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WHEN Yahweh arises, His enemies are scattered ;

And them that hate (Yahweh) flee from His presence.
As smoke is driven away when (the wind) driveth,
As wax is melted from the presence of fire,
The wicked perish from the presence of Yahweh ;

But the righteous are glad, exult with gladness.
SING to Yahweh, make melody to His name.

Lift up (a song) to the One riding on the clouds of His heaven.
Exult before Him, the Father of orphans,
And Judge of widows in His holy habitation,
Yahweh, who bringeth home the solitary ones,

Who bringeth forth prisoners into prosperity.
YAHWEH, when Thou wentest forth before Thy people,

When Thou didst march in the desert, the earth trembled.
Yea, the heavens dripped at the presence of Yahweh
A copious rain upon Thine inheritance.
If it were weary, Thou didst establish it, Yahweh.

For Thy living creatures Thou providest, for the afflicted, Yahweh.
WORD is given; the women are heralding war.

The king doth strive; armies flee;
And the beauty at home divideth the spoil.
The dove on the wing is covered with silver,
And her pinions flash with yellow gold.

But (when the vulture spreadeth her wings), it is like snow on Zalmon. O MOUNT of Yahweh, fertile mountain !

O Mount of summits, fertile mountain !
Mount Yahweh desired for His throne!
Yahweh, Thou didst ride in Thy chariot from Sinai into the sanctuary.
Thou didst ascend up on high. Thou didst lead captives captive.

Thou didst accept gifts, to dwell among mankind.
YAHWEH will crush the head of His enemies,

The hairy scalp of the one going on in his faults.
Yahweh said: "I will recompense them in Bashan.
I will recompense them in the gulf of the sea, even I;
That the foot may be bathed in blood;

And the tongue of dogs may have its portion of the same."
THEY see Thy processions, Yahweh, into the sanctuary.

The singers go before; behind the musicians;
In the midst damsels playing on timbrels.
There is little Benjamin, the conqueror;
(There) princes of Judah, a heap of them;

Princes of Zebulon, princes of Naphtali.
YAHWEH, command Thy strength for us,

Strengthen what Thou hast done for us.
Rebuke the wild beast of the reeds, Yahweh;
The assembly of bulls with the calves of peoples;
Trampling in the mire the favoured ones, refined as silver.
Disperse the people that delight in war.

1

Ps. 68 was originally a ne, an ode, when it was taken up into D. It was then in M, and subsequently was used in E and DR (v. Intr. $$ 24, 27, 31, 32, 33). It has many glosses from different editors. It is based on several older poems. (1) Ju. 5, the song of Deborah : v.8-9, the theophanic march Ju. 54-5; v.18, cf. Ju. 580; v.14, cf. Ju. 516; v.19, cf. Ju. 512; v.22, cf. Ju. 526 ; v.28, cf. Ju. 518 (2) Dt. 33, the Blessing of Moses : v.84. 85, cf. Dt. 3326. 28, also Ps. 1811; v.18, cf, Dt. 334 (3) Nu. 1035, the Song of the Ark, cf. v.%. (4) The holy habitation of v. depends on Dt. 2616 Je. 2580. (5) The representation that Yahweh is the Father of orphans and Judge of widows is Deuteronomic. (6) The triumphal procession into Zion is a later development of Ps. 24. The reference to prisoners and solitary ones v.7. 19 implies the prison of exile. The wild beast of the reeds Egypt v.31, assembly of bulls used of Assyria and Edom, probably refer to the Eastern world powers. The calves of peoples probably refer to the lesser nations coöperating with them. All this implies a peril of the Jews between the East and the West, which was no less than their being trampled in the mire. Egypt, however, seems to be the chief enemy, as in Ps. 80. The peril was not from minor nations alone, as in the early Restoration, but from great ones as well. The reference to the Sanctuary v.18. 25, and the mountain of the throne of Yahweh v.17, as well as to the temple procession with songs and stringed instruments, implies thoroughly organised temple worship, and therefore a date later than the erection of the second temple. The combination of these situations favours the late Persian period, when Persia and Egypt were at war, about 360–350 B.C.

The tributary gifts of kings v.30, and the restoration to Yahweh of Egypt and Cush v.82, are glosses of a prophetic character based on Is. 187 1916-25 2318 446 60, 6620.21. All the uses of A' v.5. 19 and 478 v.12. 18. 20. 21. 23. 27. 33 are redactional; also the call 7792 v.20. 27. 86, and many Aramaisms and late uses : 019710 v.7. , , , , . The following a.l. and strange forms are all errors of copyists: v.? nne a...

; ; ;

6 ; from these glosses and errors there is no reason for dating the Ps. later than the closing years of the Persian domination.

.27.v מקהלות ,21.v תוצאות ,21 v מושעות ,18.v אלפי שנאן ,17.v גבנניס ,17.v רצו ,19 .7.v

16.v ; פרש דיה for ,ג.a פרש שרי 16.v ; משפתיס for .ג.c שפתים 14.v ; מושרות for Apart ,חשס מני for .ג.a חשמנים 82.v ; פזר for בזר 81.v ;8 הר דשן for הר בשן

Str. I. Two syn. and an antith. couplet. — 2. When Yahweh arises), a use of the marching song of the ark Nu. 1035; and so the ode begins with the march from Horeb. Yahweh was conceived as present in theophany with the sacred Ark. He arose in the pillar of cloud as a signal for the march; and when enemies obstructed the way, they were overcome by His divine presence. EV. follow MT in the translation “let arise," as if the verbs were jussive, making the Ps. begin with a prayer, when really it is in the form of an ode, and the impfs. are graphic description of the march from Horeb. — His enemies || them that hate Yahweh || the wicked, v.?], usual terms to indicate those who were both the enemies of His people and the enemies of their God. are scattered | flee from His presence || perish from the presence of Yahweh, v.], in disastrous, overwhelming defeat and slaughter. This is illustrated by two intervening similes.- 3. As smoke is driven away], cf. 3720 Ho. 139, but especially Ps. 14, which suggests the original reading, — when the wind driveth]. By the omission of the noun by an early copyist at the expense of the measure, an anomalous Hebrew form has come into the text, which probably rests upon ancient variations of reading, one of which is followed by EVR, in the imv. " drive them away," making a premature departure from the simile. — As wax is melted from the presence of fire], cf. 973 Mi. 1'. These similes suggest that the theophanic presence of God is that of a thunder storm with a strong blast of wind and the fire of lightnings, cf. Ps. 189-16. — 4. But the righteous], the people of Yahweh in antith. with their wicked enemies, — are glad || exult with gladness], in the victories of Yahweh. A glossator emphasizes this at the expense of the measure by inserting : exult before God.

Str. II. Three syn. couplets.-5. Sing to Yahweh, make melody to His name), a summons to public praise || lift up a song to Him, so S, T; PBV.“magnify"; AV., JPSV.“extol," which the parallelism demands, though it is a rare poetic meaning of the verb. The more usual meaning is given by 6, J, RV., “cast up a highway,” which does not suit the context. The One riding on the clouds of His heavens], the most probable original of a difficult verse in accordance with the conception of the theophanic chariot 18" Dt. 332 An early copyist mistook the Hebrew word “clouds" for another meaning "steppe, deserts," which nowhere else is used with the theophanic chariot; and that made it necessary to interpret the word rendered " His heavens " as if it were the same as the word at the close of the previous line, “ His name,” and this occasioned the insertion of the divine name “ Yah.” — 6. The Father of orphans]. Yahweh is the father of the fatherless || and Judge of widows], their vindicator against injustice ; both Deuteronomic conceptions, cf. 104 146' Jb. 3116–18 (v. Br.M.C.H385). In His holy habitation], the heavenly temple, as Dt. 2615 Je. 2500.-7. Who bringeth home | who bringeth forth].

H

These are different phases of the same action; for the solitary ones are those shut up alone in prison || prisoners, and they are brought out of prison to their home, their own houses | into prosperity], the reënjoyment of the privileges of home in their native land. It is quite possible that the poet is thinking of the deliverance from Egyptian bondage ; but he uses terms which are more suitable to the time of the captivity in Babylon. It is probable that the two historic events were mingled in his mind. A glossator added the line : Verily the stubborn abide), remain, abandoned by God, who had released the faithful prisoners, either in a parched land, as EVR. and most interpreters, referring then to the wilderness of the wanderings; or possibly, by another explanation in a dungeon,” referring to the prisons of the Exile or of Maccabean times.

Str. III. Syn. couplets. - 8. When Thou wentest forth before Thy people || didst march], the theophanic march of Ju. 545. in the desert], from Sinai to Palestine. - 9. the earth trembled], in earthquake, as usual in theophanies Ex. 1916.89. Ps. 1874. Hb. 384.. - Yea, the heavens dripped], in the theophanic storm, - at the presence of Yahweh], His theophanic presence in the storm clouds. A glossator inserts from Ju. 58: Yon Sinai at the presence of God, the God of Israel. But this gloss separates the verb of the previous line from its object in this line, and so makes the connection of thought obscure. – 10. A copious rain upon Thine inheritance], a theophanic storm with thunder and lightning and heavy rain, usually mingled with hail, cf. 1812-16. A glossator, misunderstanding the line as an independent sentence, and taking the preposition for a divine name, inserted a verb at the expense of the measure, which is rendered in EV'. “send,” without sufficient justification. JPSV. "pour down," BDB. “shed abroad," are better suited to the context, but are speculative meanings, without authority in usage. If it were weary], emphatic in position, referring to the inheritance. - Thou didst establish it], strengthen it ; remove its weariness and make it vigorous.- 11. For Thy living creatures], as Vrss., including man and animals of the inheritance, connected with the verb, Thou providest, and || for the afflicted], these living creatures when afflicted with need. But the insertion, at the expense of the measure, of the gloss, probably a relative clause, “that dwell in it,” has been the occasion of another interpretation in modern times, taking the initial noun in an ancient meaning, "community," sustained only by a single passage, and the inserted clause as a principal clause, and so getting the rendering, “Thy community dwelt therein." This is certainly a very weak outcome of a passage of a Ps. which elsewhere is strong and vigorous. The glossator also inserted“ in Thy goodness," certainly an unnecessary explanation.

Str. IV. A synth. triplet, and one composed of a syn. couplet with an antithetical line. — 12. Word is given], indef. subj. equivalent to the English passive; but a glossator prefixed Adonay; as if God were the subject and He gave the message or command, which does not at all suit the context. the women are heralding war]. Women fleeing before the advancing armies herald their approach for battle. A misunderstanding of the proper place of division of the lines put the measures in confusion, and occasioned the rendering “great host,” as if there were an army of women with these tidings, which is unexampled in usage and impossible in reality. - 13. The king doth strive]. The reference is certainly based on Ju. 5 and the battle of the Kishon. The king is doubtless the king of Canaan. He is graphically described as striving in battle with Israel. By mistaking the verb for an adjective and attaching it to the previous line the noun was left without a verb and it was necessary to attach it to the following noun, which then, as the two are followed by a plural verb, had to be given as a plural; and so H gives us, “kings of armies flee." But in fact, as the subsequent context shows, it is the armies which flee. The repetition of the verb in emphasis is against the measure and improbable. — And the beauty at home divideth the spoil]. So G,

, J. This is evidently based on Ju. 5, where the reference is to the mother of Sisera, here to the fair wives and daughters of the victors of Israel. It is a mistaken interpretation of the initial word to render it, as EVR., “she that tarrieth at home.” — 14. A glossator inserts, probably at first on the margin, from Ju. 51€ the reproof of the Reubenites for their neglect to take part in the holy war : “Will ye lie down among the sheepfolds?” This has made the passage difficult, and indeed a crux of interpretation; and there

reement among commentators. De. thinks of Israel as

is no

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