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Finally, after inspecting the presents, the visitor came to two cases in which he had an opportunity of seeing the photographs of the majority of the donors of the presents, .e., of the various Princes and Chieftains of India. This series most appropriately concluded the visit to the Prince's collection, but before passing on to the next room of the Museum, a few words must be devoted to the collection of very clever and interesting sketches which decorated the walls; these were by Mr. Sydney Hall, the artist who accompanied the Prince throughout his progress, and will, when worked up into their final form, thoroughly illustrate all the principal incidents of the tour, beginning with the embarkation at Brindisi, and a sketch of the harbour, going on with sketches of scenes on board the Serapis, and lastly, passing to India, and representations of the most interesting occurrences there. Space would fail were we to attempt a description of each of these pictures; they were all excellent, and none more so than the illustrations of scenes in the hunting expeditions; in the Crossing a Nullah" there was a thorough medley of elephants in all positions, some descending one bank of the "Nullah," and others ascending the opposite bank, many of them laden with the trophies of the chase-tiger, bear, and deer-others either carrying the sportsmen or laden with the stores, not forgetting one, perhaps the most important of all, which was burdened with a huge ice-chest.
The sketches of the "Elephant Fight in the Amphitheatre at Baroda," and the "Measuring of the first Tiger," recall other interesting episodes, while another picture shows us Sir Salar Jung's mode of getting over the rough ground in the jungles, viz., by mounting on the back of one of his attendants.
The next room is the central room of the upper gallery of the Museum, and contains some of the best specimens of all the various groups of art manufactures. A large central octagonal case is devoted to silver and gold ware, and to a few specimens of metal work, such as "Kuftgari," or Bederi," in the decoration of which gold or silver is employed; on each side of this case are wall-cases in which the finer specimens of swords and daggers and shields are exhibited, and in other cases about the room are specimens of jewellery, shawls, and kincobs, metal-ware, sandalwood and ivory carving; here is also a superb collection of bowls, plates, vases, &c., carved out of jade and rock-crystal, and many of them inlaid with precious stones; most of these specimens were purchased from the late Colonel Guthrie.
The collection of arms occupies the greater part of the next room; it is arranged on the walls in groups, in such a manner as to show the different forms of weapons which are employed by the different races of India; the best specimens of matchlocks are in glass cases.
Along one side of the room runs a large glass case, in which are some of the oldest specimens in the Museum, such as the well-known figure of a tiger worrying an European soldier, which was constructed to amuse Tippoo Sultan, Runjeet Singh's throne,
and several other relics, which used to attract visitors to the Museum at the old East India House. Here also commences the ethnographical collection made by Sir Douglas Forsyth, during his mission to Yarkand, which is very interesting, as giving us some insight into the manners and customs of the inhabitants of those little known regions. This collection is continued into the last room of the Museum, and there also we find the ethnological collections made by Mr. Shaw in Kashgar, and by Dr. Leitner in Dardestan.
The remainder of the room is occupied by the collection of idols, and of articles which are used in the performance of religious ceremonies, and lastly by a very complete and interesting series of clay and wooden models, illustrating the different castes of natives and their manners and customs.
The walls of this room are covered with copies of the fresco paintings which ornament the Buddhistic caves of Ajunta, and also by photographs of temples and other buildings in all the various styles of architecture whichhave prevailed throughout India from the earliest period of which we have any trustworthy records.
With this room concludes the visit to the India Museum, but it is a visit which may be paid over and over again with profit ; although the Prince of Wales's collection is no longer there, yet the Museum collections are being, day by day, got into more perfect order, and are being constantly supplemented by private donations.
J. R. R.
NOTE. I must here record my thanks to Dr. G. Birdwood, of the India Museum, and also to Mr. R. Phillips, of Cockspur Street, for the kind way in which they have afforded me valuable information.
THE PHILADELPHIA EXHIBITION.
AFTER five years of preparation, the great International Exhibition of America was opened in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, on the 10th of May, 1876, by the President of the United States. The members of the Cabinet and Legislature were present, as were also the Diplomatic Corps, Foreign Commissioners, and His Majesty Dom Pedro II, the Emperor of Brazil. The opening ceremonies were simple and businesslike; and after the President had made a tour of the buildings, and the machinery had been set in motion in his presence, the Exhibition was declared open, and some 76,000 paying visitors streamed in at the gates, which, together with the vast throngs of invited guests and persons entering without payment, may be taken as swelling the grand total of persons present on the opening day to between 120,000 and 130,000.
Fairmount Park, 236 acres of which have been enclosed for the Exhibition, is the largest park, in the near neighbourhood of a city, in the world. It covers 2,991 acres of ground, while the Prater at Vienna has 2,500, Richmond Park, 2,468, and the Bois de Boulogne, 2,158.
The ground chosen for the Exhibition is well adapted for the purpose. It forms an elevated plateau, with three spurs jutting out towards the Schuylkill River, separated from each other by deep wooded ravines, through which flow small streams. One of these ravines-Lansdowne Valley-is spanned by two bridges; the other-Belmont Valley-by one bridge. The height of the plateau above the Schuylkill is 120 feet; its three spurs are occupied by the Art Gallery, the Horticultural Hall, and the Agricultural Hall; while the broad plain, where they unite, contains the Main Building, Machinery Hall, the American Government Building, the Women's Pavilion, Judges' Hall, and a host of smaller erections, including the timber-framed house, somewhat in 16th century style, which forms the head-quarters of the British Commission. Just behind this last are the rounded slopes of George's Hill, on which an "elevator," some 300 feet high, has been constructed.
The grounds are traversed by five spacious avenues, and immediately fronting the "Trois Frères Provençaux" Restaurant is a lake covering about 5 acres of ground, with sloping banks turfed with grass, and planted with shrubs, having also a fountain in the centre.
The following figures may give a fair idea of the magnitude of the enterprise :—
Space occupied by buildings
Cost of the Exhibition Buildings
Number of entrances (corresponding to the
Number of exhibitors to whom space allotted
Length of narrow-gauge steam railroad convey-
13 miles. 60,000.
25 miles in length.
Quantity of materials used in main building :-
8,100,520 lbs. of wrought iron.
1,100,000 square feet of metal roofing.
250,000 square feet of glass.
292,000 square feet of cast iron.
7,000,000 feet of timber.
The main building is in the form of a parallelogram, extending east and west 1,880 feet in length, and north and south 464 feet in width. Its central span, in which is situated the grand avenue, is 1,832 feet by 120 feet, being the longest of this width ever introduced into an exhibition building. The larger
portion of the structure is one story high, and shows the main cornice on the outside at 45 feet above the ground, the interior height being 70 feet. In the centre are four square towers, 120 feet high. The façades at the end are 90 feet high, and the corner towers 75 feet. The framework is of iron filled in with wood and glass in the quantities mentioned. The areas covered
The ground was prepared, and foundation laid for the Main Building in the autumn of 1874, and the completed work accepted from the contractor, Mr. R. J. Dobbins, February 14th, 1876; its cost was about £300,000. This building, thoroughly fitted for its purpose, might alone make the reputation of its skilful architects, Henry Pettit and Joseph M. Wilson, who, immediately on returning from their official special mission to the Vienna Exhibition, set about planning the vast structure we have been speaking of.
The following figures will give some idea of the extent of material in the Main Building:
Running feet of rolled iron of different sections, about 141 miles. 8,100,000 lbs. wrought iron, at 487 lbs. per cubic foot 16,633 cubic feet solid cube with sides, 25' 6". 292,000 lbs. cast iron, at 450 lbs. per cubic foot = 650 cubic solid cube with sides, 8′ 8′′. 8,392,000 lbs. wrought and cast iron (16,633 + 650 cubic feet) 17,283 cubic feet solid cube with sides, 25' 10". West of the Main Building is Machinery Hall, also designed by Messrs. Pettit and Wilson. Its length is 1,402 feet; its breadth 360 feet. Its cost, including all the adjacent boiler houses, machine shops, and saw mill, was about £140,000, and its construction was completed in about eight months from the time the building was commenced. The floor room is 510,000 square feet, and the mean height 60 feet. It contains machines for working in metal, wood, glass, clay, stone, fibre, paper, and gum; also prime motors, such as steam, air, gas, and petroleum engines. There are annexes with machines for working in leather, quartz, &c., and saw mills, and many other processes. the south side of the parallelogram forming the main body of the hall is the hydraulic annex 208 × 210 feet, with a tank 8 feet deep and 60 x 106 feet. On either side of this tank are the pumps, each discharging overhead into the tank at an equal height, about 15 feet above the surface of the water. At the southern extremity of this annex is a tank raised 33 feet from the floor of the hall, and pouring a cascade of water of 36 feet in breadth, the sheet of water having a weir depth of about four inches. 30,000 gallons of water per minute are raised by two rotary pumps, each driven by an engine of 150 horse-power.
Eight main lines of shafting are provided for the machinery in the avenue and aisles, the 'greater part being speeded to 120 revolutions per minute, and one line to 240 revolutions. The motive power for the machines is supplied by the great doubleacting duplex vertical engine, named after its inventor, Mr. George H. Corliss, of Providence, Rhode Island, the smallest State in the entire Union. This engine stands about 40 feet above the circular platform, which is 56 feet in diameter, and 3 feet above the floor of the hall. It has cylinders of 44 inches diameter and 10 feet stroke. Between the vertical engine is a fly-wheel of 56 tons weight, 30 feet diameter, and 24 inch face, making 36 revolutions per minute. The twenty tubular boilers are in a separate building; each represents nominally 70 horse-power, the work of the engine at 60 lbs. pressure being about 1,400 horse-power.
It would not be possible, except in a publication devoted to mechanics, to do any measure of justice to the vast collection of machinery in this hall; moreover, elaborate articles on the subject have appeared in various English and other periodicals.
Among the many minor buildings in the grounds must be mentioned a glass manufactory, with its furnaces and all necessary appliances, as well as a staff of skilled workmen; where the whole process of glass melting, blowing, and manufacturing is shown in active operation. Owing to the immense space occupied by the exhibition grounds, various means of aiding visitors were required from the commencement; rolling chairs especially were found necessary for ladies both within and without the buildings, while the railway already mentioned as running round the grounds was always crowded.
The Horticultural Hall, situated north of the Main Building and Art Gallery, is one of the most attractive portions of the Exhibition. Built in a Moorish style of architecture, it forms a handsome structure, 383 feet long by 193, of stone, brick, glass, and iron, and is intended to remain as a permanent feature of Fairmount Park. This building was completed by the contractor on 1st April, 1876, at an outlay of £60,000. The grounds facing the Hall have been symmetrically laid out as flower gardens, and under cover in the immediate vicinity various floricultural exhibitions have taken place. Among these may be mentioned John Waterer's collection of rhododendrons, presented by him to the Commissioners of Fairmount Park, and a rose show, comprising 1,000 varieties contributed by the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
The Agricultural Hall, which was constructed in seven months at a cost of £52,000, stands north of Horticultural Hall, and presents to the eye a mass of green roofs, having somewhat the character of the exterior of a Russian church. Its extreme dimensions are 540 feet in front by 820 feet in depth, and it encloses a space of 12 acres in extent.
America was naturally desirous of showing the world on this