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JAMES MADISON TO JAMES MONROE ON WEST INDIES SLAVERY IN 1816.

From the original manuscript in the New York Public Library.

Montp". July 26 1816.

DEAR SIR

I have just reco. yours of the 24" Mr Coler leaves me this moment on his way to Washington. There will certainly be an advantage in sending him in a pub: vessel; and I am glad it can be done with so little expence. If the Cong" will suffice for this purpose it will be better than to send the Guerriere which may possibly be wanted for other service.

You have not yet alluded to any correspondence with De Neuville, whose letter to you & my answer were sent for your perusal, and the latter for your judgment on its expediency If they did not get to your hands be so good as to mention it, that the accident may be repaired. If my answer was not decreed objectionable & was forwarded be so good as to return the letter of De Neuville, I think you have on hand some other letters to be returned

Herewith are the communications from M: Adams. He pinches Castlereah not a little I always suspected that the enlistments & apprenticeships of captured Negroes in the W" Ind’ would be the refuge ago; the allegations on our part. But if the former be for life & the latter for 14 years even for those of mature age, & both be found as the law and order in Council shew how can either be a situation in which the unfortunate blacks are protected in the priveleges of freemen? Nor is it conceivable that the Act of Parl; which contemplates evidently the african trade and seizures on the high seas, can be fairly applied to negroes in the U States in a slavery originating with G. B herself seduced or forced thereupon with her sanction and reco on board vessels within the waters of the U. S. As the B. Gov' presses a full scrutiny into the charges ago its officers whether wth a view to discredit this Govt or for whatever other purpose it will be proper to promote the establishment of the trade. It will be particularly proper to keep in the front of this transaction the inviting proclamation of the B Commander and the bondage de facto into which it is admitted that the negroes are placed under the name of pardon & protection. I hope M. Adams will not fail in the most suitable stage of the business to do justice to this view of the subject. It will put our charges on defensible ground, even if we fail to establish what is fairly to be believed that the captives or fugitives in question were sold into the ordinary slavery of the W. Indies. The object of L4 Castlereah evidently is to draw the question to a point most difficult of proof and in the failure of it to avail himself of an ostentatious zeal for an impracticable investigation

Yours
J MADison

WILLIAM CAMPBELL TO CHARLES CUMMINGS ON THE BATTLE OF GUILFORD COURT HOUSE, 1781.

Printed from the original manuscript in the New York Public Library.

AsPEN-VILLE, 28th MARCH 1781 REVEREND AND DEAR SIR

I got home last Monday Evening in good health from my Excursion into N9 Carolina, and had the Happiness to find my little Family well

I imagine you have already heard the particulars of the Action at Whitsill's Mill on the sixth Instant and make no doubt but those of the Action near Guilford Court House, will be satisfactory to you General Greene having collected an Army of 4500 Men at the High Rock Ford of Haw River began his march from that place, in quest of the Enemy, on Monday the 12th Inst, and determined to give them Battle the first Opportunity. General Cornwallis lay at that time within two or three miles of Guilford Court House on a Branch called Buffaloe, and upon General Greene's advancing toward him, he retired into a Fork of Deep-River about eight Miles above the Courthouse. Our Army got up to Guilford C. House in the Evening of the 14th, and encamped about a Mile above it that Night Myself and Colo Lynch who had the Command of the Corps of Riflemen, with Colonels Washington and Lee of the light Dragoons were advanced about a Mile in Front of the Army and about seven miles from the Enemy Early next morning we had Intelligence of the Enemy being in Motion and marching towards us, upon which Col? Lee with his Legion, and about 30 of my Riflemen under the Command of Captain Fata of the Augusta Militia, went out to meet them, while the rest of the Riflemen, and Colo Washington's Horse, formed at our Encampment to Support them in their Retreat back They met with the Van of the Enemy about two Miles from where we were formed, and immediately began to Skirmish with them, and continued retreating and fighting with them near half an hour, which disconcerted and retarded the Enemy very Considerably In the mean time the main Body of our Army was formed about three quarters of a Mile in rear of us, and upon the Legions reinforcing us, we were ordered back to take our Position in the Line of Battle We had not been formed there above ten Minutes before the Canonade began in the Center, which lasted about 15 Minutes in which time the Enemy were forming by filing off to the right & Left and then immediately advanced upon our Troops, upon which the firing of the small Arms began The Virginia Regulars & Militia, with the first Maryland Regt behaved with the greatest Bravery, and the Riflemen who acted upon the Wings have done themselves honor: But unhappily a whole Brigade of the No Carolina Militia, of about IOOO Men abandoned their Post upon the first onset; many of them never fired their Guns, and almost the whole of them threw away their Arms and

WILLIAM CAMPBELL ON THE BATTLE OF GUILFORD COURT HOUSE 465

fled with the greatest Precipitation To this Misfortune is attributed our being obliged to quit the Field, tho the Battle was maintained long and obstinately; all agree that it lasted two hours & a half, and I think myself it was considerably more. The Enemy followed us no farther than the Heights just above Guilford C. House, and our Army retreated in good Order to Speedwell Furnace which is about ten Miles below, there the most of the Troops who were dispersed in the Action assembled next day. The Enemy lay at Guilford Court House from thursday till Sunday 12 OClock (being employ'd in burning their dead and taking care of their wounded), and that Evening retreated to New-Garden Meeting House where they left a Number of their wounded and wrote to General Greene requesting they might not be ill treated by the Americans. The next day (Monday) they continued their Retreat to Centre Meeting House, and next morning I left Camp & have not had any certain Intelligence from them since, tho' I make no doubt but there has been another Battle, as I have every Reason to believe that General Greene intended a pursuit. The Return of our kill'd and wounded does not amount to more than 250 Men; that of the Enemy is said from the last Accounts to be near 1000, among whom are some of their principal Officers—Col? Loveless & Major Stuart of the Regiment of Guards are killed, General O’Hara mortally wounded, and the favorite Tarleton shot through the Hand. We have no Officer higher than a Major killed, and only one of that Rank; General Stephens was shot through the thigh. Tho we lost the Battle, our Army is now as formidable as at the first, and such another victory must ruin the Enemy. Their Numbers after the last Action were not more than 17oo effective Men, and I could not learn they had any Expectation of a Reinforcement. Our Affairs, in my Opinion, are in a more favorable train to the Southward, than they have been since the reduction of Charles Town, and I flatter myself the destruction of the British Army to the Southward is at hand, which will, and that alone, restore peace to all the Southern department. Before I conclude you will please to give me leave, just to hint to you, that I purpose to offer myself a Candidate at the ensuing Election for Representatives of this County in General Assembly, and if I am not so unhappy as to have forfeited your Confidence and Esteem you will permit me to request your Interest on that Occasion. I have resigned my Commission as Col? of Washington County, as I thought I could not hold it longer with honor, but I esteem the People, and wish to devote every faculty I am possessed of to their service, wherein I can do it with Credit

I am, with perfect Respect and Esteem dear Sir
Your most obd; and very hble Serv.
WM. CAMPBELL.

Mrs Campbell gives her best Compliments to Yourself and M* Cummins; You will please to make mine agreeable to her. W. C.

[Addressed:] To the Reverend Mr Charles Cummings, Wolf Hill.

LIST OF WORKS IN THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY RELATING TO MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE.

Order of Arrangement:

Bibliography.
History (including PRIMITive MARRIAGE).
GENERAL AND Miscellaneous.

Prohibited DEGREEs, etc.
Regional (ALPHABEtical by Countries).

Besides titles here noted reference must be made to the extensive source-material on marriage, the family, and related topics, contained in works on anthropology, ethnology, sociology, histories of civilization, law, etc.; further, to the general bibliographies, such as Poole's Index, Fortescue's Subject index of modern works in the British Museum, Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica, etc.

General records of vital statistics, parish and other local registers, marriage licences, etc., are not

included in this list.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Colondre (J.) Bibliographie. (In his: Mariage et divorce... Toulouse, 1904. nar. 4°. pp. 3-6.) Howard (George Elliott). Bibliographical index. (In his: History of matrimonial institutions. Chicago, 1904. 8°. v. 3, pp. 263-402.) Arranged in five groups: Early history of matrimonial institutions; Matrimonial institutions in England and under Germanic and canon law; Matrimonial institutions in the United States: Problems of matrimony and the family; Session laws and collected statutes used. A preliminary page gives a synopsis of location of lists of authorities in miscellaneous, general, and collected works.

Huth (Alfred Henry). Index to books and papers on marriage between near kin. (In Index Soc. Pub., v. 4. Rept. of 1st an. meet., 1879.) I*** (M. le C. d’), pseud. of Jules GAY. Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs à l'amour, aux femmes, au mariage... par M. le C. d’I*** [i.e., Jules Gay] Paris: J. Gay, 1864. 1 p.l., v-xi p., 81o col. 2. ed. 8°. Iwasaki (Kojiro). Bibliography. (In his: Das japanische Eherecht. Leipzig, 1904. 8°. p. 7.) Ringwalt (Ralph Curtis). A federal divorce law. (In his: Briefs on public questions... Mew York, 1905. 12°. pp. 194–201.) Schmidt (Karl). Titel der benutzten Bücher, mit Angaben über Lebenszeit der Verfasser. (In his: Jus primae noctis, Freiburg im Breisgau, 1881. 8°. pp. xiii-xliii.) HISTORY. Achelis (T.) Die Entwicklung der Ehe. 3 l., 125 pp. Berlin: E. Felber, 1893. 8”. (Beitr. zur Volks- u. Völkerkunde. Bd. 2.) Bachofen (J. J.) Das Mutterrecht; eine Untersuchung über die Gynaikokratie der alten Welt nach ihrer religiösen und rechtlichen Natur. 2. Aufl. Basel: B. Schwabe, 1897. 4 p.l., v-xl, 440 pp., 9 pl. 4°. Buedinger (Max). Der Patriciat und das Fehderecht in den letzten Jahrzehnten der römischen Republik, eine staatsrechtliche. Untersuchung. (Kais. Akad. d. Wissensch. Phil.-hist. Classe. Denksch. Bd. 361. pp. 81-126. Wien, 1888. f*.

Burghold (Julius). Ueber die Entwicklung der Ehe. (Nord u. Süd. v. 98, pp. 83–99; 198–223. Breslau, 1901.) Calabar (The) marriage law and custom, compiled from notes collected by natives of Old Calabar, and forwarded to the African Society by J. C. Cotton. (Jour. African Soc. v. 4, pp. 427-430. London, 1904.) Camps (François de), abbé. Des filles de la maison de France, et autres princesses qui ont été données en mariage à des princes herétiques ou païens. (In Leber, C. Col. d. diss., v. 18. 1838.) Colondre (Jules). Mariage et divorce. Le divorce par consentement mutuel. Étude historique ... Toulouse. Impr. Saint-Cyprien, 1904. 1 p.l., 256 pp. nar. 4°. Coppello (S. van de). *De conjugio in statu naturali. Zugd. Batav. [1743] 26 pp. 8 (4°). Crane (J. M.) The evolution of the family. Chicago, Ill M. Harman, 1900. 46 pp. nar. 24'. (Light Bearer Library. New Series, v. 1, no. 1.) Crawley (Ernest). The mystic rose: a study of primitive marriage. London: Macmillan & Co., 1902. xviii, 492 pp. 8”. Critchlow (F. L.) On the forms of betrothal and wedding ceremonies in the old-French Romans d'aventure. (Modern Philol. v. 2, pp. 497-537. Chicago, 1905.) Crooke (W.) The lifting of the bride. (Folklore. v. 13, pp. 226–251. London, 1902.) Cunow (H.) Die Verwandtschafts-Organisationen der Australneger; ein Beitrag zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Familie. Stuttgart: J. H. W. Dietz, 1894. viii, 190 pp. 4°. Dirksen ([Heinrick Eduard]). Die Wirksam. keit der Ehegelöbnisse, nach den Bestimmungen einzelner Ortsrechte im Bereiche der römischen Herrschaft. (Kön. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss. Berlin. Abh. Philol.-Hist. Kl. 1848, pp. 89–11o. Berlin, 1850. 4°.) [Divers contrats de mariage du XVIe et du XVIIe siècles.] (Mém. et doc. publiés par la soc. savoisienne d'hist. et d'archéol. v. 42 (ser. 2, v.17). pp. ci-cxvii. Chambéry, 1903.)

History, cont'd. Du Méril (Édélestand Pontas). Des formes du mariage et des usages populaires qui s'y rattachaient, surtout en France, pendant le Moyen Age. [Anon.] n. t.-p. [Paris, 1861.] 84 pp. 8°. Eerde (J. C. van). Een huwelijk bij de Minangkabausche Maleiers. Zeden en gesprekken. (Tijdschr. voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. v. 44, pp. 387–511. Batavia, 1901.) Engels (F.) Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums, und des Staats; im Anschluss an L. H. Morgan's Forschungen. Stuttgart, 1886. 2. ed. 8°. Esmein (A.) Trois documents sur le mariage par vente. (Nouv. rev. hist. de droit français & 4tranger. v. 23, pp. 613-621. Paris, 1899.) Fahrner (Ignaz). Geschichte der Ehescheidung im kanonischen Recht. Theil I. Freiburg i. B.: Herder, 1903. I v. 8°. Th. 1, Geschichte des Unauflöslichkeitsprinzips und der... Scheidung der Ehe. Fayet (A. Nougarède), baron de. Lois du mariage et de divorce depuis leur origine dans le droit Romain. Paris, 1816. 2. čdition revue et cor. 8”. Fison (Lorimer), and Howitt (A.W.) Kamilaroi and Kürnai: Group-marriage and relationship, and marriage by elopement, drawn chiefly from the usage of the Australian aborigines; also the Kürnai tribe: their customs in peace and war; with an introduction by Lewis H. Morgan. Melbourne, 1880. map. 8°. Flach (Jacques). Les institutions primitives; les origines de la famille: le lévirat. (Annales des sci. polit. v. 15, pp. 316–340. Paris, 1900.) Fontani (F.) I riti nuziali de Greci per le faustissime nozze de... Marchese V. Riccardi con I'Signora O. del Vernaccia. [Firenze: J. Grazioli,1 1789. 146 pp. 4°. Ford (Henry Jones). The meaning of totemism —an essay upon social origins. (Annals Am. Acad.

Polit. and Soc. Sci. v. 23, pp. 518–528. Philadelphia, 1904.) — Same. Separate. Frazer (James George). Totemism. Edinburgh. A. & C. Black, 1887. viii, 96 pp. 12°.

Observations on Central Australian totemism. (Jour. Anthropolog. Soc. Gt. Brit. (v. 28) in. s., v. 1, pp. 281–286. London, 1899.)

Francke (A. H.) The Ladakhi pre-Buddhist marriage ritual. (Indian Antiquary. v. 30, pp. 131-149. I pl. Bombay, 1901.) Friend-Pereira (J. E.) Totemism among the Khonds. (Jour. Asiatic Soc. of Bengal. n.s., v. 73, pt. 3, pp. 39–56. Calcutta, 1904.) Gaudefroy-Demombynes ( ). Notes de sociologie maghrébine. Les cérémonies du mariage chez les indigènes de l'Algérie. Paris: J. Maisonneuve, 1901. 2 p.l., 96 pp., 2 l. 16°. (Mélanges traditionnistes. v. 2.) Gennep (Arnold van). Tabou et totémism A Madagascar. Étude descriptive et theorique. Paris: E. Zeroux, 1904. 3 p.l., 362 pp., I l. 8*. (Ecole pratique des hautes études, Paris. Bibliothèque. Sciences religieuses. v. 17.)

Giraud-'Teulon ( ). Sur les origines de la famille. (Bull. Soc. d'anthropologie de Lyon. v. 21, pp. 40–50. Lyon, 1903.) Glasson (Ernest). Décadence du mariage religieux et origine du mariage civil au XVIII. siècle. (Institut de France. Acad. des sciences mor. et polit. Séances et travaux. n.s., v. 53, pp. 92-IIo. Paris, 1900.) Le mariage civil et le divorce dans l'antiquité et dans les principales legislations modernes de l'Europe. Paris, 188o. 2. ed. 8°. Grosse (E.) Die Formen der Familie und die Formen der Wirthschaft. Freiburg i. B.: /. C. B. Mohr, 1896. vi, 245 pp. 8°. Harris (John). Patriarchy; or, The family, its constitution and probation. Boston, 1855. 12°. Hartland (E. S.) Totemism and some recent discoveries. (Folk Lore. v. II, pp. 52-80. London, I

900.) Harvel (Edmund). The marriage contract, inventory and funeral expenses of Edmund Harvel [an English merchant, agent of Henry VIII., to Venice]. (Eng. Hist. Rev. v. 20, pp. 70–77. London, 1905.) Hearn (William Edward). The Aryan household, its structure and its development: an introduction to comparative jurisprudence. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1879. viii, 494 pp., I l. 8°

Hermann (Eduard). Beiträge zu den idg. Hochzeitsgebräuchen. (Indogerman. Forsch. v. 17, pp. 373-387. Strassburg, 1905.) Hill-Tout (Charles). Curious and interesting marriage customs of some of the aboriginal tribes of British Columbia. (Amer. Antiq. v. 24, pp. 8587. Chicago, 1902.) Hjertstedt (Carolus Fr.) Graecorum, ex Homero illustrati. 18 pp. 4°. Holt (R. B.) Marriage laws and customs of the Cymri. (Jour. Anthropological Inst. of Gt. Brit. London, 1898. 4°. n. s., v. 1, pp. 155–163.) Howard (George Elliott). A history of matrimonial institutions, chiefly in England and the United States... v. 1–3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1904. 3 v. 8°. Bibliography v. 3, pp. 263-402. Jubainville (Arbois de). La vente de la fiancée au futur époux. (Acad. d. inscript & belles-lettres. Comptes rendus, 1904. pp. 322–326. Paris, 1904.) Kammecker (Johannes Lucae). *De ritibus nuptiarum apud veteres Sveo-Gothos. Upsaliae [1726]. 5 p.l., 42 pp., 21. 4°. Kingsmill (Thomas W.) The Chinese system of family relationship and its Aryan affinities. (Jour. of the China Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. n.s., v. 31, pp. 61-72. Shanghai, 1896–97.) Koenen (H. J.) *De patria potestate et statu familiae, principiorum juris Romani fonte praecipuo. Amstelodami, 1831. 1 p.l., ix, 155 pp. 8°. Koenigswarter (Louis Jean). Histoire de l'organisation de la famille en France, depuis les

*Ritus nuptiales Upsalia, 1778.

temps les plus reculés jusqu'à nos jours. Paris, 1851. 8°. Kohler (J.) Zur Urgeschichte der Ehe. Tote

mismus, Gruppenehe, Mutterrecht. Stuttgart: F.

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