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The abaltross is more wary, and affords better so feit quite fit to join them at once. Besides the sport. Its bill is very peculiar, large and flat, and family, which was large, there were several visitterminating in a formidable hooked point. It is a ors in the house, some who regularly resided there. curious fact that his bones are quite hollow and One of these, a Spaniard, who had held high office empty ; a beautiful provision of nature. His enor- in Peru during the rule of Spain, was indeed a famous wings mark his vocation to be a wanderer of vorable specimen of the cavalieroma thorough genthe trackless ocean, no part of which is too distant tleman of the old school. The quiet ease of his for his inspection : be where you will, there, like a manner, his refined deference to ladies, his courlguardian, he is with you. In the heaviest gales he ly mien, reminded one of what one reads of, and seems perfectly at home, swooping about, now up made one sigh to think how ill all this is exchanged 10 windward, now going down on the very whirl- for the brusquerie of our modern school. Another, wind; now high above, without motion, save a who officiated as priest to the family and as tutor turn of his head as he surveys you with his fixed to the children, was a Jesuit, I believe; and if imperturbable eye; anon he walks up in the very amenity of manners, great powers of conversation, teeth of the blast, and disappears. It seems odd, infinite knowledge of men and countries, could have but really I am half-inclined to think they return to won, his must have been a successful ministry. land every night : they always flew that way at There was a soft persuasion, a seeming deep serensunset, and even on the clearest nights I never saw ity in his words, very difficult to withstand. He
In the morning, also, they always rejoin the had travelled much, and seemed to have culled ship a short period after daylight. When you fresh experience from each journey. Well read, mark the incredibly short time they take to reach he brought this knowledge to bear on his own exyou from the verge of the horizon, this seems more perience most wonderfully; and all along there was probable than at the first mention of it. Well, but a humility, a deference to the opinions of those whom spite of his riding the tempest and not caring for he conversed with, inexpressibly charming. Fathe blast, he has loved, not wisely but too well, a ther, the memory of our intercourse will long be small bit of pork : so well, in fact, as not to notice engraven on my mind; and if sincerity is to be ever a cod-hook and line attached to it. Repentance judged by outward show, you were, I hope, sincomes too late ; but with an attempt to better him- cere. self as the line is gathered in, he puts his huge My guide, who, as he lived at his own expense web feet and enormous wings out; so the odds are on the road, had neither eaten nor drunk, but had even he breaks away. Slack the line, however; taken out the halts I made in sleep, rushed away in suddenly man's cunning overcomes brute strength, search of a meal that should cost him nothing, leavand, falling head over heels, he is on board before he ing my cattle alone. The boys belonging to the knows anything more about it. And now, freed from establishment, however, advanced, took off the sadthe hook, see what a poor figure he cuts in the lee- dles, and with a lash dismissed the tired animals to scuppers! not being able to stand, the wind catches the outside, where all was pasturage ; and there I him under the tail and throws him nearly over : found they were to rest till I left. The saddles there he sits, like a great booby, snapping his bill were quickly transferred to other animals, tied to this way and that in impotent rage! “ Ne sutor ul- rails opposite my bedroom-door; on my saying I tra crepidam.” Albatrosses may be fine fellows in should not want them, it was answered, “Oh, sir, the air, but they have not good sea-legs.
there they can remain till you do;' and during my
stay a fresh horse was always ready for instant The different places visited along the South mounting within five yards of my door. American coast, from Valparaiso to Monterey, exhibit sketches equally smart and clever with
On industrial practices of any kind it is hazthose we have quoted. The account of Chili is ardous for strangers to pass an opinion, since of a fuller and more informing nature. Besides
what seems bad on the view may be found by exhis sojourns at the port and the capital, our author perience to be adapted to the circumstances of the made excursions in various directions, sometimes country. Many of the South American mines to pay visits, sometimes to the sınaller towns, and yielded a profit by the cheap and rough method of sometimes in search of sport or the picturesque. native working, that under the improved system The following is a picture of country life among
of the British companies absorbed the profits in the wealthier Chilian land-owners.
So it is often in agriculture.
That which horrifies the English farmer, is found, The court-yard was very large. On two sides if not the best, yet the best that can be done. of it were the apartments of the family. The sitting- The plan of threshing in Chili, though an imrooms alone had glass in the windows, the other rooms had merely wooden lattices; but the weather provement in point of rapidity upon that of Paleswas so delightful, who would have required more? tine, looks a strange wasteful method ; yet Mr. Huge trunks of trees hewn square, served for seats Walpole seems to intimate that not much loss under the verandah, the large roof affording ample attends upon the process in the fine climate of shade. On the other two sides were granaries and Chili. The threshing-festival stands in the place offices of all sorts ; being far from any resources, of our harvest-home. each house must be complete in itself. All stores are brought in wagons from the capital. About In a far off part of the plain, the vast crops of our forty horses were picketed round, many ready sad- host's corn had been collected; and all the family dled; there were also veloches, all dusty as if fresh --some on horseback, some in carriages-proceeded from the road. Though it was but eight in the at an early hour to the grand function of threshing morning the young ladies were up and dressed, and it out. The trelia, as this process is called, is a looked as fresh and handsome as fine country air, rural feast. We rode over the track of stubble early hours, and health could make them. I had from whence it had been cut, putting up partridges luckily performed an elaborate toilette by the river. din numbers as we cantered along, till shouts and a
crowd showed us where the entertainment was to all at some period of their lives undergo this work. be seen.
Several sheds of boughs had been made, They come down fat and full from the rich pastures in which were refreshments provided by the land of the valleys, and this labor generally quite uses Jord. A company of horsemen were keeping to them up. gether an enormous herd of horses, principally mares and foals. It was said there were three
Mr. Walpole was at Monterey during part of the thousand—I am sure I did not count them; and a Mexican war; and he gives a slight account of the most singular appearance they had, for these ani- goings on there. Here is his picture of Fremont mals are never used except for this purpose. The and his band of explorers; though, as it turned out, rest of the year they are allowed to graze at liberty of soldiers, either by secret instructions or implied on the lower slopes and valleys of the mountains. understanding. The best are picked out for sale and the use of the estate. The mares had been subjected to a process
During our stay Captain Fremont and his party that did not add to their beauty ; this was a close arrived, preceded by another troop of American crop of their tail and manes. I was told this was horse. It was a party of seamen mounted, who necessary to prevent their falling a prey to the were used to scour the country to keep off maraudpuma, which abounds here, and which, darting ers. Their efficacy as sailors, they being nearly all from ambush on the horse, is generally thrown off English, we will not question. As cavalry they by the startled animal if he has not this means of would probably have been singularly destructive to securing his hold. None of the animals I saw here each other. Their leader, however, was a fine felwere fine, save one magnificent bay mule, whom it low, and one of the best rifle-shots in the states. required a keen eye to distinguish from a horse. Fremont's party naturally excited curiosity. Here The people, too, have such a different taste in were true trappers, the class that produced the hehorses from ourselves ! Great fat and a large tail roes of Fenimore Cooper's best works. These men are essentials; but they are well aware that the had passed years in the wilds, living on their own horses they prize for showing off in the capital are resources; they were a curious set. A vast cloud not good for work; so they ride less showy and of dust appeared first, and thence in long file emerged more useful animals in the country.
this wildest wild party.
Fremont rode ahead, a A huge circle was railed in by enormous posts, spare, active-looking man, with such an eye! He the interstices fenced with bushes; this was filled was dressed in a blouse and leggings, and wore a with the straw unthreshed, to a height of full six felt hat. After him came five Delaware Indians, feet.
who were his body-guard, and have been with him The approach of our party seemed the signal for through all his wanderings; they had charge of two operations to commence, and the horsemen drove baggage-horses. The rest, many of them blacker the herd of horses up a lane formed of empty wag- than the Indians, rode two and two, the rifle held ons into the corn-ring. At first they could only by one hand across the pommel of the saddle. get on by furious jumps, but ere the whole drove Thirty-nine of them are his regular men, the rest were in, half the grain at least was trodden down. are loafers picked up lately ; his original men are Several horsemen now stood in the entrance, and principally backwoodsmen from the state of Tenthe rest, dividing the horses into droves, with nessee, and the banks of the upper waters of the shouts, yells, and whirling lassoes, began to make Missouri. He has one or two with him who enjoy them gallop round. In the centre was an enormous high reputations in the prairies. Kit Carsons is as pile, which, as that on the sides became trodden well known there as the Duke is in Europe. The down, was hove on to them. Every two or three dress of these men was principally a long, loose minutes the whole body turned and galloped a con
coat of deer-skin, tied with thongs in front; trousers trary way; to avoid giddiness some of the old of the same, of their own manufacture, which, when stagers ran into the centre, and were only compelled wet through, they take off, scrape well inside with to leave after many cuts and shouts.
a knife, and put on as soon as dry ; the saddles The fatigue to the poor animals must have been were of various fashions, though these and a large tremendous, and the horsemen at the entrance had drove of horses, and a brass field-gun, were things frequently to stand back and allow some poor weak they had picked up about California.' The rest of foal to go out. This opportunity was generally the gang were a rough set; and perhaps their pritaken advantage of by others also ; and then began vate, public, and moral characters had better not be a hunt; the horsemen who were outside were in too closely examined. They are allowed no liquor, instant pursuit, and with wild shouts, flying pon- tea and sugar only; this, no doubt, has much to do choes, and unerring lasso ready, galloped after with their good conduct, and the discipline too is them. Few, I noticed, ever allowed the lasso to be very strict. They were marched up to an open thrown, but when they found speed would not clear space on the hills near the town, under some large them, resigned themselves to their fate, and came firs, and there took up their quarters in messes of sulkily back. In fact, all allow that such is the six or seven ir
, the open air. The Indians lay beseverity of the shock occasioned by being caught, side their leader. One man, a doctor, six foot six that an animal who has once felt it never forgets it high, was an odd-looking fellow; may I never come
This can easily be believed, and the very boys in under his hands! driving cattle can check the most refractory horse by
The party, after settling themselves, strolled into merely a whirl or two of the long thong they have the town, and in less than two days passed in drunkat the end of their rein. After the animals had, with enness and debauchery, three or four were missing. a few short intervals, been driven about for three Sharp is the knife, and sudden is the stroke, hours, they were let out; nor did any seem anxious And sorely would the Yankee foemen rue to wander
so exhausted and done were they all. If subtile poniards wrapt beneath the cloak When it is considered that these animals are prin- Could blunt the sabre's edge or clear the cannon's smoke. cipally mares and young foals, the smallness and They were accordingly marched away into those weedy appearance of the race of horses in the coun- wilds of which they seemed much beiter citizens. try is easily accounted for; as, with few exceptions, In justice, however, to the Americans, I must say
they seemed to treat the natives well, and their water, what soon reäppeared, a man or woman. authorities extended every protection to them. One These ledges are fifty or eighty feet high; yet none of the gang was very uncivil to us, and threw on us seemned to regard it as a feat, and the merry laugh the withering imputation of being Britishers, with told you it was done but to surprise the European. an intensity of scorn that must have been painful to We appeared contemptible in our own eyes as we himself; on inquiry, he was found to be a deserter skurried from the rain with our umbrellas ; but we from the marines. In fact, the most violently Yan- soon yielded to wiser teaching, threw care away, see were discovered to be English fellows, of high got wet and dry again without minding it, swam, principles, of course.
and enjoyed it as much as they did. There are some very striking descriptions of
From the Examiner, 18th August. scenery in the different groups of islands visited by
LAND-TENURES IN HUNGARY. Mr. Walpole, and interesting accounts of the people and their kindness, mingled with some political
The Hungarian cause is steadily progressing reflections. One of these, a wonderful exhibition in England. As the questions involved in it are of natatory powers, we will quote; for the remain-more and more subjected to discussion, it becomes der we must refer to the volumes. The scene of more and more evident to all thinking Englishthe feat is the Sandwich Islands.
men that the cause of the Hungarians is not
merely that of liberty against oppression, but that One of the greatest attractions was a waterfall, of constitutional legality against the revolutionary about three hundred yards up the river. It needed not the feats done there to make the fall of the encroachments of despotism. Earnest and thoughtWailuka or River of Destruction worth looking at. ful men, in all parts of Great Britain, now perThe river ran for some hundred yards or so in rap-ceive that the Hungarians resemble ourselves more ids, over rocks and stones, the banks, crag, and than any other nation, in their views of governprecipice, two hundred feet high, whose rudeness ment; and that they, more than any other nation was softened and refined by tendrils and creepers, on the continent, have gone through a school of that hung down to the foaming, water, which ill- political training which enables them to comply naturedly jerked them as it rushed by: A huge rock with the requirements of the age, by reform not divided the stream, one half of which dashed petulantly on, and met a noisy fate down the fall;
while the other, of a milder, gentler nature, ran along a
How the Hungarians have carried out the most channel of solid rock, and fell in one heavy stream comprehensive changes, without departing from a depth of about twenty-five feet, joining the rough the strict path of legality, may be excellently waters below. A little turmoil succeeded the junc- illustrated by the mode in which they have dealt tion; then they flowed quietly on, like brothers, with one of the most perplexing difficulties of conarm-in-arm, till they fell again, and soon were lost tinental Europe. We allude to the tenure of in the salt waters of the ocean.
The great delight of the natives is to go down land and the semi-ownership by the unprivileged this fall. They sit in the channel I have described ; occupiers of the land they held. they utter a shout, a scream of joy, join the hands The tenures of land which at one time pregracefully over the head, and, one after another, vailed over almost all Europe, still subsist or were the girls of Hilo descend, emerging like sea-nymphis subsisting up to a late period in many parts of in the eddy below. The figure, as it gleams for Germany, Poland, Russia, and Hungary. On the an instant in the body of water, appears to those settlement of Europe after the great migrations, standing below quite perfect; and the gay and laughing taunt to follow, has led to the death the free citizens (or nobles as they are still termed of many; for there is some secret current that not in Poland and Hungary) received allotments of only drowns, but carries away the body too. The land (the hyde of the Anglo-Saxons) on condition feat was attempted by three of our men ; but none, of performing military service ; the chiess received I think, did it twice.
large grants of land of various extent, but such The descent of the lower fall is a lesser feat, and as could only be cultivated by numerous hands ; the
sensation of going down it head foremost delight- lands were also granted to the church and to corful; even that, however, is often fatal; and during our stay here, a man was lost merely through mak porations, and other estates were retained in the ing a false step from the bank. The surprising hands of the crown.
An individual or corporaagility of the women especially baffles description. tion, lay or ecclesiastical, in those times had only One will sit by your side on the high bank, and one means of rendering such a grant of land remain so till you throw a stone into the water with available. This was to regrant portions of it to all your force; then down she jumps, straight as an
tenants mostly of unfree or servile origin, peasants arrow, her feet crossed one over the instep of the other, and emerges with a laugh, holding up the as they were termed; on condition that they stone. On first attempting to rise to the surface should give, by way of perpetual rent, not merely after going down the fall, the water seems, from a proportion of the produce of their own crops, the force of the current, to be matted overhead, and but also the labor necessary for the cultivation of it is only by striking out into the eddy that you can the domain land, which was retained by the seigrise ; this the girls manage to perfection. They neur or lord of the manor in his own hands. kick out their feet both together, and replaiting when this system first originated, it was the only their hair with their hands, they float about the edge with a grace that is beautiful to see. Then
one practicable ; but with the spread of commerce the water is clear and blue, not cold, frosty, half- and civilization its defects became more glaring, thawed. As lazily one watched the stream, down and its extinction was demanded by motives of dropped from the ledges overhead, and cut the bright | political economy as well as of humanity. In
England the system gradually disappeared by the proposed change. The motion was seconded by commutation of the labor rents and services into Kossuth, who made an eloquent and comprehenmoney payments ; and any equal burdens that sive speech on the subject, and supported by Szent press upon copyhold property are easily calculable, Ivanyi, the present civil governor of Transylvania ; and its value in proportion to freehold readily de- who particularly dwelt upon the atrocious manner terminable. In other countries a more abrupt in which the Austrian government had, in the change was effected. In France the first revolu- neighboring country of Gallicia, excited the peastion swept away all services and dues on such ants to the murder of their landlords. The motenures, without giving any compensation to those tion passed the lower house by a large majority ; to whom they were due. In Prussia a measure and on the 4th of February, 1848, the upper was adopted in 1811 by the government, which if house. On the 11th of April this, with other enit satisfied the claims of equity, was far from sat- actments, received the sanction of the sovereign isfying those of political economy. It was de- (for at that time there was a legitimate King of creed that there should be a compulsory commuta- Hungary ;) and thus a measure of the highest imtion of services to take place in the following portance, which gave a great majority of the
The dues and services were to be abol- inhabitants an interest in the existing order o.
and the landlord was to be compensated by things, and which was opposed to the prejudices, receiving, once for all, an equivalent portion of and the immediate, though not the remote, interland taken from the peasant's holding and added ests of the legislative class, was brought into opto his own domain. By this arrangement the land- eration by constitutional means with the same lord gained an additional quantity of land, whilst adherence to parliamentary forms that is observed he lost the labor required to cultivate it; and the in passing a railway bill. peasant, who now became master of all his own The peasant thus became a freeholder, and that labor, found the extent of his land on which he too without any payment from him for the redempwas to employ that labor, reduced.
tion of his labor rent and services. The state In Hungary the system pursued has been differ- charged itself with indemnity to the landlords. ent. Since 1832 the efforts of the National Hun- At the same time all class distinctions have been garian party have been directed not merely to re- removed, and the peasant is now on a perfect move the civil disabilities of the peasant, but to level with the former nobles. No wonder that render the tenure of his land equivalent to freehold he is ready to shed his blood as freely as they are or noble tenure. Even long before this period in defence of their common country. the same object had, in many instances, been ef The first act of the commissioners of Prince fected by private contract between the landlord Windischgrätz was an atlempt to reïntroduce and his peasants; and although not then sanc- these dues and services. At present the Austrian tioned by the law of the land, such contracts were government makes specious promises of respecting faithfully observed, and the communes where they this particular enactment, although it sweeps prevailed were among the most flourishing in away, by the charter of 7th March, the whole Hungary. The plan adopted was this. The Hungarian constitution. But the Hungarian commune agreed to redeem its services in perpe- peasantry, Slovack as well as Magyar, are pertuity by the payment of a sum of money ; to be fectly capable of judging of the value to be atpaid either down, or at certain periods extending tached to the promises of the Austrian governover a number of years. In this manner a change ment. would gradually have taken place similar to that in England, had the Hungarians not felt that it
From the Examiner. 18 August. was necessary to accelerate the march of events,
IS PRUSSIA TO BE FREE ? in order to become a wealthy, strong, and united nation. In the diet of 1832–36 a law was passed, Are the Prussians to have a constitutional govdeclaring directly a qualified property of the ernment ? That is a question for the king of the peasant in his land, and sanctioning the plan of country to answer for the present, and for him the commune coming to terms with the landlord, alone to answer. For his majesty is at present in if both parties were willing. But this was not the possession of the most absolute power to do considered sufficient to meet the exigencies of the what he lists. His army is stanch, his finances
Some further advantages were conceded to copious and unembarrassed, and the people of the peasant by the diet of 1839–40. In that of Prussia have donné leur démission, resigned all 1843–44, he was allowed to acquire freehold or participation in politics, and, refusing to vote at noble property. In 1847, one of the main points the hustings under the electoral law that the govof the programme put forth by the liberal party ernment proclaimed, has left that government was the compulsory abolition of labor rents and undisputed master of country and constitution. The dues, with indemnity to the parties interested, king is thus undisturbed by either popular oppoIn November, 1847, the diet was opened ; and in sition or popular support. Popular opinion is December a motion was made in the lower house kept pent up in every breast, and exists there ferto the above effect by Gabriel Lonyay, a great menting in a kind of sour and secret enthusiasm, holder of manorial rights, and whose interests waiting for some remote opportunity to burst forth. were consequently affected to a great extent by the All thorough liberalism having thus sunk out of
sight, the Prussian king finds himself between two adhesion of the German masses. These, however, classes of councillors. The one are the wild re- are apathetic, irritated, and contemptuous. Hence, actionary and despotic, who abhor constitutional in his attempts to unite Austria, and to erect a government altogether, and, like the burly cav- German Confederation on a general representative aliers of the First Charles, abhor Falkland and principle, contradistinguished from a mere federHyde just as much, and even more, than they de-ation of princes, it is to be feared that the King tested Pym and Hampden. The opposite class of of Prussia will fail. If he do fail, he can in that councillors are the constitutionalists, moderate men case only fall back upon absolutism and its alliand timid, but much desiring to have a parliament ances, when, if he does so, his people will inwherein to talk, and whereon to lean, against the evitably fall back upon the hopes of another revinfluence of the mere courtier class.
olution. The King of Prussia leans to the constitution There is much cause in these views for extreme alists, from a conviction that the age calls for such regret; they bode ill both to the Prussian king a change. But he is not the less desirons of ex- and the Prussian people. They fling the hopes ercising sovereign and personal sway himself, as of future liberty upon an alliance between the long as he lives. For Frederick William thinks popular and the military power, which may prove himself the wisest as well as the fairest man ; and fatal to the former. They portend either a fierce believes, with Louis Philippe, that however con- civil war, or, what is as bad, an eternal fear of, venient an obedient parliament would be, a par- and preparation for, it. Communism, and other liament or a public opinion dictating to him would bad elements, are just as rife in Prussia, especialbe a kind of treason against his wisdom and royal ly in its eastern provinces, as in France. And will not to be suffered. It is, therefore, a very hence Prussia is just the country where a rational infinitesimal dose of constitutional liberty that his and liberal understanding between prince and peo majesty would grant. He would not grant enough ple would be most to be desired for the sake of to satisfy such a statesman as a Casimir Perrier Prussia and of Europe.
and as Vincke is. His majesty of Prussia, As to absolutism, that can never again prevail like the late king of the French, would consent to in Germany, except under the most rigid and oprepresentative government could he find an obse- pressive rule. It is now certainly, in opinion, quious minister. But a De Broglie who would the most liberal country in Europe. The Hundictate to him, or a Thiers that would get him garian cause is a good thermometer of liberalism into scrapes, would not be to his taste.
at present. In France the press is against the We doubt, therefore, that either the statesman Hungarians as against the Romans, which says class will accept, or the popular class adhere to, enough for the French. In Germany there is but that measure of constitutional liberty which it may one feeling of sympathy in every breast for the please the King of Prussia to give. Frederick Hungarians. Even the official organs of the PrusWilliam is a clever man, a most fully educated, sian government dared not, and indeed would not, indeed an over-educated man, a man of good inten- repeat the atrocious and despotic sentiments retion, of piety and rectitude. But every one of specting Hungary which may be read in the Conthese good qualities stand in the way of his being stitutionnel and the Débats. a good constitutional king. He has too much At present the greatest identity of espril, and too great a sense of superiority to wish vails between England and Germany. They seem to take a part; and his religious feelings are so almost one people, so similar are their aspirations. much in his way, that it is believed he regrets the Some time since, indeed, the Germans entertained one great conquest of the revolution of March— suspicions of the English government, suspicions the abolition of the state church, and the conse- warranted enough by the stupid toryism of British quent equality of all creeds.
diplomatists in Germany ; but the recent speech In the opinion of everybody the new chamber of Lord Palmerston comes to set all right; and it has shown a decidedly constitutional majority--a has been devoured throughout the whole of Germajority more liberal than the present ministry, many, as a solid and satisfactory proof that the essentially a ministry of representatives. Its liber- core of English feeling is still liberal and sound. alism, however, seems more likely to show itself in German than in purely Prussian politics. And
From the Examiner, 18th August this seems to be also the king's own view ; viz.,
GOERGEY. to divert the current of liberalism from sapping the foundation of his Prussian throne, and turning When Jellachich, on the 9th of September last it towards the great object of German unity. The year, passed the frontiers Hungary with an army Treubund, as the Berlin Carlton Club is called, is of 65,000 men, the affairs of Hungary appeared as much against this German amalgamation as it desperate. There was no army, no general. It is against a Prussian constitution.
is true that every one had faith in the energy of It would be easy to overcome the Treubund at the people, and it was well known that they would home and abroad, to overcome the skill of cour- resist oppression ; but the generals who were to tiers in Berlin, and of the princes of other states ; lead them were either known to be men without but, in order to do this, it would be necessary to military talents, or such that the Hungarians enlist the popular sympathies and command the could place no trust in them. Kossuth, who