with prayer to the presence of Yahweh (v.8-10); (3) one day of prostration at the sacred threshold, in love to Yahweh, the Sun and Shield, is to be preferred to an age in the tents of the wicked (v. 11-13).

HOW beloved are Thy tabernacles, Yahweh Sabaoth !

My soul doth long, yea, doth pine for the courts of Yahweh;
Where my mind and my flesh jubilate 'El, the God of my life.
Yea, the bird doth find a home for herself,
And the swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her young.
At Thy altars, they praise Thee ever, my King and my God.

Yahweh Sabaoth, happy are they that dwell in Thy house !
THE highways are in the minds of those who pass on in the vale of weeping.

He maketh it a place of springs; yea, the early rain clotheth it with blessings.
They go on from battlement to battlement in order to appear before God,
Yahweh in Zion, Yahweh the God of Hosts;
(Saying) "O hear my prayer; O give ear, God of Jacob!
See our shield, and look on the face of Thine anointed."

Yahweh Sabaoth, happy are they whose stronghold is in Thee.
YEA, one day in Thy courts is better than a thousand.

I choose to be prostrated at the threshold of the house of my God.
Better than an age in the tents of the wicked is to love Yahweh;
For a Sun and Shield is Yahweh my God;
Kindness and faithfulness, grace and glory, He giveth.
Yahweh withholdeth not any good thing from them that walk in integrity.

Yahweh Sabaoth, happy are they that trust in Thee.

Ps. 84 was a pilgrim song, resembling the group of nobyoo 792 Ps. 120-134 ; cf. nooo 6 åvaßao els v.6. It was first in k, then taken up into M and DR, when it received the direction ninao by (v. Intr. $$ 28, 31, 33, 34). It was not in E, the selection from which closes with Ps. 83, although buahn is used v.8 for 1917, by attraction to previous v.9 by error for sabe ; and v.10 as late gloss, for the line is just this word too long ; so also v.12 Diabs is prob. for 19hx, which is characteristic of this Ps., cf. v.4. 11. Ps. 84 resembles 42-43, and prob. had the same author. The same devotion to worship in the sacred places is manifest, though the latter Ps. was the lament of an exile, the former the song of one who shared in the pilgrim procession v.", cf. 425, and therefore composed before the destruction of the temple. Juo v.? = 439, cf. 465; (.* = ; (432. ; = ; v.12, cf. 7 438 444. Moreover, these Pss. have the same pentameter measure and the same organisation, in three Strs, with Rfs., although the number of lines is not the same. There are also resemblances with other Pss, of k:

v= ; ). 6. = ; v.* = 44• 478. 7. 8. 9 483. 70 prob. of the king v. 10 || 77000 reminds of 8919–21. The psalmist's prayer for his king as the anointed of Yahweh and shield of the nation implies the monarchy as still in existence ; and the temple worship, to


שמש ;423 = 8.v יראה אל ;3 .432 4216 .v.3 = 422. 9, cf אל הי(י) ;*43= .v מזבח•)

of Yahweh מֶלֶךְ ;489 12 .468 = 13 .9 .6 .4 .2.v יהוה אלהיצבאות ;468.12 = 9. אלהי יעקב

which pilgrim bands ascend, implies either the first or the second temple. The two together imply the first temple. There is no sufficient reason to doubt that the Ps. comes from the time of trouble and anxiety (v.7) just before the Exile.

Str. I. has two syn. couplets, enclosed by two syn. lines, fol. lowed by Rf. —2. How beloved], the object of strong affectionate love, lovable, " lovely," RV.". The ancient meaning of " amiable" EV'. is now practically obsolete. This is as much as to say that the tabernacles, the sacred precincts of the temple of Yahweh Sabaoth, the God of the battle array of Israel, the God of the covenant and of the dynasty of David (cf. 24'') were beloved with a love that was too great for expression.

3. Absence from the sacred precincts was intolerable. — My soul doth long], emphatic present, with intense desire, so intense that it doth pine and wastes away, is consumed, becomes faint and sick in anxious desire, for the courts of Yahweh, to which the festal processions were made. Where my heart and my flesh), emphatic in position, the inner and the outer man, cf. 16', the body sympathizing with the soul in this worship. Because of the change of tense from pf. to impf. and the attitude of longing of previous lines, it is necessary to interpret this line as a relative clause with a frequentative verb, jubilate], accustomed to take part in the sacred shouting, the roar of the pilgrim bands, cf. 42'. - 'El, the God of my life), as 423.9 ; misread by MT. and Vrss. as "unto the living God," which makes unexampled syntax, and a sentence difficult to explain in. accordance with the usage of the verb. — 4-6 a. Yea, the bird], a general term, cf. 89, which cannot be rightly rendered by “sparrow," EV.; the specific term is the swallow - doth find a home || nest], both followed by for herself, as the measure requires. The little birds have the free and habitual access to the sacred precincts that the singer so greatly desires. He envies their privilege, and could almost wish he were a bird. As Tristram says: “Still the swallow seeks the temple enclosure at Jerusalem, and the mosque of Omar, as a secure and safe resting-place" (Nat. Hist. Bible, p. 206). — At Thy altars they praise Thee ever]. The altars are not to be attached to the previous clause, as EV., with the view that the birds had their nests even there, for altars were places for sacrifices made by fire, and not places to which birds would


The meaning is hardly to be weakened into “its neighbourhood," Kirk. It begins a new line, as the measure requires. Confusion has been made by an ancient copyist, whose eye has transposed to the next line the two words which originally followed here. This gives a proper parallelism. As the birds are ever in the sacred precincts, the singers who sing in the temple Hallels are ever there in continual service. G, HJ, PBV., rightly interpret this phrase ; but H, I, by mispointing read “still,” which is difficult to understand in this context. — My King and my God]. The personal relation is emphasized by the sf. The God of Israel is his king, as usual in B; the temple is His palace. The Rf., as reconstructed, is thus : Yahweh Sabaoth, happy are they that dwell in Thy house], those like the birds having constant access there, and like the birds also singing constantly in the sacred Hallels.

Str. II. has one antith. and two synth. couplets. — 66-7. An early scribe removed the Rf. of this Str. from its close v.

to the beginning. The Str. should begin with : The highways are in the minds of those]. These are the highways leading up to Jerusalem, on which the pilgrim bands go up to the three great pilgrim feasts, Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles. These are in the minds of such pilgrims, in accordance with the longing for the divine Presence in Jerusalem of the previous Str. who pass on in the vale of weeping]. On their way to Jerusalem the pilgrim bands pass through a valley. This is interpreted by many as the vale of Baca, unknown, it is true, and yet one so called from the balsam trees which characterised it : "Some dry, cheerless valley," Dr. But all Vrss. interpret the unusual form as equivalent to a similar word meaning “weeping"; reflecting the experience of sorrow in which the pilgrims approach the sacred places, due probably to the perils which threatened them shortly before the Exile. This tempers the joyous prospect and their intense longing. Cf. the vale of Achor Ho. 215, and the valley of dense darkness Ps. 234 - He maketh it], so G, with God as subj., which is best suited to context. MT., J, EV., give the 3d pl., making the pilgrims the subj. - a place of springs], carrying on the figure, the refreshing springwater, for the divine presence and favour, satisfying the thirst after God, as 4223. - the early rain], which in the autumn, in Palestine, refreshes the soil, and thus fitly represents the divine favour descending from heaven, cf. Dt. 322 2 S. 23* Ho. 101. - clotheth it with blessings], so G, T, RV., as a final interpretation of the figure, antith. to “weeping"; to be preferred to “pools,” PBV., AV.— 8-9. They go on from battlement to battlement], as R. Jehuda, AE., Horsley; from one walled town to another, on account of the peril of the journey, or, coming to the gates of Jerusalem, they pass from one battlement to another, cf. 4814, on their way to the temple, - in order to appear before God], cf. 423. This is to be preferred to " from strength to strength,” EV. after ancient Vrss., becoming more and more invigorated as they approached Zion. The measure requires that the line should close here, the next emphasizing the goal of the journey, the divine Presence, by heaping up terms: Yahweh in Zion, Yahweh the God of Hosts. - O hear my prayer), cohort. imv., urgent petition in the prayer, which now begins give ear, terms constantly used in public worship, cf. 4* 5. - God of Jacob), phrase of endearment 20' 468 12 750 767 812.5 94' Is. 23 = Mi. 4. – 10. See | look on), pregn. with consideration - and favour. - our shield], the king, as 89", cf. 4720 | Thine anointed, cf. 2? 1851 89*8.63 13210, the king of the Davidic dynasty. “Shield" is not to be referred here to God, as EV. after 6, J, $, Aq., , because of v.", against the parall. The Rf. v.bu should follow, wrongly removed by ancient copyist to the beginning of Str. : Yahweh Sabaoth, happy are they whose stronghold is in Thee], cf. 83 462. The abstr. “strength" of EV'. is not so suited to the context.

Str. III. has three syn. couplets. - 11. Yea], intensive, as beginning Str., is better than causal “ for,” EV . - one day], so G, $, PBV.; "one" is needed for measure and antith. with thousand, though omitted by H, AV., RV.- I choose), pf. emphatic present, deliberate choice, — to be prostrated at the threshold), acc. to G, of the humblest position ; more suited to the context than the paraphrase of this unexampled and difficult form," doorkeeper,” EV. - Better than an age], interpreting W as a usual form, best suited to the context. - in the tents of the wicked], as 6, to be preferred to the abstr. “ wickedness” of MT., J, EV'. The line is defective. We must supply as subj. of sentence, to love Yahweh, which, while given in 6, is wrongly attached and explained. Thus we get a beautiful syn. parall. with the prostration at the threshold, and an idea harmonious with v.?.

- 12. For a Sun), only here of God; but cf. “ light,” as used of God's face, especially in theophanic or gracious manifestations in the temple to worshippers 42 277 3610 438 444 8916. - and Shield is Yahweh my God], as the God of Hosts, the warlike God, who defends His people from their enemies, cf. 34 7" 183. 31. 36 287 33:20 59" +. - Kindness and faithfulness], in G, although misplaced ; not in H, I, but needed for measure || grace and glory, all objects of the divine benefaction. - He giveth || withholdeth not], these favours. them that walk in integrity], cf. 15°, those in complete accord with Yahweh in their course of conduct. - 13. This third Rf. emphasizes their trust in Yahweh, as the second that Yahweh was their stronghold, and the first their dwelling in the temple precincts.

2. nitty) adj. pl. beloved, elsw. of persons Dt. 3312 Is. 51. 1 Je. 11 15 Pss. 607 = 1087 1272 and 117' 7'0 epithalamium, cf. 452 (v. Intr. § 24). — 3. ??] makes I. too long. O, J, I only. - Ana] Qal pf. 3 f. 1773 be spent, in the sense of pine, also 694 11981. 82. 123, pfs. for emphatic present. — 27n;) phr. a.l. c. acc. theme 5116 5917 145"; c. ? 206 331 638 8913 925; c. 5 954 58,6 éti; but prob. dittog. J laudabunt deum. The impf. is frequentative, implying relative clause.

—N] rd. :D as 423. 9, and then measure is complete without bp. - 4. n.2] in G, followed by 5, better parall. 10, and gives better measure. — 7 minge ry]. In any case the two tones make l. too long. ng is an interpretative gl. This word begins a new line. By txt. err.

a . %, . — 5. Ty] so J adhuc; but on els tous alwvas twv aiúvwv, which better suits context, especially if transposed to previous l. as the measure and the Rf. require.—6. men] cf. 11. Ons here and v.13 prob. gl. of interp.; not needed and injuring measure. It is the Rf. of Str. II. at the beginning instead of at the end by copyist's misjudgment. —] defines rel., which was omitted as usual in poetry. — nisor] a.d. y, but common in OT. 6ávaßáceis, 7 ascensiones = nibyn, Oort, Bä., Du., is tempting, but may paraphrase. -- 0777?] full form; cf. 9? v.3; has no sufficient reason and is improb. The double a is dittog. as 283. év Tŷ kapola aŭtou, H in corde suo, suggests that both sfs. are interp. and not original ; rd. 255.—7. ] Qal ptc. as J, but G Québeto, though in Pss, elsw. for nog, may here possibly represent an original 128N535 pp]. 6 εν τη κοίλαδι του κλαυθμώνος, 6 *. Ο. Α. Α. Τ εις την κοίλαδα, valle lacrymarum, J in valle fletus, so essentially all Vrss. and Mas. = '33 weeping. BDB. thinks of Nga, balsam, cf. D'N32 2 S. 524, and so desert land.

- pp] 3 fontem, so Aq., E, T, as 7416 817 1041); but 6 Tónov; so W. Ž plyn dwelling place, so Hu., Bä., We., here and 877 — 179] 3 pl., so I ; but

sg. 8v čero, quem posuit more prob. — 172] early rain, as Aq.; but

- .destroying Rf ,עוד יהללוך with יהוה צבאות there has been a transp. of

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