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LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 270.-21 JULY, 1849.
From the Spectator. sympathetic diseased action; the disease probably THE DOOM OF QUARANTINE.
being the direct natural method of eliminating
that diseased matter. In this sense, perhaps, The arguments against the continuance of no disease is non-contagious. But the greatly quarantine-regulations have come to flower in increased mass of evidence respecting the epithe report just issued by the Board of Health, demic diseases called contagious distinctly points and now, it is to be hoped, they will bear seed. to other causes. They are all fevers, all partake The report is a very masterly and lucid exposi- of certain leading traits common to fever, all tion of the knowledge bearing on the subject, find their abode in certain habitats which are illustrated by well-selected facts, and so marshalled ill-drained and ill-ventilated, all are fatally agthat the whole must enforce conviction, even, gravated by the artificial causes that increase we should think, on the most prejudiced mind. those natural defects—by over-crowding, closeThe argument is exhaustive in its process, and shutting, and filth of dwellings.
The typhus is so broadly based as to make it almost im- fever, in its horribly aggravated Egyptian form possible that any essential mistake can have crept of “plague," does not come from Alexandria in.
to London in the twenty-five ships sent out at Quarantine is founded on the assumption that the heighth of the plague season ; it is not certain diseases, and most chiefly Oriental carried into the bosoms of our families through “plague,” are contagious"—that is, propagat- the cotton packed and shipped by persons actually ed by the contact of the sick with the healthy. under the infection of plague ; but it is in LonThe report refutes the theory of quarantine don, created by the plague-producing local causes out of its own practice : the strictest observance of bad drainage, over-crowding, bad ventilation, of quarantine does not exclude plague or other and filth. Epidemic fever is not imported as a "contagious” diseases from places liable to such thing, an article of export and import, by ships visitations ; places, classes, and persons, not in and travellers ; it is not carried by tramps from themselves liable to such visitations, do not be workhouse to workhouse ; even the Irish fever come infected by any breach of the quarantine- was not imported by the invading hordes of Irish regulations. The well-known case of cotton starvers. But, in one sense, fever is imported ; imported from Egypt is conclusive, even if it the migrants bring to the low, over-crowded, and stood alone : the feeblest reasoner, arguing by ill-constructed districts of our towns, increased the method of differences, would have no dif- numbers and the habits which originally produced ficulty in pronouncing that the cause of infec- the disease ; and hence, where such persons settle tion cannot be the contagion, while the disease the disease appears is propagated where the contagion is prevented, So it is with ships : they are floating “ cellars," and is not propagated where contagion is not undrained, ill-ventilated ; the bilge-water of the prevented. The same result, however, is to be hold is an infectious pond of decayed animal traced through the whole practice of quarantine : matter within the dwelling, and by the motion give other circumstances favorable to epidemic of the ship it is forever stirred. Its noxious or zymotic diseases and no prevention of contact fumes often affect persons of a weakly or irritable can arrest the disease ; give circumstances favor- temperament at the first encounter. Ships, able to continued health, and the door of quarantine therefore, are disease-manufactories—they make stands open in vain.
the disease they are supposed to convey. In Of late years there has been a considerable the mercantile navy, the number of deaths at impulse to the inquiry into so-called contagious sea produced by infectious or zymotic diseases is diseases, with a corresponding accession to a true 55.9 per cent. on the total of deathis-more than knowledge of them. Hitherto each disease was double the ratio (26.5) that the same class of supposed to possess its own peculiar “virus'' ; deaths bears on shore. The disease is made in and, in some degree, that may be true, but only the ships in spite of several circumstances conin the same way that every disease known to the ducive to health, especially the free ventilation pathologist exhibits a tendency to propagate itself of the sea and the invigorating effect of life above by the actual exhibition of diseased matter in deck. healthy flesh. Puncture with the bone of a hare Experience shows, therefore, that the disease that is “high,” will cause mortification and is not exported, because no quarantine strictness sudden death; we do not say that venatus can confine it to one spot, no quarantine laxity or the chase is a contagious disease. Introduce direct its encroachments ; it is not carried in diseased matter into a healthy body, and the ships, because no “ contagious" medium has disease has a tendency to spread by inducing a been known to convey it to those in healthy
condition and circumstances ; it is made in ships, | Nay, quarantine regulations are positively misby causes that make it elsewhere ; it is made chievous—as mischievous as any fantastical mediamongst us, by domestic causes to which quar- cation detected by travellers among savages. antine as little applies as the Coast Preventive Sufferers from the African typhoid in the Eclair Guard checks private stills.
steamer must have been doomed to more certain But a diligent scientific inquiry seems to be death by the confinement which quarantine engradually approaching a knowledge of the specific forced. causes ; which are of classes. The investi- What the Board of Health proposes to do is, gation of the bold explorers into the abodes of to substitute sanatory regulations for quarantine disease have uniformly detected the presence of regulations—in other words, to apply the operaputrid or decaying animal or vegetable matter, tions of science to the actual and not the tradior both, in the atmosphere immediately surround- tionary causes of disease ; just as a physician ing the patient-even lodged on the walls of the now sends in drugs to an atrophied patient, room in which he lies. “Dr. Angus Smith has instead of nailing a horse-shoe on his door to shown, that when the vapor which condenses on keep away the hag that has bewitched him. A the walls and windows of a room in which large change of that kind can scarcely be deferred, now numbers of persons are assembled is examined, it that the better knowledge of the day has at last is found to be impregnated with animal matter in received the stamp of authority. It immediately a high state of putrefaction.” In the case of a affects three large and important classes of the patient under acule diseases, the noxious fumes community-travellers, a class who represent may have floated from various sources; but in England in every region of the globe ; sailors of proportion as the room is closed the virus is the mercantile navy, about 200,000 in numberconcentrated, especially when the sources of it men who are scourged by the pestilent fevers, still are incessantly renewed : the morbid exhalations trusting in a horse-shoe nailed to the mast ; and of the patient himself—any accumulated organic merchants with property of which the floating matters, diffusing their decayed particles into a portion is roughly estimated at 2,000,0001. annulimited space-supply an atmosphere charged ally. The reform is the more likely to be accomwith mortification, exactly like the mortification plished, since it affects no political interests and conveyed by the puncture with the decayed hare's must bring credit to any statesmen that do accombone. But this source of disease is one easy of plish it. In order that they may make sure of removal and dissipation—just as the dead hare achieving it, we should advise our present minismay be thrown away or buried. Here you have ters to do it this session-at once. Why not? actually captured and identified that dreaded obscurity the virus ; and you find that it is a
From the Examiner. thing which, instead of being forced into the
THE SCOTTISH MARRIAGE BILL. lungs at every breath, may be carried away by the scavenger and blown away by the winds of “Such laws are only fit for barbarians," was heaven.
the indignant remark of Madame Grant, the wife, The other class of causes is meteorological ; or more properly speaking, the lady of Talleyrand, and although it is less distinctly understood, when she heard that some severe laws directed enough is known to point out the nature of the against conjugal infidelity were likely to find their morbific causes and to stimulate further inquiry. way into the new French code.
One would supExcess of moisture in the air naturally aggravates pose that some such sentiment, from some such perall the evils attendant on bad drainage and ven- son, had given its vitality to the preposterous oppotilation by checking evaporation, and by throwing sition to the bill for abolishing indecorous methods increased duties on the functions of the human of constituting marriage in Scotland. skin. Electricity is evidently connected in the tices against which the measure is directed have closest degree with the phenomena of vitality ; been a disgrace to the empire, and a scandal to
“ low” condition of “positive” electricity the country in which they have so long been toler-terms, as yet used in a very vague and arbitrary ated. The usual type of the nuptials beyond the sense, to express obvious but ill-understood sets border, in which the blacksmith of Gretna Green of phenomena—seems to be very unfavorable to is the priest, and his anvil the altar, is decency the action of vitality. These meteorological causes itself when compared with other methods of comcannot be prevented; but their morbific tendencies pleting the matrimonial union. may be counteracted by whatever promotes evapo- In a brothel, a couple, elevated by hard drinkration and vital action—by good drainage and ing to the sublime sacrifice, declare that they agree good ventilation, by proper diet, clothing, and to be from that moment man and wife ; and the regimen-by sanatory regulations. Quarantine, surrounding prostitutes bearing testimony to what however, can have little effect in regulating the they have declared, this is a marriage, as comimportations of the electric fluid, or checking the plete and indissoluble as if it had been solemnized march of fog-laden winds. In that matter, with by a Blair or a Chalmers. Nay, concubinage, if our quarantine-officers, we intelligent Britons are steadily persevered in, with a certain demure union a par with savages who carry out drums and formity, has the faculty of gradually expanding cymbals to dissipate the foreboding of an eclipse. I itself into marriage, in such fashion that no one
can tell the precise point at which the unholy state multitudinous tribunals are well known to contain terminates and the holy one begins. Such is the “a perpetual feast of nectared sweets ;' and if nature of the law, by which persons who have for common report do not belie the reverend gentlea considerable period lived together “ habite and men, the same materials provide an ample fund of repute” man and wife, are counted married per- anecdote and jocularity for distribution " after the
Its effect is, that at this moment there are cloth is removed," at synodal entertainments and many couples throughout Scotland who cannot tell presbytery dinners. Wilder theories have been whether they are married or not, and many people formed than the supposition that the craftsmen are who are in doubt whether they are legitimate or unwilling to lose the occupation of constructing, illegitimate.
in the investigatorial procedure connected with And yet an outcry is raised against a project for irregular marriages, the shrines of their chaste removing this scandal, by providing that all those Diana, the Scottish marriage law. who refuse to conform with the becoming practice We are charitable enough, however, to believe of having marriage solemnized by a clergyman, that the outcry is chiefly caused by the inability shall be prohibited from adopting the vague and of men of isolated habits to appreciate the capacity immoral methods of accomplishing that union here- of enlightened legislation to correct the social imtofore followed, and must submit at least to a dis- moralities which protrude from barbarism into tinct official registration of the fact that they civilization. In the Cottagers of Glenburnie we deliberately enter on the marriage state. If the find, that, like these church courts, the great conmeasure were calculated in any way to lessen the servative Mrs. MacClarty expresses her disgust respect and efficacy given to the ecclesiastical when the venerable dunghill in front of the schoolceremony, the opposition to it might have been house is superseded by a plot of conceited flowers understood ; but this form of solemnization is scru: diffusing around their impertinent perfume ; and pulously preserved in its integrity, the registration wonders “ What the warld will come to at last, being only a substitute for irregular marriages. since naething can serve the pride o' William
The noisiest opponents of the lord advocate's Morrison, but to hae a flower garden whar gude bill are, strange as it may seem, among the cler- Mr. Brown's middenstead stood sappy for mony a gy. They have been for some time employed in day.” directing a continuous torrent, or rather squirt, of Partly, too, this phenomenon of multitudinous opposing petitions on the legislature. These docu- petitioning must be attributed to the church courts ments, after recording some profound opinion about and some kindred bodies becoming delighted with the danger of unsettling old established customs, the sound of their own voices, and agreeably surand of substituting theoretic excellence for imper-prised by the noise they have been able to make. fections which have worked well, almost invariably They seem to have taken a wonderful interest in record the unqualified belief of the petitioners, that the outcry; and it could not but add infinitely to through the instrumentality of the present system their amusement, that the same individuals among of the law of marriage, they live in the midst of them were able to petition in several capacities, each the most moral and religious community in the with an important title--as, for instance, in repworld.
resenting the kirk session, the parochial board, There are grounds only too ample for question- the presbytery, and the synod. It will be difficult ing the purity of the Scottish peasantry, in the for the select committee on public petitions, when branch of morality which the law of marriage the moderatorships and chairmanships of such chiefly affects. Lord Teignmouth, in his Sketches bodies are judiciously shifted and twisted about, of Scotland, made his readers shudder hy saying to find which thimble the pea is under. a Scottish clergyman had told him there was but It is a further evil of this beginning, that the one married woman in his parish who had not practice of petitioning against bills has made a gone astray before marriage ; while another said, sort of epidemic progress through these ecclesiasthat " in the first year in which he took charge of tical corporations; and, spreading, has infected his congregation, sixty-one illegitimate children certain county and civic assemblages. The very were offered to him for baptism.” Perhaps Lord necessary registration measure, to extend to ScotTeignmouth's accounts are exaggerated; but are land the system that has existed in England since such things very unnatural in a country where one 1836, has thus been vehemently opposed ; and, inof the methods of becoming married is to live for deed, it has become a sort of fixed order of proa certain time in concubinage?
cedure with many of these bodies to petition against It is true that all the irregularities thus created the last bill brought in for accomplishing any obare visited by “censures” and other various kinds ject of internal improvement. We can compare of peculiar and exciting proceedings in the Scot- the practice to nothing nearer it than the propentish ecclesiastical courts. These judicatories have, sity to utter some peculiar and incomprehensible indeed, long been celebrated for the sagacity with sentence, which occasionally visits the youth of which they scent out irregularities, the minute the metropolis with a uniform pertinacity that practical ability with which they investigate them, makes the phenomenon terrible to the passer-by; and the hearty satisfaction they exhibit in rubbing as where with one accord they have given themthe offender's nose in his offence. To those who selves to bawling forth, “ Does your mother know are curious in prurience, the proceedings of these you 're out?” or “What a shocking bad hat!" The Pray,
IN A DILIGENCE BELONGING TO THE PRUSSIAN
petitioning nuisance will not easier be abated than my neighbor, and asked him if we had been thus this mysterious practice, of which no one ever stationary for any length of time ? knew the beginning or can calculate the probable “ About twenty minutes, was the reply. termination. Like this, it must be borne with ; “ Twenty minutes !” I exclaimed. but it may be hoped that the judicious remarks of sir, may I, without indiscretion, ask what we are Lord Grey on the method of getting up petitions doing here ?" are not overlooked by those who examine the ob- “ We are waiting.” jections to a reform of the marriage law of Scot- “Oh! we are waiting. And pray what are land.
we waiting for ?" Since these remarks were in type, we have seen “ The hour." the evidence delivered before the select committee " What hour ?” on the law of marriage in Scotland. It is in com- “ The hour when, by right, we enter the plete conformity with what we have said, except town." that it is more full, vigorous, and complete in con- “ Is there, then, a fixed hour?" demnation. Lord Brougham begins with a state- Everything is fixed in Prussia.” ment that “ in some respects the system is the “ But, supposing we happened to arrive before least like the law of a civilized community of any the hour?" with which he is acquainted in any country;" and “ The conductor would be punished.” he goes on to say how an English judge browbeat " And if after ?" a witness for having the impudence to say there
6 Punished the same. was such a law in this empire. Lord Campbell " That's well looked to, at any rate,' is severe on the clergy, attributing motives; and observation. Dr. Lushington is at a loss to conclude whether Everything is well looked to in Prussia,” rethe facility for contracting marriage under the in- sponded my neighbor. fluence of wine is more dangerous to the male or I bowed my head in token of assent. Not for to the female sex.
worlds would I have differed from a gentleman who was so thoroughly impressed with the supe
riority of the laws and ordinances of his country; From Sharpe's Magazine.
independent of which, he had been too complaisant A JOURNEY FROM LIEGE TO AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, in answering my many questions to admit of my
wounding his feelings amour propre. I saw that my silent acquiescence to his opinion had gratified
him ; so I ventured to resume the conversation, by I ARRIVED at the coach-office just as they inquiring the precise hour at which alone we had were putting the horses to, procured my ticket, the privilege of entering Aix-la-Chapelle. and was putting it in my pocket, when a by- * Thirty-five minutes past four in the mornstander rather significantly said, “ You had bet- ing." ter read it, sir." I took his advice. These tick- 6 But if the watches and clocks don't agree?" ets, for the convenience of travellers, were printed “ Watches and clocks always agree in Prusin German and French. I found I was to occupy sia.” the fourth seat in the vehicle, and was strictly for- There must be something more than meets the bidden to change places with my fellow-travellers, eye, thought I, in this said kingdom of Prussia, even if such an arrangement should be agreeable when even time seems regulated by dictatorial to all parties. This despotic military discipline edict. Really puzzled, I begged an explanation. was a sufficient indication of our nearing the ter- “ The conductors,” continued my companion, ritories of his Prussian majesty, Frederic William. “ have a timepiece placed before them in the However, when once snugly ensconced in my cor- cabriolet, which is secured by a padlock, to prener, the tyranny of his majesty gave me but little vent all touching of the works to suit their conveconcern ;-I fell fast asleep, and enjoyed as sound nience. These are regulated by the clocks of the a nap as could fall to the lot of any man in a land Messageries, and by them the moment of arrival of perfect liberty. It was about three o'clock in at each town and village is ascertained, to our the morning—that is to say, daybreak—when I final entrée at Aix-la-Chapelle.” awoke; the rocking of the carriage—so soothing “ With all these precautions, how happens it,” to the drowsy–had ceased, and my slumbers I continued, " that we are obliged to be waiting broken. At first, I anticipated some evil—the here on this bowling-green of a road?” loss of a wheel, a horse fallen down, or some un- “I suppose the conductor, like yourself, sir, fortunate accident. I advanced my head to the fell asleep, and during the time the postilions carriage window; all was right; there we were, pushed on at too great a speed, and now they have alone, brought to a stand on one of the most beau- to pay for time overspent." tiful roads I ever saw. I took my ticket from my “ Oh! if that's the case, I will profit by the pocket, to see if I could gain information as to halt, get out of the carriage, and look about me a this rather unusual method of travelling.-Not a little." word ; but as there was no prohibition to my holding “ You cannot get out of a diligence in Prussia conversation during the journey, why, I turned to till the end of your journey."
I was nearly tempted to utter a deep and bitters to his castle of Hautefort, and prepared to hold it imprecation against Prussia and all who belonged out against the English. After an obstinate siege, to it. I, however, suppressed my anger, and it was at length reduced, and Bertrand was taken begged to know what were those ruins I saw at a and led bound into the presence of Henry. The little distance.
king was about to pass sentence of death on him, “ It is the castle of Emmaburgh.”
when Bertrand in a few touching words spoke of “ And what is the castle of Emmaburgh ?” the love which the dead prince had ever borne him,
“ It was there that the adventure of Eginhard and the monarch, bursting into tears, pardoned the and Emma took place.”
Lord of Hautefort, and, for the sake of his son, re“ Indeed! Do, pray, have the kindness to stored to him all his honors and possessions. change places with me for a few minutes, so that, Why do the island banners gleam, the island knights at least, I may view it from the window.”
advance, “ With great pleasure would I comply with Mid strains of warlike minstrelsy, across the plains your request, but we are forbidden to change of France ? places in a public carriage in Prussia.”
The island host lies camped within the walls of old “ Confound Prussia !” I exclaimed, my pa. And forth they sally to the fight, who never fight in
Turenne, tience completely worn out. Instantly I recollect
vain. ed myself, and apologized for my indiscretion.
The hall was draped with banners, and there a “Oh! dose Frenchmen always chatter, chatter throne was set -dere tongue neber still,” growled forth a fat For the haughtiest king of England's line, Henry German, without unclosing his eyes; and these
Plantagenet. were the first words he had uttered since we He sate him down in silence, his nobles standing by; started.
And they that knew him well might mark strange
trouble in his eye. “ What is that you say, sir?” asked I, not half pleased at his observation.
His cold stern lip was quivering, his furrowed cheek “ I did say-Oh! noting, noting.”
was pale, “ You had much better go to sleep again, sir," His brow was dark with the shade it wore when he I said to him ; " and if it is your habit to dream How vengeance muttered, half conceived, was fully
listed the fearful tale, aloud, I recommend its being in your mother
wreaked the while, tongue.”
And proud à Becket weltering lay in Canterbury's The German began to snore.
aisle. “Postilions ! vorwarts—vorwarts !” cried the An English knight came spurring fast, he rushed conductor.
into the hall : Crack went the whips, at full gallop the horses : “Good news!” he cried, “my liege, I bring from -I tried to catch a peep of the poetical ruins, The strong-barred gates are battered down, the cit
Hautefort's ruined wall. but a sudden turn of the road cut off all view.
adel is ta'en ; At thirty-five minutes past four, to a second, Our soldiers forced their bloody way o'er pyramids we drove into the court of the Messageries at Aix- of slain. la-Chapelle.
" And there within the donjon, at bay, and fight
ing still, From Sharpe's Magazine.
We seized the traitor Bertrand, and bound him at BERTRAND DE BORN.
our will. Without he waits thy sentence—will it please my
liege to see Henry the Second, harassed by the continued The rebel lord in life, or shall we bear his head to rebellion of his eldest son Henry, at length went
thee?" over with an army to France, in order to put down “Bring him in hither,” said the king, “I fain an insurrection which the young prince had raised who dared to raise him arm in fight, spurning our
would see him near, among his vassals in Guienne. Bertrand de Born,
kingly fear." Lord of Hautefort, was a noble equally celebrated They led the sword-reft prisoner in, his stalwart limbs for his poetic talent as a troubadour, and his valor bound tight; as a warrior. He warmly espoused the cause of The dust they scattered on his head had dimmed its young Henry, and accompanied him to the castle golden light. of Martel, whither he had retired on hearing of his His fearless eye looked up, and still an untamed fire father's approach. The king encamped at Turenne,
was there, and hostilities had already commenced, when a His proud lips moved, yet sent they forth no uttermessenger arrived at the English camp, bearing
ance of prayer; tidings that Prince Henry was dangerously ill, and He bent no knee in reverence, there stood that prislonged to see his father, and receive his forgiveness
oned knight, before he died. Henry, however, had so often been As proud as when his cuirass gleamed and falchion deceived by his rebellious son, that he believed this Firm and few the words he spake, and yet they
waved in fight. to be a stratagem, and refused to visit the castle of
touched a string Martel. In a day or two the prince died, and Ber-That thrilled the parent-stricken heart of England's trand de Born, dreading the king's vengeance, fled mighty king;
BY MRS. HOARE.