God's turtle dove basking in the sunlight of prosperity ; but this is certainly against the context. It would be more suited to the citation from Ju. 518 to think of a reproof of those Israelites who preferred to live the peaceful life of the dove in her cotes to the perils of war; but why then the emphasis upon silver and gold? Before I saw that v.14a was a gloss, it seemed best, Br. MP. 14, to think of these words as carrying on the words of the messengers summoning the people to arms: “the winged dove is covered with silver"; that is, if you would share in the spoil, you must not remain in the dovecotes, but take flight to the battle-field. But the removal of the gloss removes the difficulty of interpretation, and makes evident the reference to the fleeing enemy. The dove on the wing]. The fleeing armies are compared to a dove fleeing from its enemies — is covered with silver || her pinions flash with yellow gold), the brilliant colours of the dove in the sunlight as she wings her flight from her enemies, a metaphor of the spoil of gold and silver abandoned by the fleeing armies in their tracks. 15. But when the vulture spreadeth her wings]. The victorious Israelites, pursuing the defeated and helpless fugitives, are compared to a vulture flying after a dove. An early copyist, by dittography of w, substituted for the Hebrew word “ vulture " the divine name “Almighty," which made it necessary to give the verb the meaning "scatter" without justification in usage, and to supply the object “kings," and the place "in it” all at the expense of the measure and to the confusion of the sense. it is like snow on Zalmon]. The silver and gold colours of the dove in flight have as their antithesis the snow-white colour of the bones of the slaughtered army, as they have been picked clean by the vultures. Zalmon is the still unidentified place where the bones of those slain in battle were so thickly spread that they seemed like snow covering the ground. Those who retain the present text think, some of a theophanic snow storm, others of a comparison with snow of glistening armour dropped in flight (cf. Hom. II. XIX. 357–361), or of bleached bones on the battle-field (cf. Vir. Aen. V. 865, XII. 36), and still others of "snow-flakes swept along by a hurricane," Kirk.

Str. V. A tristich of two syn, and one synth. line, and a tristich with a single line whose first part has its syn. in the second line, its second in the third line. 16-17. Mount of Yahweh], described as fertile mountain and as Mount of summits, of many rounded peaks, and still further as Mount Yahweh desired for His throne, can be no other than Mount Zion. But the change in E of “Yahweh” to “ Elohim” made it possible to think of “ tain of God" as a gigantic mountain, cf. 36', and then more naturally of the giant peaks of Palestine ; and so by an easy copyist's mistake in late texts of H " Mount Bashan " takes the place of " fertile mountain " of the ancient Vrss. The many peaks were then conceived to be those of Bashan instead of the several hills of Jerusalem; and it became necessary to explain the antith. between the gigantic Bashan and the mount of the divine residence by the gloss : “Why hop ye" PBV., “ leap ye" AV., better “look askance," RV., JPSV., "ye mountain of summits?” A glossator also emphasized the perpetuity of the divine residence by inserting the clause : “ Yea, Yahweh dwelleth for ever." 18. Yahweh, Thou didst ride in Thy chariot from Sinai into the sanctuary). This seems to be the original of a line which has been so expanded by glosses that there are no measures left and the meaning is most difficult. This Str. represents that Yahweh took possession of His permanent residence in the sanctuary of Zion by a theophanic ride from His earlier residence in Sinai. The errors and insertions of copyists made the present text, the best translation of which is that of Dr.: “The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands redoubled; the Lord is come from Sinai into the sanctuary.” This lays the stress upon the angelic army of God. But a more strict adherence to MT. gives in the last clause, “Sinai in sanctity”; that is, making the new residence in Zion as sacred as ancient Sinai. — 19. Thou didst ascend up on high ; Thou didst lead captives captive], based on Ju. 512. This is the victorious ride of Yahweh on the heights of battle-fields, rescuing captive Israelites from their enemies and leading them in triumphal procession to the sanctuary. It is a general reference to all the triumphs of Yahweh from Sinai until the erection of the temple by Solomon and the taking up the divine residence there after its consecration. Thou didst accept gifts], gifts of tribute from enemies, especially of offerings from His people made at the sacred place. — to dwell among mankind ], in order to dwell in His temple among mankind, in antith. with His heavenly abode. A glossator inserted “even the stubborn ” to emphasize the fact that the divine residence in Israel was notwithstanding the stubbornness of the people in their historic relation to Him; and this made it necessary to insert the divine name “Yah" and its Qr. “'Elohim.” An editor, thinking of a liturgical use of the Ps., inserted at this point an ascription of blessedness to Yahweh : 20–21. Blessed be Adonay day by day, who beareth burdens for us, the God of our salvation. God is unto us a God to save. To Yahweh Adonay belong escapes from death]. The reasons for the praise of God here given are general, and not in accord with the context of this warlike Ps. They are: (1) that Yahweh bears the burdens, cares, anxieties of His people ; (2) gives them salvation from enemies and troubles; (3) is their hope for escape from death.


Str. VI. has three syn. couplets. — 22. Yahweh will crush the head || the hairy scalp], cf. Ju. 526 Hb. 313. Yahweh will trample under foot and stamp upon the heads of the prostrate foes, putting them to the most extreme humiliation.— His enemies || the one going on in his faults], persisting in offences against Him and His people, until they have heaped up a vast store for retribution. 23. Yahweh said :], in resolute determination, - I will recompense), repeated for emphasis. This meaning is required by previous and subsequent context; although it is possible to render with PBV., AV., after T, “I will bring again (my people)," or with RV., JPSV., leave the object indefinite and think with many moderns of a pursuit of the enemy in order to bring them back to the sacred place for punishment. But the thought of the restoration of Israel here, though favoured by the preposition "from," is an intrusion, however suitable it might have been for public worship; and the preposition was doubtless an error of interpretation. The thought of bringing the enemies back from their places of refuge to a place of judgment in Jerusalem is not sustained by Am. 923, which is a pursuit in order to slay them wherever found. Bashan || gulf of the sea] are accusatives of place, and, as suggested by Am. 993, indicate in antith. the lofty peaks of the mountains and the depths of the sea as places where the enemies have fled for refuge ; but in vain, for the divine retribution overtakes them even there.—24. That the foot may be bathed in blood), the blood of the slain enemies flowing like a stream. and the tongue of dogs may have its portion of the same], lapping up the blood as predatory dogs do in Palestine. The explanatory gloss“ of enemies" impairs the simplicity of the thought as well as the measure.

Str. VII. Synth. hexastich.-25. They see], people generally; indef. subj. equal to passive “are seen." -- Thy processions, Yahweh], the triumphal processions of the victorious Yahweh. — unto the sanctuary], entering the holy city, ascending the holy hill, and entering into the courts of the temple. This has been intensified by a glossator at the expense of the measure by the repetition : processions of my God, my King. - 26. The singers go before, behind the musicians, in the midst damsels playing on timbrels]. The procession is preceded by the temple choirs, the singers and the players on stringed instruments being separated by the damsels playing on the timbrels. These latter from the earliest times took part in triumphal processions, Ex. 1520. This was not strictly a temple service. MT. should be rendered " in the midst of the damsels," as RV., the damsels marching on both sides of the singers and musicians, so Kirk., but we cannot rely on the pointing of MT., and such an order of procession is improbable. The editor here introduces another ascription to God. — 27. In assemblies], possibly choirs, 26". bless ye Yahweh Adonay, the fountain of Israel], cf. Je. 213 1713 Ps. 36. By dittography of an ancient scribe the text arose," from the fountain of Israel," which must then be interpreted as RV.:"ye that are of the fountain of Israel," genuine sons of Jacob, cf. Is. 481 5112 Dt. 3328 — 28. There], graphic, an onlooker pointing to the place, - is little Benjamin, the conqueror], doubtless referring to Saul of Benjamin, the first king of Israel, - princes of Judah, a heap of them), the numerous princes of the line of David, -princes of Zebulon, princes of Naphtali], representative of the northern tribes. The omission of Ephraim and the trans-Jordanic tribes is a sufficient evidence that the onlooker is only mentioning a few of the tribes, and that he does not attempt to describe the entire procession.

Str. VIII. A syn. couplet and a syn, tetrastich.-29. Yahweh, command Thy strength || O strengthen]. Imperatives, as 6, %, 1, 2, T, ), and not pf., as H, followed by EV., "hath commanded," which is in harmonious with the imperative that follows. The final Str. is a supplication, based on the ode, for divine victories in the time of the Psalmist also. H interprets incorrectly by adding the sf." Thy" to "God," and compels the interpretation of “Thy strength," as referring to the strength of Israel, which is contrary to the parallelism. what Thou hast done for us], in the history of Israel as set forth in the previous context of the ode. An editor introduces here a prediction with Messianic significance : 30. Because of Thy temple at Jerusalem to Thee kings will bring presents], based on Is. 60789.66%, cf. Hg. 2? Zc. 211 89. 615 821 89.. 31. Rebuke the wild beast of the reeds], the hippopotamus, Egypt; cf. Ps. 80Jb. 40%; "company of spearmen,” PBV., AV., has no justification whatever. the assembly of bulls], the eastern nations under the dominion of Persia, - with the calves of peoples), the lesser tributary nations, cf. Je. 4620. 21. — Trampling in the mire), under foot in arrogant, overwhelming force. Israel was ruthlessly trampled under foot in the mire by these nations traversing her territory to war upon one another. the favoured ones], the people having the divine favour, though they are refined as silver, cast as it were into the furnace of affliction, to come out as pure silver with all the dross removed. This indicates very severe affliction of Israel by Egypt and her allies. Glossators, misunderstanding this difficult clause, after the omission of an important word, left it in such a state that it has always been a crux of interpreters and Versions. PBV., " so that they humbly bring pieces of silver,” AV., " (till every one) submit himself with pieces of silver," RV., "trampling under foot the pieces of silver," JPSV., “him that submitteth himself offering bars of silver," are only specimens of well-nigh universal disagreement, making it evident that the fault is with the text. Disperse the peoples that delight in war], all these warlike nations, Egypt, Persia, and the nations under her dominion. The imperative of 6, |, D, J, followed by AV., is demanded by the context rather than the pf. of MT., followed by PBV., RV., JPSV., whether interpreted as referring to the past or as a prophetic perfect. These Vrss. are all the more to be followed if the Ps. originally ended here.

A later editor made the Ps., as he thought, more appropriate for common use by adding v. These verses have varied con


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