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Agriculture of the UniteD KINGDOM. | and Number of Live Stock, in Great Britain -The following Return shows the Acreage and Ireland upon 25th of June in 1867, under each Crop, and Fallow, and Grass, 1870, 1873, and 1875:
LANDOWNERS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. -It appears from the analysis of the Landowners' Return, obtained on the motion of Mr. Bright, that two-thirds of the land of England and Wales are in possession of rather more than 10,000 owners. Taking from the scale below all owners having 500 acres or more, their aggregate number is 10,207, and they together possess 22,013,203 acres, or two-thirds of the 33,013,514 acres of the return, The accumulation in Scot-40, 180,000 acres, or four-fifths of the whole land is still more remarkable. Selecting very nearly. owners in the same portion of the scale,
we find 2,584 proprietors, holding 18,167,569 out of a total 18,946,694 acres. The territorial aristocracy having this immense domain, the smaller owners, numbering in all 129,547, are left about 780,000 acres between them all. Stating the facts for Great Britain, we have these results :-Of the 1,104,967 owners, large and small, having in all 51,960, 208 acres, 12,791 owners of 500 acres and upwards hold
The Number and the Extent of the Possessions of the Landowners of Great Britain (including London).
England and Wales, exclusive of the Metropolis.
Of less than I acre ..
I acre and under
20,000 50,000 100,000
WINE. The consumption of wine of all kinds in 1875 remained practically in the same position it occupied in 1874, there being a difference of 65,252 gallons only in favour of the year 1875. Sherry has fallen off in consumption by 158,269 gallons, representing a loss in duty of 19,7177., but this was almost exactly counterbalanced by a corresponding increase in the consumption of Portuguese wine, which appears to advance steadily amid all the fluctuations to which the wines of other countries are subject, there being an average annual increase of about 5 per cent. per annum, and an increase, taking the two most remote points of comparison, the years 1871 and 1875, of no less than 21 per cent. Red and white wines from France showed no noteworthy features of divergence, the quantities, 3,502,516 gallons of red and 1,536,599 gallons of white, being practically the same as those recorded in the year 1874. The total quantity of wine of all kinds cleared for consumption in 1875 was 17,349,494 gal
The statistics it may be mentioned are tabulated to scale for every county in the kingdom.
lons, of which 8,683,802 were red, and 8,665,692 white.
WHEAT.-The value of the wheat and wheat meal imported into the United Kingdom in 1875 was 32,380,7261., grown in the kingdom in the same year is estimated at 21,823,950l., from which it follows that the quantity grown at home was much less than half of what was required for the consumption of the people. The deficiency, however, was supplied from abroad with such facility that the price, since the fall after the harvest of 1874, was not materially affected or raised by the comparative deficiency in 1875. The official average price immediately after the harvest of 1874 was 46s. 1d., and after that of 1875 only only 46s. At the close of those years it was 448. 8d. and 458. 9d. respectively. During the intermediate periods it had shown little fluctuation, and was at June, 1876, 468. 4d.
IRISH LANDHOLDERS.-The Agricultural TOBACCO.-Tobacco still continues to Statistics of Ireland, issued from the Gen-maintain the first position in our revenue eral Register Office, show that the number accounts, the receipt for the year on all of separate holdings of land in that country kinds of this article, manufactured and unin 1875 was 585,483, being 204 less than in manufactured, having been 7,720,557., or the preceding year. The returns show more than one-third of the total Customs 51,459 holdings not exceeding an acre in revenue from atl sources. The quantity of extent, an increase of 1,193 over the num- unmanufactured tobacco 'cleared for conber in the preceding year. There were sumption in 1875 was 47,026,902 lbs., an 69,098 holdings above one and not exceed increase of 1,188,913 lbs., or 26 per cent. ing five acres, a decrease of 927 as com- over the quantity consumed in 1874; and pared with 1874, and a decrease of no less as regards the manufactured tobacco, the than 241,338, or 777 per cent., as com- increase was 50,756 lbs., or 3'9 per cent., pared with the number in 1841. The farms giving in the aggregate an increase of 26 above five and not exceeding fifteen acres per cent. ovor the quantities of all kinds were 166,959 in 1875, a number which is cleared in 1874. Although this is but a less by 491 than in 1874, and is only equal small percentage of improvement, it is reto two-thirds of the number in 1841. On presented in money, in consequence of the the other hand, to set against these large high duty to which the article is subject, decreases, the farms above fifteen and not by the sum of 198,330l. Of the 47,026,902 exceeding thirty acres, 137,669 in number lbs. of leaf tobacco entered for consumpin 1875, though they were 287 fewer than tion, 21,104,586 lbs. consisted of stemmed in 1874, were more than in 1841 by no less or stripped, and 25,922,316 lbs. of unthan 735 per cent. The farms above thirty stemmed. acres were 160,298 in 1875, showing an increase of 309 over 1874, and of 111,673, or 2297 per cent. over 1841. Of these larger holdings there were in 1875 as many as 73,045 between 30 and 50 acres, 55,618 between 50 and 100, 21,909 between 100 and 200, 8, 197 between 200 and 500, and 1,529 above 500 acres. The total number of holdings in Ireland above one acre were 691,202 in 1841, but only 534,024 in 1875a decrease of 227 per cent.; and of these there were, in 1841, 642,577 not exceeding 30 acres, and only 48,625 over that acreage; but, in 1875, there were only 373,726 not exceeding 30 acres, and 160,298 above 30 acres. But many landholders occupy more than one farm, and therefore it is the practice to make another return of the number of "occupiers," and the whole extent of their holdings, whether lying together or in different localities; and in this return, which is described as only approximate, the 585,483 separate holdings are shown to be in the hands of 533,825 occupiers-a number which is 481 more than in 1874, but 8,013 fewer than in 1872. These 533,825 occupiers comprise 385,728 holdings not more than 30 acres each, and 148,097 holding above 30 acres. Deducting 50,322 occupiers holding not more than one acre, we find 483,503 occupiers holding above an acre of land, of whom 62, 104 hold not more than five acres, and 273,302 hold from five to thirty acres, the remaining 148,097 holding more than thirty acres. Of this last number, 65,722 occupiers hold from 30 to 50 acres, 50,569 from 50 to 100, 20,696 from 100 to 200, 8,697 from 200 to 500, and 2,413 hold above 500 acres. The number of improved agricultural machines in Ireland, having for their object the saving of manual labour, increased from 28, ICO in 1865 to 58,881 in 1875. The majority in both years were worked by horse power; but in 1875 the number worked by steam had risen to 566, and 602 were worked by water power.
CORN CROPS.-The agricultural returns for Great Britain show that the acreage under wheat in 1876 was 2,994,957 acres, which is a less quantity than in 1875 by 347,524 acres ; under barley or bere, 2,533,109 acres, an increase of 23,408 acres over last year; under oats, 2,789,530 acres, an increase of 125,521 acres; under rye, 56,210 acres, an increase of 1,307 acres; under beans, 517,556 acres, a decrease of 46,625 acres; under peas, 293,407, a decrease of 22,968 acres. The total area under corn crops in Great Britain was, therefore, 9,184,769 acres, being 266,881 acres less than in 1875. The large decrease in the area under wheat more than counterbalances the increase in some other crops. The decrease in the acreage under wheat extends to almost every county, the only exception worth mention being Cambridgeshire, in which the acreage rose to 125,597 acres, or 1,839 acres more than in last year. Only six other counties in Great Britain had as many as 100,000 acres under wheat this year. These were Lincoln, with 274,284 acres, being 21,245 acres less than in 1875; Norfolk, with 186,526 acres, a decrease of 12, 182 acres; Essex, with 168,653 acres, a decrease of 16,873 acres; Suffolk, with 141,292 acres, a decrease of 5,909 acres; Devon, with 112,652 acres, a decrease of 11,268 acres; and Hampshire, with 104,707 acres, a decrease of 3,655 acres. Last year Kent and the East Riding of Yorkshire had also above 100,000 acres under wheat. In the present year England had 2,822,342 acres under wheat, a decrease of 306,205 acres; Wales, 94,423 acres, a decrease of 17,374 acres; Scotland, 78, 192 acres, a decrease of 23,945 acres. Adding the 9,788 acres under wheat this year in the Isle of Man and Channel Islands, and 119,597 acres in Ireland (this last number showing a decrease of 39,398 acres), we find that the total acreage under wheat in the United Kingdom in 1876 was 3,124,342 acres, which is less by 387,420 acres than in 1875, a decrease of more than 11 per cent.
4. POPULATION, PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT, AND
HEALTH OF LARGE TOWNS IN 1875.-The | years. This proportion of lunatics to popuRegistrar General, in his annual summary lation is the lowest in the county of Renof mortality, gives the following facts re- frew, where, in 1875, the figure was as low specting eighteen great English cities or as 126 per 100,000; and the highest in towns:-Excluding London, the estimated Kinross, with 375 lunatics per 100,000 of population was 3,236,873. The mortality of the population. The total number adsome of the cities is decreasing, and among mitted to asylums during the year 1875 them may be named Liverpool, Manchester, was 2,191, being 490 private and 1,701 Sheffield, Sunderland, and Newcastle-upon- paupers. During the same period, 974 were Tyne. Bristol, Birmingham, Nottingham, discharged recovered; 397 removed, not reSalford, Oldham, Bradford, and Hull ex- covered; and 561 died, the total number perienced higher rates of mortality in 1874 removed being thus 1,932, of whom 461 than in 1871. The salubrity fluctuates from were private and 1,471 paupers. The year to year, but in the year 1875 the highest rate of recovery is found in parotowns, including London, stood in the chial asylums. This, the Commissioners following order :-Portsmouth 1915, Sun- say, is probably explained by the fact that derland 22 4, London 23'7, Norwich 24'5, the patients received into these institutions Wolverhampton 24 7, Sheffield 248, New- comprise a greater proportion of persons castle-upon-Tyne 26'1, Leeds 26'4, Birming- labouring under the ephemeral forms of ham 26.5. Leicester 26'5, Bristol 268, insanity than those received into public Bradford 271, Hull 274, Liverpool 275, and private asylums. Of the unrecovered Nottingham 277, Oldham 29.6, Manchester patients removed, 21 escaped. The total 299, and the borough of Salford 31.5. Fifty number of escapes during the year was other large town districts, with an esti- 257, of whom 161 were brought back within mated population of 2,724,784, offer some 24 hours, 60 within a week, and 15 after interesting facts. In this year the mortality a week. There were six cases of suicide. was at the rates below 20 per 1,000 in Dover The total expenditure for pauper lunatics (164), Chatham, Maidstone, Hastings, in Scotland was, for the year ending May Reading (187), Colchester, Devonport 14, 1875, 157,806l., being nearly double the (185), and Cheltenham (18.8). The mor- amount expended in 1858. The amount tality exceeded 26 in Exeter, Stockport paid from Imperial sources towards the (316), Wigan (303), Bolton, Bury, Ashton-support of these lunatics was 59,483., so under-Lyne (332), Preston (318), Gates- that the direct durden on the payers of head, and Carlisle. parochial rates was 98,3281.
LUNACY IN SCOTLAND..-The Eighteenth Annual Report of the Lunacy Commis- BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES IN sioners for Scotland shows that the total IRELAND.-The Registrar-General for Irenumber of lunatics in Scotland, of whom land has just issued his annual return of the Commissioners had official cognizance, the numbers of births, deaths, and maron January 1st, 1875, was 8,225, of whom riages registered in that part of the kingdom 3,850 were males and 4,375 females. Of for 1875. The word "registered" is italithese, 5,002 were in Royal and district cized by the Registrar, doubtless for the asylums, 226 in private asylums, 1,472 in purpose of directing the reader's notice to private dwellings, and the remainder in the circumstance, which will be exemplified parochial asylums and poorhouses, with presently, that the births, deaths, and marthe exception of 49 in the lunatic depart-riages stated are short of the real numbers. ment of Perth General Prison, and 143 in The ratios in Ireland persistently fall below training schools; 6,700 of them are main- the ratios obtained in England and Scottained by parochial rates, 49 by the State, land. The Irish and the English ratios are and the remainder from private sources. compared in the three tables below. Of the unreported insane, maintained by land during the years under review has their friends in private dwellings, the had a decreasing population, England an Commissioners have no certain knowledge. increasing one. During the last ten years The number of registered lunatics when the Irish population has decreased about the Commissioners first entered on their 290,000 souls; the English has inereased functions, namely, in January, 1858, was about 2,500,000. The estimated population 5,823, so that there is shown in the 17 of Ireland in 1875 was 5,310,000; the births years an increase in lunatics of 2,402; but numbered 138,382, 71,096 boys and 67,286 this increase may in part be due to more girls) or 26.1 per 1,000 of population. The lunatics in proportion to the total number deaths numbered 98,243 (49,068 males and having come under official cognizance. In 49,175 females), or 18.5 per 1,000; and the 1858, the number of lunatics per 100,000 marriages were 24,259, or 4'57 per 1,000 of of population was 191; in 1875 it was 230, estimated population. The Registration there having been a gradual increase in Act came into operation in 1845, but was the proportion during the intervening then limited to births and deaths. Twenty
years afterwards Acts for the registration | for Ireland, are taken from the last annual of Roman Catholic and Protestant mar- report of the Registrar-General for England. riages were passed. Commencing, there- The average of estimated population of fore, with the year 1865, we have, or ought Ireland in the decade 1865-1874 was to have, a full record. The figures for 5,436,000. The ratio of births in Ireland England, which are compared with those and in England is compared in the table:
Here it is found that the English ratio of comparative ratio of deaths is given in the births exceeds the Irish 6'90 being the lowest excess, and 9'15 the highest. The
next table :
Ratio per 1,000
Ratio per 1,000
Excess of Births Ratio of Births in England per in England. 1,000 of Population.
The difference as against Ireland is not so
Ratio of Deaths
1,000 that occurred in the year 1866; by 1873 the excess of English deaths was only 2.8. The proportion of marriages is com
Excess of Marriages in England per 1,000 of Population.
Ratio per 1,000
5°51 5'45 5°42
It will be observed that the English ratios | ratios by figures so absolutely large as in of the last table do not exceed the Irish the case of the births and deaths. The