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come to these schools filthy, ragged, and squalid, that a Bourbon, a legitimate sovereign of France, speaking a babel of languages. In a short time has brought them to this civilization and to these they learn English from their native associates ; habits. The Rev. Mr. Williams, their pastor, and strict attention being paid to their habits and and to whom they are greatly indebted for their costume by their preceptors, not a long time is improved condition, is now said to be the lost required to metamorphose the young foreigner dauphin, the son of Louis the XVI. If so, he has into a cleanly, respectable American boy; and done more for the human family, perhaps, and led thus our institutions afford a physical and moral a more peaceful and quiet life, than if he had sat ablution to the soiled humanity of Europe. upon the throne of his ancestors. This, however,
The remainder of our glance at the lakes is out is not the only romance of this region of country. of the track of the larger boats, or indeed any A town bearing the Indian name of Aztalan is boats, except at uncertain intervals.
situated between the Neenah and Lake Michigan, From Chicago our destination was to wilder and from this locality it is surmised went forth the regions, upon whose quiet solitudes the din and Aztec race to overrun Mexico, and found the embustle of commerce and speculation had not yet pire of Montezuma. broken, but to which they are to reach if the far At one point the Neenah is within a mile and a seeing sagacity of John Jacob Astor is to be taken half of the Wisconsin, and this barrier being rein evidence.
moved an immense circle of water communication Early on a Sunday morning we were passing the is established from the Gulf of Mexico to the At“Door of Death,” a passage between a Cape of lantic through the St. Lawrence. Wisconsin and a neighboring island, communi The Neenah needs much the aid of art to render cating Lake Michigan with its important branch it an available stream, being, in its present con“Green Bay,” and on the same afternoon we dition, much richer to the tourist in search of the were entering the Neenah or Fox river. Nine picturesque than in facilities for commerce. From or ten miles from the mouth of the river, the bay Lake Winnebago, through which the river passes, shore rises in a broad green slope, dotted over with to its mouth, a distance of only thirty-nine miles, comfortable looking farms and farm-houses, and it has a fall of one hundred and sixty feet, and in giving the idea of an old and well-settled country. this course tumbles over sever different rapids. The entrance to the Neenah is so tortuous that
1. Winnebago Rapids, although the village or port of our destination is
2. Grand Chute, close to us on the left hand, eight miles of a wind
3. Little Chute, ing course are necessary to reach it. The settle
4. Grand Kakalin, ment or town of Green Bay is formed of two vil
5. Rapides des Croches, lages, Astor and Navarino, separated from each
6. Little Kakalin, other by a small brook; and still, quiet, inactive
7. Rapides des Perre. places they are, and by no means keeping up to The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians are what its geographical position would promise for settled on Lake Winnebago, and have relinquished it. A glance at the map will show that this their Indian habits and government for an agriculmust be the port for an important section of tural life and the privileges of citizens of the country, which is rapidly filling in. Mr. Astor, United States, and are represented in the legislalooking to the importance of the position, purchased ture by one of their own number. The Brotherlands here, the town of Astor being principally towns, it is said, have entirely lost their language. held by his estate. Navarino also is or has been Having understood that the scenery and rapids chiefly in the hands of an individual, and this in- of Grand Kakalin, distant twenty miles, were dividual proprietorship is assigned as a reason for well worth a visit, I procured a horse, and early the want of prosperity in the place.
on a foggy morning started on the journey. The As long ago as 1670 the French had their set- fog soon rolled away and uncovered a bright and lements in this region, and the spare population beautiful day. My road was an obscure bridlearound the town of Green Bay consists now path or trail on the left bank of the river, windof French, Indians, and half-breeds, and the phi- ing sometimes along the river-beach, then through losophy of life seems to be to pass it as easily as the forest, up and down ravines, across narrow possible, and not to agitate themselves by any of but deep sloughs. In places the path was so the activities of the “go-ahead” and progressive overgrown with bushes as to require great care in principle. The country abounds in game, and keeping it, and several times I, for a short time, the agreeable activity of hunting is found a suffi- lost my way. With the exception of one or two cient alternation with the more quiet pursuits of farms at the beginning and end of my journey, I their lives. Groups of Indians, dirty, drunken, passed only here and there the solitary cabin of a and worthless, are seen lounging about the town French settler, or the crumbling chimney and or camped in its vicinity; these are the Menome- tumbling logs of the cabin of some squatter who nees; but the Oneidas, neatly and picturesquely had disappeared before the first approaches of setdressed, visit it to sell their products and wares. tlement and civilization. Once, when out of my These latter are said to be the best farmers of the path, I came upon an Indian wigwam on the edge country; and it will be one of the strangest ro- of a brook in a small valley.
Smoke was asmances of history, if it shall prove to be the fact cending through the pinnacle of the conical dwell
ing, but none of its inhabitants were present. The I saw thee in thy beauty with one hand among last five miles of my road were through a clean
her curlsopen forest on the summit of a lofty ridge. From The other with no gentle grasp had seized a string this ridge the road descended to a smooth, green she felt the pretty trespass, and she chid thee,
of pearls; plain, expanding broadly between the foot of the
though she smiled;
I saw thee in thy beauty! and a tear came to mine pronounced Kokelow, and meaning the stopping. As I pressed thy rosy cheek to mine, and thought
eye, place of the pickerel. This locality merited all
even thou couldst die : that had been said of its beauty. The river, at My home was like a summer bower, by thy joyous this point very broad, went dashing and foaming
presence made, in a roaring torrent over an inclined plane of flat But I only saw the sunshine, and felt alone the limestone rocks. Several beautiful wooded islands,
shade. the largest of them containing twenty-seven acres, I see thee in thy beauty! for there thou seem'st to divided the river into many rushing streams, which
lie, again united into one broad current before dashing In slumber resting peacefully!-but, oh, the change down the greatest inclination of its rocky bed.
of eyeThe opposite shore rose in a fine slope, covered That still serenity of brow—those lips that breathe with forest-trees standing open and distinct, like those of a park, without any undergrowth litter
Proclaim thee but a mockery of what thou wast be
fore. ing the greensward from which they sprung. From the top of the bank the river is seen for a I see thee in thy beauty! with thy waving hair at mile curving among the hills before it reaches the rest, break of the islands and rapids, and again it is And thy busy little fingers folded lightly on thy
breast; seen to the same extent after it has returned to its But thy merry dance is o'er, and thy little race is placidity below.
run, From the proprietor of one of the fine farms And the mirror that reflected two, can now give on the plain, I received in a gentlemanly and hos back but one. pitable manner the entertainment which my long and unaccustomed ride rendered very desirable,
I see thee in thy beauty! with thy mother by thy
sideand about the middle of the afternoon started on But her loveliness is faded, and quelled her glance my return to Green Bay, which I reached at nine
of pride, o'clock.
The smile is absent from her lips, and absent are We have now glanced around the lakes in a the pearls, running tour, following in the main the general And a cap almost of widowhood conceals her envied line of travel, but, of course, our rapid move
with thy life away; LINES ON A STATUE OF HIS DEAD CHILD,
I see thee lying motionless upon the accustomed
past, I saw thee for a moment-'t was the first time and the last ;
COLONIAL PRODUCE.-It is beginning to be pretAnd, though years since have glided by of mingled ty well understood that rebellious colonies are not bliss and care,
half so beneficial to England as free and indepenI never have forgotten thee, thou fairest of the fair! dent customers. If any one were to move for a reI saw thee in thy beauty! Thou wast graceful as would be as follows :-“We have gained nothing
turn of all we have gained by Canada, the answer the fawn, When, in wantonness of glee, it sports along the but trouble, turmoil, disturbance, and row ; except lawn;
perhaps the Canadian Boat Song, and even that I saw thee seek the mirror—and when it met thy
commences with the rebellious recommendation, sight,
• Row, brothers, row,' addressed to the world in The very air was musical with thy burst of wild de
The city of Francisco is likely to be built in I saw thee in thy beauty! with thy sister at thy Trenton, New Jersey. Fifteen houses, to form a side
street in the new city on the Pacific, were shipped She a lily of the valley, thou a rose in all its last week for their destination. pride
Fifteen hundred uncalled for letters remain in I looked upon thy mother—there was triumph in the post-office at Independence, the persons to
whom they were addressed being on their way to And I trembled for her happiness, for grief had California.
made me wise.
see no more.
From the N. Y. Evening Post.
and the dusky faces and dark eyes peeping into the LETTERS FROM CUBA.
street and scanning the passers by. At other times, Havana, April 1, 1849. the whole room was seen,
with its furniture, and I FIND that it requires a greater effort of resolu- its female forms sitting in languid postures, courttion to sit down to the writing of a long letter in ing the breeze as it enters from without. In the this soft climate, than in the country I have left. evening, as I passed along the narrow sidewalk of I feel a temptation to sit idly, and let the grateful the narrow streets, I have been startled at finding wind froin the sea, coming in at the broad windows, myself almost in the midst of a merry party gathflow around me, or read or talk as I happen to ered about the window of a brilliantly lighted have a book or a companion. That there is some- room, and chattering the soft Spanish of the island thing in a tropical climate which indisposes one to in voices that sounded strangely near to me. I vigorous exertion I can well believe, from what I have spoken of their languid postures ; they love experience in myself, and what I see around me. to recline on sofas ; their houses are filled with The ladies do not seem to take the least exercise, rocking chairs imported from the United States; except an occasional drive on the Paseo, or public they are fond of sitting in chairs tilted against the park; they never walk out, and when they go wall, as we sometimes do at home. Indeed, they shopping, which is no less the vocation of their go beyond us in this respect; for in Cuba they sex here than in other civilized countries, they have invented a kind of chair which, by lowering never descend from their volantes, but the goods the back and raising the knees, places the sitter are brought out by the obsequious shopkeeper, and precisely in the posture he would take if he sat in the lady makes her choice and discusses the price a chair leaning backwards against a wall. It is a as she sits in her carriage.
luxurious attitude, I must own, and I do not wonYet the women of Cuba show no tokens of del. der that it is a favorite with lazy people, for it reicate health. Freshness of color does not belong lieves one of all the trouble of keeping the body to a latitude so near the equator, but they have upright. plump figures, placid unwrinkled countenances, a It is the women who form the large majority of well developed bust, and eyes, the brilliant languor the worshippers in the churches. I landed here of which is not the languor of illness. The girls, in passion week, and the next day is Holy Thursas well as the young men, have rather narrow day, when not a vehicle on wheels of any sort shoulders, but as they advance in life, the chest, was allowed to be seen in the streets ; and the in the women particularly, seems to expand from ladies, contrary to their custom during the rest of year to year, till it attains an amplitude by no the year, are obliged to resort to the churches on means common in our country. I fully believe foot. Negro servants of both sexes were seen that this effect, and their general health, in spite of passing to and fro, carrying mats on which their the inaction in which they pass their lives, is mistresses were to kneel in the morning services. owing to the free circulation of air through their all the white female population, young and old, apartments.
were dressed in black, with black lace veils. In For in Cuba the women as well as the men the afternoon, three wooden or waxen images, of may be said to live in the open air. They know the size of life, representing Christ in the different nothing of close rooms in all the island, and noth- stages of his passion, were placed in the spacious ing of foul air, and to this, I have no doubt, quite Church of St. Catherine, which was so thronged as much as to the mildness of the temperature, that I found it difficult to enter. Near the door the friendly effect of its climate upon invalids from was a figure of the Saviour sinking under the weight the north is to be ascribed. Their ceilings are of his cross, and the worshippers were kneeling to extremely lofty, and the wide windows, extending kiss his feet. Aged negro men and women, half from the top of the room to the floor, and guarded naked negro children, ladies richly attired, little by long, perpendicular bars of iron, are without girls in Parisian dresses, with lustrous black eyes glass, and when closed are generally only closed and a profusion of ringlets, cast themselves down by blinds, which, while they break the force of the before the image, and pressed their lips to its feet wind when it is too strong, do not exclude the air. in a passion of devotion. Mothers led up their Since I have been on the island, I may be said to little ones, and showed them how to perform this have breakfasted and dined and supped and slept | act of devotion. I saw matrons and young women in the open air, in an atmosphere which is never rise from it with their eyes red with tears. in repose, except for a short time in the morning The next day, which was Good Friday, about after sunrise. At other times a breeze is always twilight, a long procession came trailing slowly stirring, in the day time bringing in the air from through the streets under my window, bearing an the ocean, and at night drawing it out again to image of the dead Christ, lying upon a cloth of
gold. It was accompanied by a body of soldiery, In walking through the streets of the towns in holding their muskets reversed, and a band playing Cuba, I have been entertained by the glimpses I plaintive tunes ; the crowd uncovered their heads had, through the ample windows, of what was as it passed. On Saturday morning, at ten o'clock, going on in the parlors. Sometimes a curtain the solemnities of holy week were over ; the bells hanging before them allowed me only a sight of rang a merry peal; hundreds of volantes and drays, the small hands which clasped the bars of the grate, / which had been ready harnessed, rushed into the
streets; the city became suddenly noisy with the Campo Santo, as it is called, or public cemetery rat:le of wheels and the tramp of horses ; the shops, of Havana. Going out of the city at the gate which had been shut for the last two days, were nearest the sea, I passed through a street of the opened, and the ladies, in white or light-colored wretchedest houses I had seen; the ocean was muslins, were proceeding in their volantes to roaring at my right on the coral rocks which form purchase at the shops their costumes for the Easter the coast. The dingy habitations were soon left festivities.
behind, and I saw the waves, pushed forward by a I passed the evening on the Plaza de Armas, a fresh wind, flinging their spray almost into the public square in front of the governor's house, road; I next entered a short avenue of trees, and planted with palms and other trees, paved with in a few minutes the volante stopped at the broad flags, and bordered with a row of benches. gate of the cemetery. In a little enclosure before It was crowded with people in their best dresses, the entrance, a few starveling flowers of Europe the ladies mostly in white, and without bonnets, were cultivated, but the wild plants of the country for the bonnet in this country is only worn while flourished luxuriantly on the rich soil within. A travelling. Chairs had been placed for them in thick wall surrounded the cemetery, in which were a double row around the edge of the square, and a rows of openings for coffins, one above the other, row of volantes surrounded the square, in each of where the more opulent of the dead were enwhich sat two or more ladies, the ample folds of tombed. The coffin is thrust in endwise, and their muslin dresses flowing out on each side over the opening closed with a marble slab bearing an the steps of the carriage. The governor's band inscription. played various airs, martial and civic, with great Most of these niches were already occupied, but beauty of execution. The music continued for two in the earth below, by far the greater part of those hours, and the throng, with only occasional inter- who die at Havana are buried without a monument vals of conversation, seemed to give themselves up or a grave which they are allowed to hold a longer wholly to the enjoyment of listening to it. time than is necessary for their bodies to be con
It was a bright moonlight night, so bright that sumed in the quicklime which is thrown upon one might almost see to read, and the temperature them. Every day fresh trenches are dug, in which the finest I can conceive, a gentle breeze rustling their bodies are thrown, generally without coffins. among the palms overhead. I was surprised at Two of these, one near each wall of the cemetery, seeing around me so many fair brows and snowy were waiting for the funerals. I saw where the necks. It is the moonlight, said I to myself, or spade had divided the bones of those who were perhaps it is the effect of the white dresses, for the buried there last, and thrown up the broken fragcomplexions of these ladies seem to differ several ments, mingled with masses of lime, locks of hair, shades from those which I saw yesterday at the and bits of clothing. Without the walls was a churches. A female acquaintance has since given receptacle in which the skulls and other large me another solution of the matter.
bones, dark with the mould of the grave, were “ It is,” she said, “because during the cere- heaped. monies of holy week they take off the cascarilla Two or three persons were walking about the from their faces, and appear their natural com- cemetery when we first entered, but it was now at plexions."
length the cool of the day, and the funerals began I asked the meaning of the word cascarilla which to arrive. They brought in first a rude black I did not remember to have heard before.
coffin, broadest at the extremity which contained “ It is the favorite cosmetic of the island, and the head, and, placing it at the end of one of the is made of egg-shells finely pulverized. They often trenches, hurriedly produced a hammer and nails fairly plaster their faces with it. I have seen a to fasten the lid before letting it down, when dark-skinned lady as white almost as marble at a it was found that the box was too shallow at the ball. They will sometimes, at a morning call or narrower extremity. The lid was removed for a an evening party, withdraw to repair the cascarilla moment and showed the figure of an old man in a on their faces."
threadbare black coat, white pantaloons and boots. I do not vouch for this tale, but tell it “ as it The negroes who bore it, beat out the bottom with was told to me.” Perhaps, after all, it was the the hammer so as to allow the lid to be fastened moonlight which had produced this transformation, over the feet. It was then nailed down firmly though I had noticed something of the same im- with coarse nails, the coffin was swung into the provement of complexion just before sunset, on the trench, and the earth shovelled upon it. A midPaseo Isabel, a public park without the city walls, dle-aged man, who seemed to be some relative of planted with rows of trees, where, every after-the dead, led up a little boy close to the grave and noon, the gentry of Havana drive backwards and watched the process of filling it. They spoke to forwards in their volantes, with each a glittering each other and smiled, stood till the pit was filled harness, and a liveried negro bestriding, in large to the surface, and the bearers had departed, and jack boots, the single horse which draws the ve- then retired in their turn. This was one of the hicle.
more respectable class of funerals. Commonly, I had also the same afternoon visited the recep- the dead are piled, without coffins, one above the tacle into which the population of the city are other, in the trenches. swept when the game of life is played out-the The funerals now multiplied; the corpse of a
little child was brought in, uncoffined; and an-chink of gold and silver pieces as the betters other, a young man who, I was told, had cut his stepped into the area and paid their wagers ; the throat for love, was borne towards one of the slain bird was carried out and thrown on the niches in the wall. I heard loud voices, which ground, and the victor, taken into the hands of its seemed to proceed from the eastern side of the owner, crowed loudly in celebration of his victory. cemetery, and which, I thought at first, might be Two other birds were brought in, and the cries of the recitation of a funeral service; but no funeral those who offered wagers were heard on all sides. service is said at these graves; and, after a time, They ceased at last, and the cocks were put down I perceived that they came from the windows of a to begin the combat. They fought warily at first, long building which overlooked one side of the but at length began to strike in earnest, the blood burial ground. It was a mad-house. The in- flowed, and the bystanders to vociferate, ahi mates, exasperated at the spectacle before them, estan pele ando”*—" mata! mata ! mata !”'t geswere gesticulating from the windows—the women ticulating at the same time with great violence, screaming and the men shouting-but no attention and new wagers were laid as the interest of the was paid to their uproar. A lady, however, a combat increased. In ten minutes one of the stranger to the island, who visited the Campo birds was despatched, for the combat never ends Santa that afternoon, was so affected by the sights till one of them has his death wound. and sounds of the place, that she was borne out In the mean time scveral other combats had weeping and almost in convulsions. As we left|begun in smaller pits which lay within the same the place, we found a crowd of volunteers about enclosure, but were not surrounded with circles the gate ; a pompous bier, with rich black hang- of benches. I looked upon the throng engaged ings, drew up; a little beyond, we met one of in this brutal sport, with eager gestures and loud another kind—a long box, with glass sides and curses, and could not help thinking how soon this ends, in which lay the corpse of a woman, dressed noisy crowd would lie in heaps in the trenches of in white, with a black veil thrown over the face. Campo Santo.
The next day the festivities, which were to in In the evening was a masked ball in the Tacon demnify the people for the austerities of Lent and Theatre, a spacious building, one of the largest of passion week, began. The cock-pits were of its kind in the world. The pit, floored over, opened during the day, and masked balls were with the whole depth of the stage open to the given in the evenings at the theatres. You know, back wall of the edifice, furnished a ball-room of probably, that cock-fighting is the principal diver- immense size. People in grotesque masks, in sion of the island, having entirely supplanted the hoods or fancy dresses were mingled with a national spectacle of bull-baiting. Cuba, in fact, throng dressed in the ordinary costume, and Spanseemed to me a great poultry-yard. I heard the ish dances were performed to the music of a nucrowing of cocks in all quarters, for the game cock merous band. A well dressed crowd filled the is the noisiest and most boastful of birds, and is first and second tier of boxes. The Creole perpetually uttering his notes of defiance. In the smokes everywhere, and seemed astonished when villages, I saw the veterans of the pit, a strong- the soldier who stood at the door ordered him to legged race, with their combs cropped smooth to throw away his lighted cigar before entering. the head, the feathers plucked from every part of Once upon the floor, however, he lighted another the body except their wings, and the tail docked cigar in defiance of the prohibition. like that of a coach horse, picking up their food The Spanish dances, with their graceful movein the lanes among the chickens. One old cripplement, resembling the undulations of the sea in its I remember to have seen in the little town of gentlest mood, are nowhere more gracefully perGuires, stiff with wounds received in combat, who formed than in Cuba, by the young women born had probably received a furlough for life, and who, on the island. I could not help thinking, howwhile limping about among his female compan- ever, as I looked on that gay crowd, on the quaint ions, maintained a sort of strut in his gait, and | maskers, and the dancers whose flexible limbs now and then stopped to crow defiance to the seemed swayed to and fro by the breath of the world. The peasants breed game cocks and bring music, that all this was soon to end at the Campo them to market; amateurs in the town train them Santo, and I asked myself how many of all this for their private amusement; dealers in game crowd will be huddled uncoffined, when their cocks are as common as horse jockeys with us, and sports are over, into the foul trenches of the every village has its cock-pit.
W. C. B. I went on Monday to the Valla de Gallos, situated in that part of Havana which lies withou:
Matanzas, April 16, 1849. the walls. Here, in a spacious enclosure, were two amphitheatres of benches, roofed, but without
My expectations of the scenery of the island of
Cuba and of the magnificence of its vegetation, walls, with a circular area in the midst. Each was crowded with people, who wore looking at a
have not been quite fulfilled. This place is but cock-fight, and half of whom seemed vociferating which brings you hither, takes you over a sweep
sixty miles to the cast of Havana, but the railway with all their might. I mounted one of the outer
of a hundred and thirty miles, through one of the benches, and saw one of the birds laid dead by the other in a few minutes. Then was heard the
*"Now they are fighting." + "Kill! kill! kıll!"