridge which separates the watersheds of the Indus

Two long mountain ranges, the Nallamalais and the and the Jumna. The district falls naturally into two Yellamalais, extend in parallel lines, north and south, divisions--the bángar, or upland plain, and the khádar, or through the centre of the district. The principal heights low-lying land, which skirts the valley of the great river. of the Nallamalai range are Biranikonda (3149 feet), The banks of the larger streams are fringed with magnificent Gundlabráhmeswaram (3055 feet), and Durugapukonda forest trees, and groves of mangoes mark the neighbourhood (3086 feet). The Yellamalai is a low range, generally of every temple or homestead. Irrigation is afforded by flat-topped with scarped sides; the highest point is about the western Jumna canal. As a whole, Karnál is better 2000 feet. Several low ridges run parallel to the supplied with trees than most of the plain country of Nallamalais, broken here and there by gorges, through the Punjab. The Jumna itself here presents the usual which mountain streams take their course. Several of characteristics of the upper part of its course. Sandbanks these gaps were dammed across under native rule, and shift from one side to the other of the main channel, and tanks formed for purposes of cultivation. One of these from time to time the whole stream suddenly changes its is the magnificent Cumbum Tank, closed in by a dam bed, transferring half a dozen villages together from Muzaf across the Gundlakamma river. It covers an area of nearly farnagar to Karnal, or vice versa. The district is famous 15 square miles. The principal rivers are the Tunfor its sport.

gabhadra and Kistna, which bound the district on the The population in 1868 amounted to 610,927 (330,763 males and worth. When in flood, the Tungabhadra averages 900 280,164 females)-Hindus, 356,305; Mohammedans, 151,723 ; and yards broad and 15 feet deep. In 1860 an auicut or “others,” 93,604. Játs numbered 74,840, representing the chief weir was built across the river at Sunkesala, 18 miles agricultural element ; Bráhmans, 52,396, most of them engaged in above Karnul town, and a canal dug for irrigation and tillage ; Rajputs, 47,860, chiefly Mohammedans ; Chamárs, the landless labouring class, 37,053 ; pastoral Gújars, 20,857, about one-third navigation. The Kistna flows here chiefly through unof them Mohammedans. Five towns have a population exceeding inhabited jungles, sometimes in long smooth reaches, 5000, viz., Karnál, 27,022; Pánipat, 25,276; Báithal, 14, 940; Sewán, with intervening, shingly rapids.

The Bhavanási rises 6206; and Kunjpurah, 5163. The area under cultivation is 645, 120 on the Nallamalais, and falls into the Kistna at Suncultivable. The principal spring crop is wheat; the autumn harvest gameswaram, a place of pilgrimage. Below their juncconsists of rice, cotton, and sugar-cane, besides millets and pulses tion is a whirlpool which is regarded as holy by the

native pilgrims. There are three recognized forest divi- | and the surrounding country suffered terribly, owing to sions in the district—the Nallamalai, the Vellikonda, their isolated position. The nearest railway station is and the Yellamalai. The first two are conserved by the Gooty, 80 miles distant; and it was only by extraordinary forest department. The chief timber-trees are teak and efforts that food was conveyed to the town. The populayepi. In the northern parts, where the jungle is poor, tion is half Hindu and half Moslem, this unusual proporthere are extensive level grassy lands, which afford pasture tion marking the long rule of the Pathán nawábs. to numerous herds of cattle. The jungle products consist KARS, a fortified town of Armenia, formerly at the of gall-nuts, honey, wax, tamarinds, stick-lac, and bamboo head of a sandjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzeroum, rice. Tigers are numerous in the Nallamalais, and commit but since 1878 the centre of a territory attached to the great havoc among the herds of cattle pastured in the Russian governor-generalship of the Caucasus. It is jungles. The other animals include cheetahs, wolves, situated in 40° 36' 52" N. lat. and 43° 5' 76'' E. long., hyænas, foxes, bears, spotted deer, wild goats, several 30 miles south-west of Alexandropol (Gumri) and 130 varieties of antelopes, bison, porcupines, and pigs. miles north-east of Erzeroum, on the eastern end of a

The population in 1871 numbered 914,432, of whom 819,453 spur of the Soghanli Dagh, the site of the town proper chiefly Roman Catholics, whose principal station is at Polur. The being cut off from the rest of the range by the Kars Tchai, Catholics originally belonged to the Kapu caste, and their conver

a sub-tributary of the Araxes. There are three considerable sion to Christianity has not made any material change in their suburbs–Orta Kapi to the south, Bairam Pasha to the east, manners and customs. They eat and drink with Hindus, and in and Timur Pasha on the western side of the river. To the several cases intermarry with them. The Protestant converts are south-eastward opens up a vast plain. Owing to the almost entirely low-caste natives in rural tracts. The wild tribes or Chenchus live on the Nallamalais in small communities called bareness of the dark basalt hills, and the sombre colour of gudems. Each gudem includes several tribes, and has a portion of the buildings, a touch of melancholy mingles with the the hills allotted to it by common consent. The Chenchus are picturesqueness of the view. At the north-west corner of unwilling to cultivate, but are sometimes employed by the villagers the town, overhanging the river, rises the ancient citadel in the plains to watch their fields during the harvest, and some of the Itch Kaleh of the Turks), which in earlier times was they collect fees from pilgrims. Some of them also enjoy free a strong military post, but is now of almost no moment in lands for guarding the jungles. The principal towns are Karnúl a regular siege, being commanded completely by several of (population in 1871, 25,579), Nandial (9378), Cumbum (7137), Gudur (5825), Meddikera (8586), Kodumuúr (6064), and Paikali depends on the line of forts, and even this is greatly

the surrounding eminences. The value of the position (5076). The chief crops are rice, wheat, and other cereals, gram, cotton,

diminished by the fact that they are disposed in a circuit tobacco, indigo, sugar-cane, betel, chillies, &c. The staple of the of about 10 miles round the town. Of chief importance district is cholam (Sorghum vulgare). The total area under cultivation in 1877 was 2,083,689 acres, area uncultivated but capable of and the line on the heights above the left bank of the river.

are the works on the Kara Dagh heights to the north-east cultivation 1,017,389 acres, and uncultivable waste 1,396,602 acres. There is not much waste land in the plains, but there is a good

The population of Kars was at one time estimated at deal in the Nallamalais, which was cultivated in ancient times, but | 40,000; but, according to Baron von Seidlitz, it had in is now overgrown with jungle. The main canal of the Madras 1878 only 8672 inhabitants (including 7330 Turks, 1191 Irrigation Company, intended for both irrigation and navigation, runs 142 miles within Karnúl; the extent actually irrigated in

Armenians, 138 Greeks). 1875-76 was 10,479 acres. Both Karnúl and the neighbouring Though during the 9th and 10th centuries the seat of an indedistrict of Bellary suffer from dre hts at periodic intervals; and, vendent Armenian principality, Kars has nothing to boast of beyond the mass of the population being small landowners, with no reserve its military fame. The citadel, it would appear, was built by capital, the failure of a single monsoon involves general distress; Amurath III. during the war with Persia, in the close of the 16th 1804, 1810, 1824, 1833, 1854, 1866, and 1876 were all years of century. It was strong enough to stand a siege by Nadir Shah in drought and consequent scarcity. In the famine of 1876-77 nearly 1731, and in 1807 it successfully resisted the Russians. After a £600,000 was spent on relief works, yet the number of deaths brave defence it surrendered on 230 June 1828 to the Russian recorded from 1st October 1876 to 30th June 1877 was 48,000, as general Paskievitch, 11,000_men becoming prisoners of war. compared with 19,974 in the corresponding period of the previous During the Crimean war the Turkish garrison, guided and stimuyear. The chief manufacture in Karnúl is weaving.. Iron is worked lated by General Williams (afterwards knighted as Sir W. Fenwick at the foot of the Nallamalais. Of late years this industry has Williams of Kars) and other foreign officers, kept the Russians greatly diminished, native iron being superseded for agricultural gallantly at bay during a protracted siege ; but, after the garrison implements by imported iron. Diamond mines have been worked had been devastated by cholera, and food had utterly failed, nothing from early times in the quartzite beds of the Yellamalai hills, which was left but to capitulate (November 1855). The fortress was are now rented out by Government for about £20 a year. Quarry- again stormed by the Russians in the war of 1877–78. ing stones is an important industry. Indigo and sugar are also See Kmety, The Defence of Kars, 1856, translated from the German; Lake, manufactured. Weekly markets are held in most of the towns and Kars and our Captivity in Russia, 1856, and Narratire of the Defence of Kars, important villages. There is little or no export of grain. Salt is

1857; Dr Sandwith, The Siege of Kars, 1856; C. B. Norman, Armenia and the

Campaign of 1877, 1878; Greene, Russian Army and its Campaigns in Turkey, imported from the eastern coast, but earth salt is largely manufactured. Cotton, indigo, tobacco, and hides, with cotton carpets and cotton cloth, are the chief exports. exports. European piece goods,

KARSHI, an important town of Central Asia, the areca-nut, cocoa-nut, and various dry condiments required for centre of a begship dependent on Bokhara. It is situated native households are the chief imports. The total net revenue of about 85 miles south-south-west of Samarkand, in a vast the district in 1870-71 was £196,468, the total civil expenditure £46,998; the land revenue was £135,929. Education is backward,

plain at the junction of two of the main confluents of only 4 per cent. of the population in 1871 being returned as able the Kashkadarya, a river which, though fed by numerto read and write. In 1875 there were altogether 263 schools, with ous mountain streams, soon loses itself in the sands. It 5781 pupils. The climate is on the whole healthy. The prevailing is a large and straggling place, with a circuit of 5 miles, winds are west and north-east, and the mean temperature is about

and the population within the walls amounts to 25,000. 85° Fahr. The total annual rainfall is about 35 inches. In the villages along the foot of the Nallamalais, a severe type of fever

There are three colleges, with accommodation for upwards prevails, accompanied by enlargement of the spleen.

of three hundred students. The Biki mosque is a fine KARNÚL, the headquarters of the above district, in building inlaid with blue and white tiles. All the ordinary 15° 49' 58" N. lat. and 78° 5' 29" E. long., had a popu- houses are built of clay, but they are often two stories high. lation in 1871 of 25,579. It is a hot unpleasant town, Along the river stretches a fine public promenade sheltered built on rocky soil at the junction of the Hindri and by clumps of poplars. Round the town lie gardens and Tungabhadra rivers. The old Hindu fort was levelled in fields watered from wells. Poppies and tobacco are both 1865, with the exception of one of the gates, which was largely grown, the tobacco being deemed the best in preserved as a specimen of ancient architecture, and in Central Asia. There is also a considerable trade in grain; some measure restored. In the famine of 1877-78 Karnúl

In the famine of 1877-78 Karnúl / but the commercial prosperity of Karshi is mainly due to


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