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at that time, after the flight of the Archduke Ste- | Austrian army, the part of Meszaros was to detain phen, was at the head of affairs, as President of Schlick, who was pressing onwards from Gallicia, the Committee of Defence, entrusted the command and that of Bem to liberate Transylvania. The of the general levies to several young men, of last fulfilled his task, but Mezaros was defeated, whose patriotism he wils assured, and whom he and Görgey was therefore obliged, in the depth of knew to be men of ability. The principal of these winter, to fight his way with his army through the was Görgey, who probably at that time little im- mountains of Schemnitz and the mining districts, agined that in the course of half a year he should defeating and pursuing Schlick's division, with win for himself on the battle-field a place among his arant-garde, whilst he was himself pressed the first generals in Europe. His family is not from behind by two Austrian brigades. He thus unknown in the history of Hungary: one of his cleared the country near the Carpathians of the ancestors in the year 1309 decided the fate of the enemy, and then hastened down into the plains, battle of Rozgony, which gave the crown of Hun- where he expected to join Dembinski at Kapolgary to the house of Anjou. The family, how-na. Windischgrätz here formed a junction with ever, had for some centuries fallen into poverty, Schlick's corps ; for two days the battle lasted on and, being attached to the Protestant faith, they the morasses, and er.ded with a retreat of the Hunwere virtually excluded from all service under the garians to Debreczin, and of the Austrians to house of Hapsburg. Arthur Görgey, after pass- Pesth. ing through his first studies in the Protestant After this battle Görgey was invested with the schools of Miskolcz and Käsmark, and completing chief command. From March to June he led the his education in an Austrian military institution, Hungarians from victory to victory, from the entered the regiment of Palatine hussars as a lieu- | Theiss to the Waag and the Raab, annihilated
Beloved by his soldiers as well as by his the army of Windischgräiz, stormed Buda, and by comrades, Prince Windischgrätz appointed him to his chivalrous conduct won for himself not only be his adjutant; but Görgey was soon tired of the the attachment of his army, but also the respect martinet prince; the overbearing manners of his of his bloodthirsty enemies. When the Russian commander hurt the pride of the young officer, intervention threatened Hungary for the third time and he quitted the military service. Without re- with an invasion of 300,000 men, Görgey was resources, and amidst the greatest privations, he proached with having lost too much precious time studied chemistry in the University of Prague with on the banks of the Waag and Raab; but as we distinguished success ; and he had at that time for have no details concerning these operations we his maintenance not more than twopence a day. cannot pass any judgment in this respect. So He was proposed as professor of chemistry at much is certain, that in the council of war al Lemberg ; but he preferred returning to Hungary, Szegedin, Dembinski's new plan was approved of, where a small patrimony had fallen to him on the and he consequently received the chief command. death of his father; and he employed his chemical Since this time Görgey has again displayed in a knowledge to advantage in some mining undertak- subordinate position his distinguished military ings.
talents. When the Russians and Austrians bePlaced by Kossuth at the head of an armed lieved him lost at Comorn, he appeared suddenly corps, Görgey formed the plan of that bold expe- at Waitzen, defeated the Russians, and hastened dition, which was executed by himself and Perczel, over the mountains of Nograd and Gömör in the in which Generals Roth and Philipovich, with rear of the Russian army, whose line of retreat he 10,000 men and twelve cannon, laid down their cuts off by this manœuvre, and is now able to arms at Ozora on the 5th October, 1848, and sur-throw himself either upon the corps of General rendered at discretion. In consequence of this Tscheodaieff, or upon that of General Sacken, who exploit Görgey was appointed colonel, and led the is pressing in from Gallicia. His talents as a avant-garde of the Hungarian army at the battle general have been and still are one of the firmest of Schwechat, under the walls of Vienna. When supports of Hungarian independence. Kossuth on the field of battle himself observed that General Moga, who commanded the Hun
TROUBLE AT THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. garians, was not fully to be trusted, he raised Colonel Arthur Görgey to the rank of general. Canada ferments with the annexation movement, Through the month of November up to the mid- in spite of the lax presumptions to the contrary. A dle of December, the young general organized the metropolitan contemporary has drawn the hasty inHungarian army. He accustomed it to military ference that bad feeling had subsided because only evolutions by daily outpost skirmishes ; but he had twenty persons had met at the convention of the not more than 30,000 men; and when Windisch- league ; but if the writer had looked to the intelligrätz, on the 16th of December, invaded Hungary gence in the papers of the same morning, he would from all sides with 120,000 men, Görgey retreated have seen that on subsequent days the numbers into Pesth, after an obstinate resistance. It was creased 10 more than ninety. Although we have determined in the council of war at Pesth, that the no reports of the proceedings, it is evident that very government should retire to Debreczin, and should heated language had passed. not defend the capital.
But it is from the Cape of Good Hope that the Görgey had now to operate in the rear of the most sombre intelligence arrives. We have accounts
of the transactions in the legislative council, includ- civil offence, recommend the dismissal of an offices ing despatches which had been communicated by Such a proceeding is obviously capable of great Sir Harry Smith, from Lord Grey to the governor, abuse. Could Lord Cardigan have recommended and from the governor to Lord Grey. From these the queen to insist on the resignation of Mr. Reydocuments it now appears, that the same arguments nolds or Lieut. Tuckett? which were employed in our columns, and subse But if Lord Londonderry has indeed taken the quently in Parliament by Mr. Adderley in particu- step of recommending the dismissal of Mr. Heald lar, against the transmission of convicts—represen- on account of marriage with Lola Montes, is it tations to which ministers promised to defer—had quite certain that the allegation can be borne out? already been urged upon Lord Grey by the colo- for it is now a question whether Mr. Heald is or nists, and by him overruled. With a supercilious is not married. disregard of persons " below” him, Lord Grey had Next, we should like to know why this rigornot scrupled to place his only too faithful servant, ous morality has so long slumbered in the army ; Sir Harry Smith, in a position the most humiliating and why officers, ay, and colonels in command, to him as an officer and a gentleman-had first who have married women of blemished character, made him party to a breach of faith, and then, in have not been called upon to resign? We could spite of his remonstrances, had taken advantage of name half a dozen conspicuous instances in which his high military sense of discipline to use him as married officers and their wives have been placed the instrument for enforcing an odious measure in very awkward positions, from the impossibility against the universal feeling of the colony, the ad- of associating with their colonels' or generals' vice of all the official class to a man, and his own wives, and the ill-will consequent on their not upright conscience! Lord Grey first intimated that conquering their scruples. But in all these cases the colonists might have the “exiles” if they the parties were men of rank and influence, and no pleased—he seems to think that by calling convicts alarm was taken at “possible prejudice" to their “exiles" he evades part of the solid objections to regiments. the introducing of a criminal population ; he sends Further, it is desirable that there should be a the convicts without waiting for the invited accept- distinct explanation of the corpus delicti in this inance; and when the colonists remonstrate, he sets stance. Is it the marriage ? If, instead of makthem at nought. The order in council directing ing Lola Montes his wife, Mr. Heald had made the governor to receive the convicts was accompa- her his mistress, would Lord Londonderry have nied by the draft of a new " free constitution” for felt it his moral duty to recommend her majesty 10 the colony; but it seems to be of a kind that is not require Mr. Heald's resignation? If so, many at all unworthy of its accompaniment.
more commissions must presently be vacant. If The colonists are exasperated to the last pitch of not, the offence clearly consists in the marriage, endurance, and we notice a trait of a highly danger- compared with which one of the deadly sins is ous kind; while many exhibit positive disaffection, deemed venial. The 2nd Life Guards would not, the most discreet imply, through their manner, that in the view of its noble colonel, have been in any the feeling is justified by the provocation. There danger of being “prejudiced” if Lola Montes, is a conviction that the colony is entirely at the having sinned before, had continued to sin as here. mercy of Lord Grey ; that it is not treated thus by tofore ; it is her sinning no more, and having the the English nation, nor by Parliament, nor by Queen religious sanction of wedlock, which renders the Victoria, but wholly and solely by that one man, alliance disgraceful to the corps of which the husLord Grey—a Strafford without a Charles the First band is a member. A Messalina as a mistress to instigate him. It is in the literal sense of the would not have alarmed the nice morality of the word tyranny, and tyranny of the most hopeless colonel ; but a Magdalen as a wife would send kind—that which originates in obstinate feebleness. him to the throne to pray for relief for the regiLord Grey exhibits precisely the same kind of mor- ment from such intolerable pollution. bid pertinacity that was displayed by the sickly But, as we have before remarked, Mr. Heald's Charles the First, by the sickly George the Third offence is as yet far from certain, and he may claim in the American war. And the English nation a respite of judgment on the ground that it is at leaves the colony, its justice and its fealty, in the present, at least, doubtful whether he is the hushands of Lord Grey !--Spectator, 18 Aug.
band of Mrs. James; and if it should prove that he is not, Lord Londonderry will questionless withdraw his recommendation to her majesty, the
case turning out to be one of mere adultery, inMARTIAL MORALS.
stead of the serious scandal of marriage with a We copied into our last publication a statement woman of frail past life. that Lord Londonderry, colonel of the 2nd Life For making women not honest there is full latGuards, had taken steps to recommend her maj-itude in the army, but for doing the opposite there esty to call for the resignation of Mr. Heald, as would seem, from the present example, to be the his marriage with Lola Montes might possibly disposition to refuse toleration, unless, indeed, prejudice his regiment.
aristocratic station may plead for, or, rather, comWe were not aware that the colonel of a regi- mand it. ment could, without any cognizable military or In the Beggar's Opera, Mrs. Peachum is as
From the Examiner.
aghast at the marriage of Polly as was Lord Lon- | ample ad imitandur. Rousseau was great, down-
which is very offensive. M. de Lamartine labors
so to convey to you his own profound conviction, From the Spectator.
that he overdoes it, and convinces you of someDENOUEMENT OF M. DE LAMARTINE'S CONFI- thing else. His profound conviction is that he is
the greatest, sublimest, and most exquisite of mor.
tals ; his self-portrait is that of an intellectual, Milly is to be sold after all, and M. de La- ästhetical, and physical A pollo Belvidere—a danmartine is to part with his natal estate. The loss dy deity. But, to Scoticize Mr. Landor's version is the more to be regretted since the revolutionary of Shakspeare's text, in his “vaulting ambition leader has laid so much stress on the possession he o’erleaps his sel?," and falls in the opposite of this land, and must be expected therefore to direction. The initial episode of Graziella, which derive less consolation from his philosophy and is told in great part with much power and art, depoetry than one might anticipate from his preten- scribes a charming Neapolitan peasant girl dying sions in those pursuits. The bargain which was with love for the most poetical, primitive, and re. to have redeemed the sale is among the matters fined of youihs ; the survivor, in his elderly memconsided to the public in the author's Confidences ; ory, working away with his practised and not onand it is a characteristic affair. The estate was paid pen, to show how her passion was justified ; burdened with debts, insomuch that the owner was but his attention is concentrated mainly on himobliged to sell it—the land of his ancestors, of self—and was so then : he was self-mindful and his boyish recollections. He had amused himself forgetful of her; he only, as a French critic says, with writing an autobiographical reminiscence, an permitted himself to be adored," and was so litaccount of his first or rather second love, if such tle occupied by the feeling that he was able to it can be called where no love was on his side. store up every trait which should indicate his own This he read to a friend, who was delighted ; a grace, bis own more refined taste, his own less bookseller offered a handsome amount for so many earthly aspirations, his own tender, intellectual, volumes of autobiography ; M. de Lamartine shil- chaste imagination ; she died for love-he collyshallied, in a manner which he seems to think lected materials for a pretty autobiographical epiindicative of the right feeling, the true delicacy ; sode to adorn his memoirs withal. but he was brought to a point by the threatened The Confidences, and its singular complement sale of his patrimony ; here was a conflict of del- Raphael, are all of this tissue. In Raphael, M. icacies, and he made the larger sacrifice, by sell de Lamartine paints himself platonically adoring ing his confidence to the public and redeeming the a lady who was devoted to the service of Diana ground sacred to his ancestors.
by a disease of the heart, which made her afraid M. de Lamartine does not scorn to follow ex to unite with him in a more servent worship. amples, but he improves upon them ; he consents That lady, so “pure" under penalıy, is the beau to be like Rousseau, only greater. Rousseau gave idéal of his adoration. forth his Confessions, which were to instruct the These literary traits of self-exposure help to self-wrapped disingenuous intolerance of man, and explain M. de Lamartine's political failures ; he to fetch out of candor better counsel and kinder is not content with fact and truth ; he relies on a intercourse ; their whole power derivable from beautified counterfeit of truth ; his own aim is the transparent truth. M. de Lamartine deems something different from the thing that is really Confessions indelicate, so he selects only such to be attained. As in the autobiography every Confidences as are engaging; and those he living soul is appropriated as an accessory to the “touches up,” heightening, softening, coloring, portrait of Lamartine, so the republic was to be a and adorning the historical piece which he paints background for an historical portrait of Lamarfrom the looking-glass. Rousseau was the ex- tine. He is not content to be a great man, but ample ad evitandum ; M. de Lamartine finds that must be a great something more than man. He it is he who is to supply the complement, the ex- ) is to be a great poet, without the self-forgetfulness
of the fine phrensy; a great lover, without under the young man with him ; and such was the force going the dominion of a subduing passion ; a great with which he leaped, that the check caused them statesman, but released from vulgar considerations to perform several somersets over each other as they of details and practicabilities—a statesman whose
descended linked together. With the rapidity of a
flash of lightning they disappeared below the foamtrouble is not to go beyond the attitude and the ing billows, having cleared the craggy ledge, which eloquence. As chief of the provisional govern- projected more than six feet from the perpendicular ment, he got up a sublime picture of a revolution- of the point over which the youth was suspended. ary chief, Jovelike bestriding the storm ; but it to the delight of their companions who were mo was only a picture, not a working sublimity ; and mentarily horror-struck, they rose about twenty his government fell to pieces. He attempts to yards apart, buffeting the heavy swells of the flowwrite the “ History of the Revolution of 1848 ;" ing and returning waves ; at length they struck out
for a rock that lay about seventy yards in the sea, but, says M. Eugène Forcade, “this is not a his- on which they were shortly seated, and from which tory, it is an impotent apology;" it is also a la- they gave three hearty cheers. Their companions bored attempt to display the hero “Lamartine” attempted to procure their rescue by obtaining a in grand situations, himself grander than they. boat, but owing to the breach in the ledge found it
The failure of the bargain that was to redeem impossible, and had to proceed onward for more Milly is imputed to the revolution, which has par- themselves. To their delight the geologists then
than three hours before they were able to extricate alyzed the bookseller's plans. The bookseller found that their brave and dauntless companions might well reply, that the work is not worth the had once more committed themselves to the deep, bargain ; and further, that if M. de Lamartine and swam to an accessible part of the cliff, and rehad addressed himself as zealously to redeem turned to Llanrhystid, where, with the exception of France in the hour of her peril as he did to dis- the loss of hats, the officer's boots (which he had play himself, he would have prevented the revolu- taken off on first starting on the ledge) and a few tion from proving so ruinous to booksellers.
He slight cuts and bruises, they appeared not a whit seems to have forgotten everything in public af- the worse from their perilous adventure.- Welshfairs which he did not deem materials for an autobiography; and a similar spirit pervades his career Cause for THANKFULNESS.-Besides one genof private life as he describes it—he frustrates the tleman and two ladies, travelling in a stage coach in revolution, and loses his estate. He had failed in Vermont, there was a small, sharp-featured, blacklearning the lesson that nothing is greater than eyed woman, who had questioned her companions truth. He
passes from the sublime to the ridicu-to her satisfaction, and had nothing further to do, lous; not gratis, for the step has cost him a in mourning, who was no sooner in, and seated,
until the arrival of a lady deeply veiled, and dressed nation's gratitude, a presidency, an estate, and a than the lule woman commenced her examinabookseller's custom for his wares.
tion as follows : Have you lost friends ?” “ Yes,
“ Was they near relations ?” As the supervisor of inland revenue at Aberyst
" How near?"
they was. with, Mr. J. Miller, his nephew, and two profes- brother."
"A husband and a
" Where did they die ?" • Down to sional gentlemen, geologists, were last week exam
Mobile.' " What did they die with ?”? “ Yaller ining some strata of rocks in the cliffs between
Fever." " Was they long sick ?". Aberystwith and Llanrhystid, they proceeded along
“ Was they seafaring men ?” “ Yes, they was. a narrow ledge of projecting stone on the face of
“ Did you get their chists?” “Yes, I did.” the cliff, about one hundred and twenty feet above the level of the sea, which providentially happened they was.
"Was they hopefully pious ?” “I hope and trust to be at full flow. 'On passing round a projecting they was hopefully pious, you have great reason to
Well, if you got their chists, and angle, " which for ages has frowned on all below," be thankful." : — Amer. Cour. the professors and the revenue officer had rounded the point, and the young man was in the act of doing so, when the rock suddenly breaking from un The Franklin ExpeditION.- Lady Franklin der his feet, he was whirled round with his face having addressed a memorial to the Emperor of Rustowards the sea, and as he descended he seized with sia, in which she stated that there is some possibilone hand the ledge beneath his uncle's feet, whilst ity that the expedition which sailed four years ago he extended the other hand to him, and it was firm- from England, for the discovery of the north-west ly clasped by the revenue officer, who held him sus- passage, under the command of her husband, Sir pended for fully five minutes, during which time he John Franklin, and of which no intelligence had with great difficulty maintained his position, there been received, had been thrown on the coast of Sinot being six inches to stand upon. At length a beria or Nova Zembla, his Imperial Majesty instantbreathless pause ensued, whilst Mr. Miller gazed on ly resolved to fit out an expedition to make a strict a rugged projection of rock about ninety feet below search on these distant shores, and for this purpose them, and on which he concluded the unfortunate the Imperial Academy of Science at St. Petersburg youth was inevitably doomed to be dashed. But has been consulted as to the best course it would be the uncle (who calls himself “an awful coward") expedient to adopt. Accounts from the Sandwich at length said, with all the calmness imaginable, Islands, dated the 20th May, announce that her “ Tom, there is but one way for it ; I'll save you, or Majesty's ships Pandora and Herald were at those we will both perish together," and with a firm voice islands. It will be remembered that they were, he commanded the young man to loose his hold of some time ago, instructed to search in the Northern the rock, which was mechanically obeyed, with a Pacific for the adventurous Polar navigator, in order faint reply, “ Yes, uncle." At this awful moment to render succor, if such were required.--Examiner Mr. Miller horizontally sprang into the air, carrying' of 181h Aug.
A LEAP FOR LIFE.
6. Not very
ON THE USE AND PROPERTIES OF THE Peat ius. Both are sometimes more sublime than almost Bogs of IRELAND.—The usual monthly meeting any other writers, and both comprise an infinite deal of the Botanical Society of London was held on the of sense in two or three words. At others they are 3d instant, at which Mr. J. W. Rogers brought trifling and diffuse to the most tiresome and conunder the consideration of the meeting the purport temptible degree. Poor Seneca, indeed, is entitled of his paper read at a previous meeting—the uses to excuse and compassion from the general depravand properties of the peat moss, and the value of ity of the public taste. But our friend Dr. Young peat charcoal as a disinfecter and fertilizer. It may had no claim to any such indulgence. He lived in be necessary to mention that, by the aid of peat age of liberty and unadulterated genius. Perhaps charcoal, Mr. Rogers purposes to consolidate and his faults were contracted by an early uncorrected deodorize the solid matter of the London sewers; study of the Roman authors.”—Letters to Mrs. and, whilst by that means benefiting the inhabitants Montagu, vol. 3, p. 70. of the metropolis, there would be placed within the
“When one begins," says Beattie, “ to find reach of the agriculturist a manure of the most powerful kind, pulverized, free from odor, and fit pleasure in sighing over Young's Night Thoughts
in a corner, it is time to shut the book, and return for transit by any conveyance. In 1845, he brought to the company. I grant that while the mind is in the subject before the public, and it was then al
a certain state, those gloomy ideas give exquisite leged that charcoal could not give that quantity of delight; but their effect resembles that of intoxicacarbon to the leaf of the plant which it was neces- tion upon the body; they may produce a temporary sary it should receive, and that the leaf, and not the fit of feverish exultation, but qualms and weakened root, being the portion of it which required such nerves and depression of spirits are the consequence. sustenance, his discovery, was of no use. Often, I have great respect for Dr. Young, both as a man however, since then, he had tried the experiment, and as a poet. I used to devour his Night Thoughts and the result had invariably been that it was the with a satisfaction not unlike that which, in my root and not the leaf of the plant which attracted younger years, I have found in walking alone in a the carbon, and therefore he was more convinced of churchyard, or in a wild mountain, by the light of the propriety of the system he was endeavoring to the moon at midnight. promulgate. From the experiments he had made,
“When I first read Young my heart was broken he found that peat charcoal possessed far superior to think of the poor man's afflictions. Afterwards advantages over wood charcoal. It had a deodor- I took it in my head, that where there was so much izing effect which wood charcoal had not; and if lamentation, there could not be excessive suffering, they considered how much such an agent could be and I could not help applying to him sometimes made to operate upon the sewage matter of London, those lines of a song, no one could be left in doubt as to the public benefit such an agent could be converted into by proper
Believe me, the shepherd but fayns ;
He's wretched, to show he has wit. management. Wherever it had been used, it produced the most extraordinary effect. If secretiæ in On talking with some of Dr. Young's friends in its natural state was intermixed with charcoal, it at England, I have since found that my conjectures once absorbed and took up all those gases, which were right, for that while he was composing the it was allowed, if exposed to the atmosphere, were Night Thoughts, he was really as cheerful as any lost. It kept that nutriment until the dryness of other man. the earth surrounding its neighboring plant intimated its lack of sustenance, and thereby acting as an (LAW'S STUDY OF JACOB BEHMEN.) absorbent, gave forth its revivifying influence when “ In a particular interview," says Francis Oke. it was wanted. In short, by the admixture of char- ly, " that I had with Mr. Law a few months becoal with excretiæ, all its gases were at once taken fore his decease, in answer to the question, when up and retained, ridding the public of nuisance and and how he first met with Jacob Behmen's works, disease, and giving to the land the entire benefit. he said, that he had often reflected upon it with Peat charcoal was perhaps the greatest absorbent surprise; that although when a curate in London, known. It would take up and retain about eighty he had perhaps rummaged every bookseller's shop to ninety per cent. of water, and at least from ninety and book-stall in the metropolis, yet he never met to a hundred volumes of those noxious gases arising with a single book, or so much as the title of any from animal excrement and other putrescent matter. books of J. B.'s. The very first notice he had of Hence its great value for effecting deodorization, him was from a treatise called Ratio et Fides; soon and for retaining all the value of the liquid, as well after which he lighted upon the best and most comas its volatile products. Equal parts of prepared plete edition of his works. • When I first began to peat, charcoal, and excretiæ, would, under almost read him (says he) he put me into a perfect swcat. every circumstance, accomplish that, if properly in- But as I discovered sound truths, and the glimmertermixed, producing a manure of almost incalcula- ings of a deep ground and sense, even in the pasble value. The proportion, however, of charcoal sages not then clearly intelligible, and found mymight be less in some instances, even down to one self, as it were, strongly prompted in my heart to third. One third charcoal and two thirds excretiæ dig in these writings, I followed this impulse with was the general thing, and that at one time pro- continual aspirations and prayer to God for his help duced a manure of the best possible kind.
and divine illumination, if I was called to understand them. By reading in this manner again and again,
and from time to time, I perceived (said he) that (YOUNG AS A POET.]
my heart felt well, and my understanding opened “Do not you think,” says Mrs. Carter, " that gradually, till at length I found what a treasure if Dr. Young had lived in the decline of the Roman was hid in this field. What (says the translator) Empire, he would have been Seneca, and that if I here relate, is, as much as I can remember, cerSeneca had lived in the eighteenth century, he tainly the sense, and nearly the very words, of this would have been Dr. Young ? There seems to me great and chosen man."- Monthly Review, vol. 63, a wonderful resemblance in the turns of their gen- 1780,- Okely's Memoirs of Jacob Behmen, p. 521,