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12. That we are to perform three sorts of duties : first, such as belong to God; secondly, such as relate to our neighbours; and thirdly, such as concern ourselves.
13. Who are those people called Protestants or Reformed?
14. Those who have separated from the church of Rome, which was first effected by the preaching of Luther,t Melancthon, I and others, in the sixteenth century,
15. What do you mean by the Church of Rome?
16. By the Church of Rome, I mean those people who adhere to Popery; they are generally called Roman Catholics or Papists.
* The word or term Protestant now generally means all Christians that deny the Pope's supremacy, and several other doctrines of the Church of Rome. The name was first given to the reformed in Germany, being those who adhere to the doctrines of Luther and Melancihon ; because, in 1529, they protested against a decree or order of the Emperor Charles V., who, at the Diet of Spires, summoned this meeting of the several states, to procure aid from the German Princes against the Turks, and to devise means for allaying or quieting religious disputes. In this assembly, it was ordered that the mass should be universally observed throughout the empire. But the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburgh, &c. entered their protest against this decree, on which account the reformed party acquired the name of Pro, testants, being derived from the verb to protest, which signifies to make a solemn declaration, used with against ; as, “ I protest against your decrees.”
After this, the Princes entered into a league for their mutual defence against the Emperor. In 1530, Melancthon drew up the Confession of Augsburgh, which was received as the standard of the Protestant faith in Germany.
Melancthon's temper differed materially from Luther's, being more cautious and timid, on which account Luther often reproved him in
Luther was more courageous and daring, and set the Pope's decrees at defiance.
+ Luther (Martin), the great reformer, was born at Isleben, in Saxony, in 1483; and died 1546, aged 63.
Melancthon (Philip), a famous reformer, was born at Bretton in Germany, in 1497, and died in 1560, aged 63.
§ Rome, the capital city of Italy.
17. They are called Papists, from the Pope, * who is at the head of their Church.
18. Whom do you call Pagans or Heathens ?
19. Those who worship and adore false gods, or give those honours to creatures, or to the work of man's hand, which are only due to God.
20. Are all the religions in this country tolerated ?
21. Yes, but the Protestant or Reformed Faith, as effected by Luther and his followers, is that which is established by law; those who differ from it, in any way, are called Dissenters, of which there are many classes; the principal are the Methodists and Presbyterians.
22. -When and where first arose the Methodists?
23. They first arose about the year 1738; and the appellation of Methodists was originally given to a society of young men at Oxford, who professed to live by rule or method. This name however is now applied to all those who adhere to the doctrines of Whitfield,+ Wesley, &c.
24. Whence is the appellation of Presbyterians ?
25. From Presbyter, signifying an Elder. For they are so denominated from maintaining that the government of the Church, as appointed by the Apostles, in the New Testament, was by Presbyteries; that is, by Ministers and ruling elders, associated for its management and discipline. *
* The Bishop of Rome, who claims sovereign power over all, as being the Vicegerent of God; endowed with infallibility, and invested with the keys of heaven and hell.
+ Whitfield, (George), one of the founders of the Methodists, was born in 1714, at Gloucester, and died in New England, in America, 1770, aged 56.
# Wesley, (John), another founder of the Methodists, was born at Epworth, in Lincolnshire, in 1703, and died in London in 1791, aged 88.
1. Me"-lo-dy, s. harmony of sound.
Be-ne''-vo-lent, a. kind. 5. Pas'-si-ons, s. (pro. pash-uns,) any commotions of the mind aris
ing from the manner in which it considers things as amiable
or hurtful; as anger, love, zeal, ardour, lust, &c. 7. Hip'-pi-as, s. a tyrant King of Athens, in Greece.
An exclamation is an expression of the mind when delighted, agitated, or amazed : hence this note is used for every form of speech which expresses wonder, surprise, joy, and dislike; it therefore requires an elevation of the voice, as the term implies. 1. How beautiful is the face of Nature !
And how delightful it is to walk abroad!
What a delightful melody in the woods ! 2. How majestic is the sun! Ah! how great and wonderful are the works of
God! Behold the happy effects of virtue ! How respectable is the good man ! * The Presbyterians affirm, that there is no order in the church, as established by Christ and his Apostles, superior to that of Presbyters; that all Ministers being Ambassadors of Christ are equal to their commission : and that Elder or Presbyter, and Bishop, are the same in name and office; for which they allege, Acts IX. 28, &c.
3. How amiable his character !
How honourable his pursuits !
How pleasing are his manners! 4. How rational his pleasures!
How benevolent his mind !
How much he is beloved !
How blissful his hopes !
6. These are thy glorious works, Parent of good! Almighty! Thine this universal frame! Thus wondrous fair! Thyself, how wondrous then!
7. O Hippias! Hippias ! I shall never see thee again! O my dear Hippias! It is I-cruel and relentless, that taught thee to despise death ! Cruel gods !* you prolonged my life, only that I might see the death of Hippias !
8. O my dear child! whom I had brought up with so much care, I shall see thee no more! O dear shade! call me to the banks of the Styx,f the light grows hateful to me; it is thee only, my dear Hippias, that I wish to see again!
9. Hippias ! Hippias ! O my dear Hippias ! all I now live for, is to pay my last duty to thy ashes!
* In Heathen Mythology; idols or false gods, being nothing mor than artificial representations of some persons or things used as objects of adoration. Heathen Mythology is an explanation of the fablesɔr fabulous history of the ancient heathens.
+ Styx, a small river not far from Athens, whose waters the Heathens held in the greatest veneration.
There are also other marks used in writing besides those mentioned in Chapter I. which, though they do not affect the voice as pauses, yet are very necessary to the sense, either to point out something remarkable or defective, or used as references to elucidations in the margin.
E-lu-ci-da’-tion, s. an explanation.
surrounds the reading. (Any brink, edge, or verge.) 2. O-mis'-si-on, s. the act of forbearing to do something that ought to
be done; a neglect. Con-tract, v. to shorten, to abridge. Po'-e-try, s. pieces in verse.
Prose, s. the natural language of mankind. 4. Be-neath', ad. under, below; (unworthy of.) 5. Pas'-sage, s. a single sentence or paragraph in a book. (A road,
a journey by water.) The marks, alluded to above, are as follow, with their explanation annexed.
1. AN ACCENT, marked thus ( ) is placed over a vowel, or at the end of a syllable, to denote that the stress or force of the voice, in pronouncing a word, must be on that syllable over which is this mark, as com’ment, to comment-This is called the ACUTE. The grave accent is marked (
2. An APOSTROPHE, marked thus, (') denotes the omission of a letter or letters, for the sake of a quicker pronunciation; as lov'd for loved, can't for cannot. It is frequently used to contract two words into one, as I'm, for I am ; I'll, for I will, which takes place in poetry, in order to make each line contain the same number of feet or syllables. This mode of suppression should never be used in prose, except to denote the genitive case * of nouns;
* The genitive case is that by which property or possession is chiefly implied.