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CXLVII. C. 12 begins a new Ps. with 6. – 14. d'un an) as Ps. 8117, cf. Dt. 3214 Is. 349.

] , , ] , ] . + [303] blow ; Qal Is. 407. Hiph. elsw. Gn. 154. - 15] Qal Spa, as 7816. H Ex. 158 flow. — D'o] is a gl. of interp., not needed for measure.

.Hiph [יִשֶׁב .n.f. as adv. 7. 3r8-18 [ער מְהֵרָה .15-.משביעך ,8 ,6 [ישניער

PSALM CXLVIII., 4 STR. 63.

Ps. 148 is a summons to praise Yahweh : (I) to all in the heavens, especially angels and heavenly lights (v.1-8), also the heavenly waters, to praise the name of their creator and sovereign (v.46); (2) to all in the earth, especially the great deep, the storm, the trees (v.7-9), also the animals, to praise the glorious name, which is also the praise of all the pious (v.10. 13. 14). A glossator adds men of all classes (v. 11-12), and adds to the ground of praise the exaltation of His people (v.14ac).

PRAISE ye Yah from the heavens;

Praise Him in the heights;
Praise Him all His angels;
Praise Him all His hosts;
Praise Him sun and moon;

Praise Him all ye stars of light.
PRAISE Him heaven of heavens,

And ye waters above the heavens.
Let them praise the name of Yahweh,
For He commanded and they were created;
And He made them stand form forever and ever;

A decree He gave not to be transgressed.
PRAISE ye Yah from the earth,

Ye dragons, and all ye deeps;
Fire, hail, snow, vapour,
Storm, doing His word;
Ye mountains and all hills,

Fruit tree and all cedars.
YE wild animals and all cattle,

Creeping things and winged bird.
Let them praise the name of Yahweh;
For His name alone is exalted,
His majesty is above earth and heaven,
The praise of all His favoured ones.

Ps. 148 is a Hallel, having abbo at the beginning in H as well as at the end. 6 has also as in previous Pss, állandoviá: 'Ayralov kal Zaxaplov. This Ps. has five trimeter hexastichs; but inasmuch as there are two parts balanced 11-12.11ac and the first part has but two Strs., it is probable that v. are glosses, and that the second part had originally two Strs. also, v.7-9. 10. 13. 146, the other verses being liturgical ones. This Ps. is dependent on Gn. 17 in v.46, Gn. 124-25 in v.10, upon Dt. 1014 in v.49, upon Ps. 3386 in v. 5c. 6a, upon 1044 in v.%. The origin and date of the Ps. were doubtless the same as those of the others of the group.

Str. I. A syn. hexastich. — 13. Praise ye Yah], so probably in the original as the measure demands : resumed in all the subsequent lines as Praise Him. from the heavens || in the heights], the praise sounding forth from all the inhabitants of heaven to the earth beneath. — The other four lines give the subjects: all His angels || all His hosts], the heavenly intelligences — and then sun and moon || all ye stars of light], the heavenly luminaries.

Str. II. A syn. couplet and a synth. tetrastich. - 4. Praise Him], is resumed to connect this Str. with the previous one, and then abandoned. — The subject is given : heaven of heavens], the highest heavens, conceived as in an indefinite ascending series || And ye waters above the heavens], the source of the rains, above the lower heavens and in the higher heavens, in accordance with the Heb. conception, cf. 1048 Gn. 16.7. – 5. Let them praise the name of Yahweh). The jussive takes the place of the imv. in order to emphasize the name of Yahweh as the object of praise. So in the || v.13. — The reason is now given for the praise of the heavenly beings. They were creatures of Yahweh : For He commanded and they were created]. The creation is here conceived as by command of the speaking God, as in Gn. i Ps. 33o. — 6. And He made them stand firm forever and ever]. He established them at their creation in such a firm, abiding position, that they will remain stable and immovable forever. — A decree He gave). He established His law in the heavens, and these heavenly beings, angels and the great luminaries, the ascents of heaven and the rain clouds, all have to submit to it. — not to be transgressed]. The decree given to the heaven is immutable. This is the nearest approach to immutable laws of nature that is known to Heb. Literature.

Str. III. Synth. lines.—7. Praise ye Yah from the earth], in antithesis to v.': the praise from the earth ascending to meet the praise coming down from heaven. The imv. is not repeated, although implied, because the poet needs his space to mention the various creatures who are to share in this praise.— Ye dragons], the great sea monsters, cf. Gen. 19. The mention of dragons here with the elements of nature and apart from the other animals of v.10 is singular. W. R. Smith's suggestion (Religion of Semites, p. 161), that they may be a personification of the water spirit, certainly gives a meaning better suited to the context. It is quite possible that the original was nothing more than the comprehensive “seas." —8. The various elements of the thunderstorm are mentioned in heaped-up terms: Fire, of lightning, hail, snow, vapour; summed up in the Storm - as doing His word], obeying the law imposed upon them; for the “word” here is the word of command, syn. with “ decree.” — 9. Mountains and all hills, Fruit tree and all cedars] are given as specimens of creatures of the land. All in their way praise Yah.

Str. IV. A synth. triplet and a syn. triplet. - 10. Ye wild animals and all cattle), domestic animals, - Creeping things and winged bird], including all kinds of animals. These begin this Str. with the imv. praise Him, implied, just as a similar couplet begins Str. II., its counterpart, followed by the same line with the jussive v.134 = v.5a. But a glossator, noting the omission of any reference to mankind, supplied it by inserting a tetrastich, which is entirely out of proportion in its comprehensiveness to the mention of other creatures in the Ps. 11-12. Mankind is comprehended in : kings of earth and all peoples, princes and all governors of the earth, young men and also maidens, old men together with children. - 13. A reason is assigned here, as in the counterpart v.5: For His name alone is exalted || His majesty is above earth and heaven], cf. 8104. The divine glory as manifested is the theme for praise of the earthly beings, as the creator and sovereign was of the heavenly beings. — 14. The praise of all His favoured ones). This line is syn. with the previous couplet, only in the climax it unites the pious people of God in the praise which sounds through universal nature. A glossator was not satisfied with this modest reference to Israel, and so he prefixes to this line : And He exalted the horn of His people; and appended : of the sons of Israel, a people near to Him], which, while appropriate enough in the mouth of the congregation, was not so well suited to the worship of Yah by all nature.

have each two beats, and only a single accent should מן הארץ and מן השמים

1. 1171-nn 1560] prob. the original here and v.7 was 7550; because

, a precede. — 2. 1898-57] as Qr., , Aq., 2, J, S, T, and 1032. 133 Kt. is too short for measure. - 3. 7]. 6 prefixes kal, but with an interp. of it as an additional object to the “ stars.” — 4. 10x] is unnecessary gl. – 5. na 13] cited from 33', to which 6 prefixes from the same passage: 871 ajtós elnev kal éyevhongav, making the Str. overfull. — 16.777] Niph. pf. Inna Qal (1) shape, fashion, create, Ps. 8913. 48 ; (2) transform 5112. Niph. (1) be created, here as 10430; (2) be born 2232 10219. – 6. adds to this v. kal els tov alớva Toll alwvos, making the Str. overfull. mayo N57] subord. with indef. subj.; cf. Jb. 146. - 7. oyun] the sea monsters, dragons ; strange here at the begin

. Dipi wonld be more in accordance with the context. 8. Wp) is smoke connected with earthquake, cf. 188 11983 Gn. 1928 (J). The 1 is not in 6 and prob. not original. nhyd ni] prob. mi is explan. gl. It spoils the measure. — 11-12. These verses are a late gl. to introduce mankind of all classes. The symmetry of the Ps. is destroyed thereby. — 14. omy] i consec. Hiph. impf. on. This is a late gl. to bring into the Ps. a glorification of the people; so also the last 1. — 17'n 535 abor] is not in GB; but in GR. A. R. T. It is a proper || to v.18c, and gives a suitable conclusion to the Ps.

.תהמות ning with

PSALM CXLIX., 3 STR. 68.

Ps. 149 is a summons to the congregation of the afflicted but favoured people of God to sing in fresh outburst of song with music and dancing in celebration of a recent victory (v.1-3). Yahweh has adorned them with a glorious victory, which they celebrate with songs in their mouths and swords in their hands (v.46). Vengeance is to be taken on the nations; their kings and nobles are to be made prisoners in accordance with a written judgment, a splendid thing to the favoured ones (v.7-9).

SING to Yahweh a new song:

Let His praise (resound) in the congregation of the favoured:
Let Israel be glad in his great Maker:
Let the sons of Zion exult in their King.
Let them praise His name in the dance,

With timbrel and lyre make melody to Him.
SINCE Yahweh delighteth in His people,

Adorns the afflicted with victory;
Let the favoured exult with glory:
Let them jubilate at (their great tabernacle):
Let exaltations of 'El be in their throat,
And a two-edged sword in their hand.

To execute vengeance on the nations ;

(To execute) chastisements on the peoples;
To bind their kings with chains,
Their nobles with fetters of iron;
To execute the judgment written
Is a splendour for all His favoured ones.

Ps. 149 is a Hallel, with mubo at the beginning and close in V, and at the beginning in 6. S omits it both at beginning and end. It has the same structure as other Hallels; but is more warlike, and is doubtless expressive of the vengeful military spirit of the Maccabean wars. There are only verbal glosses.

Str. I. A syn. hexastich.-1-3. Sing to Yahweh a new song], a fresh outburst of praise in celebration of the recent victory, as 338 961 98', based on Is. 4210. — || Let His praise resound], as 6,

, J, PBV., Bä., is to be preferred to AV., RV., JPSV., which regard “His praise" as the object of the vb. "sing." – be glad | exult || Let them praise His name || make melody to Him. — Those who are to participate in this public celebration of the victory are the congregation of the favoured], phr. a.d., those who are the special objects of the divine kindness, the pious people of Yahweh, cf. v., also 222.28 1078; not with a specific reference to the “Chasedim” of the Maccabean period, who constituted a party in Israel, and who therefore would hardly appear in a national Ps. They were evidently the same as the afflicted people of v.'. They are | with the sons of Zion v.% || Israel. - in his great Maker], emphatic pl., cf. Is. 54', not sg. “maker” of EV'. - || their King], the usual recognition of the supreme kingship of Yahweh, cf. 14610. – The celebration is not merely with song; it is also in the dance, usual in religious festivals, cf. Ex. 150 Ps. 8y? 1189 150', and with musical instruments, of which are mentioned timbrel and lyre, cf. 15034

Str. II. Two syn. and an antith, couplet. — 4-6. Since], assigning the reason of the celebration. — Yahweh delighteth in His people]. They are the special objects of His good pleasure and His favour, cf. 147". - He adorns with victory]. The victory which Yahweh hath bestowed covers them with splendour and glory, and has become their ornament. Let the favoured exult with glory], with glorification, as 29o. — || jubilate || Let exaltations of 'El be in their throat), songs exalting God, as 66?; all resum

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