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61. The Romans and Latins* took their alphabet from the Greeks, but put them into another shape; and we fashioned our's after the model of the Roman characters; but the alphabet, called the Old English, was formed from the Saxons,t which is more like the Phenician.
62. The art of writing was first invented by Cadmus, King of Thebes, whose alphabet consisted of sixteen letters; to which Palamedest added four, and Simonides the same number.
63. The following verses made in French by M. Brebeuf, who composed it in praise of writing, are worth committing to memory:
This noble art from CADMUS took its rise,
Give colour and a body to the thought. 64. The Hebrews, struck with admiration thereof, called it Dikduk, that is, subtle invention.
65. The Americans, when they first saw a person read from a book, believed that the paper spoke. The following anecdote is à propos to it.
66. An Indian slave, being sent by his master with a basket of figs and a letter, ate up part of the fruit, and conveyed the remainder to the person to whom he was directed, who having read the letter, and not finding the quantity of figs there mentioned, accused the slave of tating them, telling him what the paper said against him.
* The language of the Romans was called Latin, from Rome being the capital or metropolis of the whole kingdom, and standing or situated in the province of Latium.
† The Saxons were a people of Saxony, in the north of Germany. 1 A celebrated Grecian.
§ A famous Grecian.
67. But the Indian confidently denied the fact, cursing the paper as a lying witness.
68. After this'he was sent again on the same commission, and with a letter expressing the number of figs to be delivered. But he again devoured part of them by the way; and in order to prevent accusation, he first hid the letter under a great stone, assuring himself that if it did not see him eat the figs, it could never tell of him. 69. But being now more strongly accused than before, he confessed the fault, and held in admiration the divinity of the paper.
70. Logic. Logic is the art of reasoning justly; it teaches how to distinguish between truth and error ; and yet farther, between truth and only the appearance of it. This science includes the judgment, will, memory, and knowledge; and indeed comprehends all the sensations and operations of the human mind.
71. Mathematics. Mathematics is the science of all kinds of quantity whatever, that can be numbered or measured.
72. That part which treats of numbering is called Arithmetic; and that which concerns measuring, or figured extension, Geometry.
73. All the arts and sciences have a connexion with Mathematics. Architecture can never be understood without it: Geography, Astronomy, Pneumatics,* Hydrostatics, &c. are founded on this science.
74. The study of Mathematics is most desirable, independent of its practical utility in the arts of life. It gives exercise to invention, tends to the enlargement of the mental
powers, assists reason in her operations, and is the best introduction to rational knowledge.
+ Pro. Nu matiks.
75. Mechanics, is a mathematical science, which teaches the nature and laws of motion, the action and force of moving bodies, and the construction of machines and engines.
76. Mechanics shew the motions of bodies arising from gravity ; and also the application of the mechanic powers. The mechanic powers are—the Lever, Wheel, and Axle,* Pully, Inclined Planet Wedge, and Screw. 77. These powers are simple instruments, that enable men to raise heavy weights, more heavy bodies, and overcome resistance, which they could not do with their natural strength alone.
78. Medicine. Medicine is that art which consists in the knowledge of diseases to which the human body is subject, and in applying proper remedies to remove or relieve them.
79. Music. Music is the practice of harmony, arising from a combination of melodious sounds; being one of the seven or liberal sciences..
80. Navigation. Navigation is the art of conducting a ship upon the water; which is done by the help of sea charts, the mariner's compass, winds, sails, &c. and by observing the sun, moon, and stars.
81. The first vessel that ever went upon the sea, of which we have any account, was Noah's ark, Genesis vi. 14. 82. And it is very likely the observation of this, by the children of Noah, gave cause to the building of vessels, and also to the art of navigation.
* A piece of wood, &c. which passes through the centre of a wheel on which it turns.
t Is any sort of plane that makes an oblique angle with the horizon, as that of a ladder when placed or inclined against a wall,
83. Optics. Opties is the science of vision, which treats of sight in general; and shews why objects appear greater or smaller, more distinct or more confused, nearer or more remote.
84. The instruments commonly used in this science are the mirror, prism, microscope, telescope, &c.
85. Painting. Painting is the art of representing natural bodies, and even giving them the appearance of life, by the draught of lines, and the different degrees of colours.
86. Painting is one of the fine arts. A good painter must possess an original genius.
87. Pharmacy. Pharmacy is the art of choosing, preparing, and mixing medicines. It is the business or employment of an apothecary.
88. Philosophy. Philosophy is the knowledge of nature and morality, founded on reason and experience. It divides itself into natural and moral.
89. Natural Philosophy investigates the causes and effects of the manners of nature, and the actions of bodies on each other.
90. Moral Philosophy is that science which teaches men their duty, and the reasons of it.
91. Physiognomy. Physiognomy is that art which pretends to know the humours or dispositions of a person from his external form.
92. Poetry. Poetry is a speaking picture, representing, in verse, real or fictitious events, by a succession of harmonious sounds, generally delivered in measured numbers.
93. Most people are very fond of poetry, and the greatest geniuses have given their minds up to it; but notwithstanding that, it is the most unprofitable art of any, and ought to be studied only by way of amusement; for those who apply closely to it, often render themselves incapable of studying things more useful.
94. Politics is the art of governing and regulating the affairs of a state or kingdom, for the maintenance of the public safety, order, and tranquillity.
95. Printing is the art of taking impressions from characters or figures, moveableor immoveable, on paper, linen, silk, &c. There are three kinds of printing; the one from moveable letters for books; the other from copper-plates for pictures, &c.; and the last from blocks, in which the representation of birds, flowers, &c. are cut, for calicoes, linens, &c. The first is called letter-press printing ; the second, copper-plate printing ; and the last, calico printing.
96. Religion. Religion is the worship offered to God in the manner we conceive to be the most agreeable to his will, in order to procure his blessing and avoid his displeasure.
97. It is by religion that society is held together in mutual confidence, love, and peace; and by which the mind of man is formed to justice, benevolence, industry, and economy.
98. Sculpture. Sculpture is the art of carving in wood, stone, or marble, and forming therein the images of various figures.
99. Surgery. Surgery is the art of healing, which consists in curing wounds by suitable applications,