had plainly not generosity or sufficient sense of William. William offered to make him Captain justice to forbear—a strong feeling of kindliness of Horse, showed him how to cut asparagus after was growing up between Temple and Swift. A the Dutch fashion, and how to eat it too, of which short visit to Ireland was made by Swift for the Scott tells a good story. Alderman George Faulksake of health ; but he soon returned. In some ner, the Dublin bookseller, dining one day in comtwo years afterwards, on being offered a place in pany with Dr. Leland the historian, the converthe Rolls in Ireland by Temple, he told him of sation turned on Swift. Faulkner told of having his wish to enter the church, and that this offer of once dined with Swift. Asparagus was one of £120 a year, in a different way of life, satisfied the dishes. The dean helped his guest, who him that his going into the church arose from called shortly to be helped a second time. “Sir, other motives than the mere desire of obtaining a first finish what is on your plate.” “ What, sir, livelihood. He went to Ireland- -was ordained— eat my stalks ?" ' Aye, sir ; King William alobtained a small living. He had, however, be- ways ate the stalks!” “ And, Mr. Faulkner," come necessary to Temple's existence; and in rejoined the historian, (who was himself remarka1695, returned to Moorpark, where he resided till bly proud and very pompous,) “what, were you Sir William's death in January, 1698, or—as we blockhead enough to obey him ?” Yes, doctor ; write--1699.

and if you had dined with Dean Swift tête-à-tête, The business of the future biographer of Swift faith you would have been obliged to eat your will be very much that of blotting out some of the stalks too!” William, it would seem, gave Swift pleasant stories told without anything of sufficient hopes of church preferment; as in a letter to his authority. Sheridan, and after him Scott, have given uncle, William Swift, he writes, “ I am not to an account of Swift's resigning his first preferment take orders till the king gives me a prebend.” when he was meditating a return to Temple's. On Temple’s death Swift employed himself in " His resolution,” says Sir Walter, appears editing Sir William's works. They were dutito have been determined by a circumstance highly fully dedicated to the king ; but with Temple's characteristic of his exalted benevolence. In an life, Swift's chances of any promotion through excursion from his habitation, he met a clergyman, that interest were at an end, and Swift returned to with whom he formed an acquaintance, which Ireland as chaplain to Lord Berkely, one of the proved him to be learned, modest, well-principled, i lords-justices of Ireland. In some short time we the father of eight children, and a curate at the find him holding church preferments to the amount rate of forty pounds a year. Without explaining of nearly £300 a year, and residing at Laracor, his purpose, Swift borrowed this gentleman's where it is probable that the happiest years of his black mare, having no horse of his own, rode to life were past. Swift had scarcely been settled at Dublin, resigned the prebend of Kilroot, and ob- Laracor when he prevailed “on Esther Johnson tained a grant of it for this new friend.” The (Stella) and another lady, to draw what money great novelist proceeds to tell of the surprise and they had into Ireland, a great part of their fortune delight of the old clergyman-nay, begins to deal being in annuities upon funds. Money was then in the picturesque. “The poor clergyman, at ten per cent. in Ireland, and all the necessaries of Swist's departure, pressed upon him the black life at half the price.”

" The adventure,” says mare, which he did not choose to hurt him by re- Swift, “ looked so like a frolic, the censure held for fusing ; and thus, mounted, for the first time, on a some time, as if there were a secret history in such horse of his own, with four score pounds in his a removal, which, however, soon blew off by her purse, Swift again embarked for England, and re-excellent conduct.” In a letter from one of Swift's sumed his situation at Moorpark as Sir William relatives, he asks an acquaintance, “ whether JonTemple's confidential secretary.” Ah, Sir Wal- athan be married? or whether he has been able to ter! these stories of romantic clergymen, and be- resist the charms of both those gentlewomen that nevolent chief governors, thus disposing of livings, marched quite from Moorpark to Dublin, (as they were as little true in Swift's day as in our own. would have marched to the north or anywhere The clergyman, in favor of whom Swift resigned, else,) with full resolution to engage him ?" There could scarcely have been so old and so venerable a can be no doubt that there was some want of wiscurate as the story would give us to imagine ; dom in Swift's invitation to these ladies. It gave for we find him corresponding with Swift full rise to much idle gossip, in spite of Swift's prethirty-five years afterwards. He was not indigent, cautions to guard against injury to the character of for he had an estate in lands in the county of An- either of the ladies. During his frequent absences trim, and was connected with some of the leading in London they resided at the glebe; on the eve people there. It so happens, too, that there is a of his return, they retired to their own lodgings record of the births of his children, the oldest of in the neighboring town. Swift never saw either whom was not born for a year after the date of of them except in the presence of a third person. this pathetic story. Swift's successor in the pre- The world will not allow people to be happy in bend of Kilroot was the Rev. John Winder; and their own way; and Swift and his female friends the facts we have stated, we find in Mr. Mason's had to pass through the same ordeal that in an Cathedral Antiquities of St. Patrick's.

after generation tortured Cowper and Mrs. Unwin. During Swift's earlier residence with Temple, The people of the place did not understand it, he had formed a personal acquaintance with King Swift was to marry her-then he had married her

—then he would marry her but for some mystery | away in marriage to at least one Leicestershire connected with their birth, which precluded the belle. Little did the villagers know the spirit possibility of marriage—then the fact of marriage with which they had to deal ; little did they know had taken place, but on the very day of the mar- how their very talk was breaking the charm which riage came a mysterious revelation, whispered in perhaps it was endeavoring to fasten and bind more the ear by Archbishop King, believed by Dr. De- close on this most affectionate and generous of lany and some other old women, and now preached human hearts, but one that of all things was most on the housetop by Dr. Wilde. The strange sure to resent any effort to constrain its freedom. communication that Stella and Swift were actual. The report was poison to Swift's mind. “ Though ly brother and sister, both being children of Sir the people,” he adds, " is a lying sort of a beast, William Temple, was, it would seem, made to (and I think in Leicester above all parts that I them by Mrs. Dingley, (the lady who had accom- ever was in,) yet they seldom talk without some panied Stella from England,) immediately after glimpse of a reason, which I declare (so unpardontheir marriage. Such is the strange story ingen- ably jealous I am) to be a sufficient cause for me iously enough put together from some half dozen to hate any woman further than a bare acquaintabsurd reports, every one of them capable, even at ance.” We can easily see from this how little this distance of time, of absolute disproof; but likely any of those ladies who took a fancy to there being a predetermination to make a romance marrying Swift were to effect their purpose by out of this Swift and Stella story—the mock mar- bringing the opinion of others to bear upon his riage and all its mysterious incidents were got up mind in a matter of this kind. The Leicestershire in the style adapted to the readers of a century lady marries an innkeeper, and her children apago. In Swift's relations with the ladies, we pear on the stage claiming and receiving kindthink there was throughout great absurdity, and nesses from Swift. The next of these ladies, with all his knowledge of the world, much igno- whom the preservation of Swift's letters introdurance of the true character and dispositions of the ces to our notice, was Miss Waryng. In the year female mind. There are on record against him 1696 there is a letter from Swift of the most ardent four love stories; and a letter of his with respect love—an earnest, almost irresistible proposal of to the first, gives, we think, the key to all. So marriage—at least it seems strange how it could early as the year 1692, his mother feared or fancied be resisted. Resisted, however, it was till 1700, that some marriage engagement existed between when Swift, whose proposal was made while he him and a young Leicestershire woman, and the still was with Sir William Temple, but who had report was the subject of a letter from Swift to one of now become Vicar of Laracor, and had some other his friends. He says—"The very ordinary obser- church preferment, found the lady very anxious to vations I made with going half a mile beyond the learn what he was about. There is certainly a university, have taught me experience enough not marked difference in the tone of the letter answerto think of marriage till I settle my fortune in the ing what may be called the lady's proposal, from world, and even then, itself, I am so hard to please that in which his own was conveyed some four that I suppose I shall put it off to the other world. years before. Without suggesting that, in an in

There is something in me which must terval of four years, other objects might have inbe employed, and when I am alone, turns all, for terrupted any thought of Jane Waryng—for thus want of practice, into speculation and thought, inso- the second letter is addressed the first was to Vamuch, that these seven weeks I have been here, rina, a more romantic sound; without saying that (i. e. Temple's Moorpark) I have writ and burnt, about two years before Jane's inquisitorial letter, and writ again, on all manner of subjects, more we find Swift mentioning letters to a certain Eliperhaps than any man in England. I have been | za—perhaps his Leicestershire love-perhaps an told in Ireland that my mind was like a conjured intermediate flame-certainly not Jane Waryng spirit, that would do mischief if I did not give it herself, as Mr. Mason, with less than his usual employment. It is this humor that makes me shrewdness, conjectures—we do think that a probusy, when I am in company, to turn all that way; posal such as Swift's, refused or treated slightingand since it commonly ends in talk, whether it be ly by a young lady, might have tried the temper love or common conversation, it is all alike. This of a man less likely to be offended than Swift ; is so common, that I could remember twenty wo- and in the second letter, we cannot read any other men in my life to whom I have behaved just the purpose than that of exhibiting truly the cold and same way; and, I profess, without any other de- stern realities of life to a young woman who was sign than that of entertaining myself when very trifling with her own peace of mind and his. “Are idle, or when something goes amiss in my affairs."' you,” he says to her, “in a condition to manage The gayety, then, and liveliness of his manners- domestic affairs with an income of less (perhaps) the cheerful excitement which distinguished the than £300 a year? Have you such an inclinalonely student, when accident threw him out of tion to my person and humor, as to comply with the reserved and stately circle of the Temples, or my desires and way of living, and endeavor to removed him from his books into the company of make us both as happy as you can ? any lively young woman, was construed by village be ready to engage in these methods I shall direct gossips into love, and Swift, like any one who is you, to the improvement of your mind, so as to fool enough to listen to such chalter, was given make us entertaining company for each other,

Will you


without being miserable, when we are neither vis- agree in thinking it incomparably his best work. iting nor visited ?

I singled you out Nothing that he afterwards wrote flowed forth with at first from the rest of women, and I expect not such absolue freedom and fulness of power ;-the to be used like a common lover.” Is this lan- satire, coarse and vehement throughout, was guage consistent with anything but sincerity of throughout effective. The church was actually purpose? It would be tedious to transcribe more offended at being so saved from dangers that were of the letter ; but, making some allowance for the far from imaginary; and we fancy that to this incharacter of the man who wrote, we cannot but decorous defence, and the scandal it occasioned, think the woman an absolute fool who could be we owe the passage in Gulliver's Travels, where offended by such a letter ; but such all her con- Gulliver is banished from court for his bold and duct with regard to Swift proves her to have unpremeditated mode of extinguishing a conflagrabeen.

tion which threatened to destroy the capital of It must be remembered, when we think of the Liliput. Whatever service was done by this rorelation of friendship which Swift sought to es-mance, which almost equals Rabelais in humor as tablish between himself and the English ladies well as in other points of character, it in all probwhom he had imported to the neighborhood of his ability lost Swift a bishopric. Johnson thought vicarage, that his only sister had, by a very strange the book too good for him. Warton, following and imprudent marriage, disturbed all his plans of Johnson's track, says that Swift nowhere acknowllife. When Esther Johnson and Mrs. Dingley edged or claimed it. Johnson never seriously excame to his neighborhood, we think that a rash pressed an opinion that it was not Swift's, though experiment was made of trying how far a perma- something of the kind no doubt was said by him 'nent friendship could go on between persons of in comparing it with those works of Swift that different sexes -excluding the thought of love. were more purely political. Here imagination The relation contemplated by the parties was of was vigorously at work, and it would almost seem fraternal affection; and, considering the entire cir- for the mere indulgence of its own capricious cumstances of all, especially the great difference pleasure. Warton is wrong in saying that Swift of years between Swift and Stella, and his having did not claim this work. His letters to his bookknown and loved her as an elder brother from her sellers remain, directing corrections for a early childhood, we believe that passion was not edition, and expressing extreme annoyance at the at first awakened at all—that the thought of their impertinence of a cousin of his, who affected to probable marriage was first suggested by third have had some share in the work. persons; and how such suggestion of third per- A remarkable coincidence has been pointed out sons was likely to affect Swift's mind, after the by Professor Porson between a passage in Gullievent of the Leicestershire amour, our readers will ver's Travels and one in The Tale of a Tub, which be able to judge. At any rate, the nature of would be enough to fix the authorship of both, as Swift's affection was soon tested. A friend of he observes, on the same person. Gulliver's Trava his, Mr. Tisdal, proposed for Stella. Swift, re- els—“On each side of the gate was a small wingarded as the guardian of Stella, was consulted ; dow, not above six inches from the ground; into and his letter approving of the match is preserved. that, on the left side, the king's smiths conveyed Stella—from whatever cause, and causes are sug-fourscore and eleven chains, like those that hang gested quite adequate, and altogether unconnected to a lady's watch in Europe, and almost as large, with Swift-refused Tisdal ; and Tisdal every- which were locked to my left leg with six-andwhere circulated the report that he was rejected thirty padlocks." Compare with this, Tale of a because Swift wanted to marry her.

Tub— Introduction—Fourscore and eleven pamWhile the ladies were thinking too much of phlets have I writ under three reigns, and for the Swift, he was thinking too little of the ladies. service of thirty-six factions.” Whatever these He was busy in cabinets and courts. He was numbers may mean, however arbitrarily or accithinking of changes of ministry, and his whole dentally they may have first occurred, the repeheart was in his task. Tories called him whig, tition could not have been accidental, and may and whigs a tory. He himself, in all probability, have been designed, like a private mark, to enable was right when he said he was a whig in state Swift to prove his property in either work, should politics—a tory in church matters. In joining he ever be disposed to throw off the mask, and Harley's administration, there can be but little claim them as his own. Swift had never shaped doubt that his first strong motive was resentment to his own imagination a home in any proper against the former ministry, by whom he regarded sense of the word. From his wretched collegehimself as neglected. The love of mischief, we rooms he had passed to Temple's, where all the think, too, mingled with the feeling ; and the appearance of wealth existed—where every inciexultation which accompanies every exertion of dent calculated to awaken ambition was presented power made him seize every opportunity which to his mind. His residence at Laracor was inpublic affairs presented of bringing his peculiar terrupted by frequent visits to London, by his feeltalents into play. They were glorious days, when, ing his importance to political parties. Through in the full exuberance of fun, “ The Tale of a his letters, and especially in his letters to the Tub"-Swift's first work-forced unwilling smiles ladies at Laracor, there are frequent sighs for refrom the gravest churchmen. With Johnson, we pose—there are frequent expressions of indiffer

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ence to the pursuits in which he is engaged ; but accordingly.” This was acting dignity. We every page exhibits feverish and restless ambition. speak not of the feeling, in which Swift was probThere are one or two passages in which he speaks ably right, but of the way in which it was exof at last perhaps obtaining a competence, one at hibited-in which Swift was so assuredly wrong, least in which he contemplates such provision that a true account of such an interview could for himself as chiefly valuable for the sake of the scarcely have been communicated to any persons ladies to whom he is writing ; for the letters, but people in precisely the position of Swift's though now called the Journal to Stella, were ad- female correspondents. We do not think there is dressed to her and to Mrs. Dingley jointly; yet any very distinct evidence that Stella anticipated the feeling throughout is that of an affectionate marriage with Swift ; though, of course, if such brother rather than a lover, and now and then it an intention be ascribed to the parties to this coris that of a condescending master, enacting good respondence, it will color the whole of it, and thus natured equality of manner with the show and one mistake give rise to a hundred. reality of courtesy to persons admittedly inferior Whatever the relation was that subsisted bein rank and station. There was in his letters tween Swift and Stella, it was not such as premuch fondness, rather as indulging a mood of his vented him from forming other acquaintances of own mind, however, than from any great consider the fair sex. There are in his correspondence ation of the objects; and there was in these com- several exceedingly graceful letters from him to munications to his womankind at Laracor a total many ladies of high rank, which show him playing absence of reserve, as there was a total absence of like a moth round the flame, which yet he took respect. The ladies to whom he each day wrote care not to approach too near ; and from them, of the manner in which he actually bullied Harley too, there are letters enough to show “how high and Bolingbroke, he had remembered as servants he stood in the estimation of those by whom it is at Sheen and Moorpark. They, too, had seen almost every man's ambition to be distinguished.” Swift, and the “pain'' he was compelled to en- Among his acquaintances was the widow of a

when,” to use his own words, “ Sir Wil- Dutch merchant, who had made money in Ireliam Temple used to look cold and out of humor land in William's days, and laid it out in the purfor three or four days, and I used to suspect a chase of forfeited estates there. This business of thousand reasons." There was at this time, and dealing in estates which other men continued to indeed throughout life, in Swift's mind, a galling think their own, notwithstanding any title that a sense of social inferiority of condition ; and he successful revolution gave, has never been attendthought to vindicate his proper place in society ed with as comfortable an enjoyment of rents and by overbearing and intolerable manners. Of this revenues as ought to be wished for the sake of the there are a hundred instances ; and it was some peace of society ; and the Van Homrighs, with thing to Swift to have auditors such as Stella and the name of considerable property, appear to have Mrs. Dingley, who would be not unlikely to sym- been, during their first intimacy with Swift, in pathize with him in the tone of feeling which dic- considerable pecuniary embarrassment. We think tated such strange conduct-conduct in which we it not easy to read the letters between Swift and cannot but see- - be it disguised and dignified with the eldest of the daughters of Mrs. Van Homrigh what names men please--the commencement of without believing that, in this case, the dean's heart insanity. We think Swift's was essentially the was seriously affected ; there can be no doubt the mind and spirit of an independent man; but we lady's was. From the time of his intimacy with think the necessity which he felt for ever acting the Van Homrighs the journal to Stella assumes a independence, lest it should be denied, or a con- different tone, and becomes a mere diary, in which trary feeling imputed, forever placed him in a false the class of playful topics which he at first dwelt position. “I called,” he says, “at Mr. Secre- on are no longer subjects of his thought; the “littary's, to see what the d- ailed him on Sun- tle language,” which he called the playful style day. I made him a very proper speech—told him in which he at first wrote, no longer engages or I observed he was much out of temper; that I did amuses us. Many of the letters read like so many not expect he would tell me the cause, but would paragraphs from his history of the four last years be glad to see he was better : and one thing I of Queen Anne. Meanwhile, the love affair with warned him of, never to appear cold to me, for I Vanessa—so he chose to call Hester Van Homwould not be treated like a school-boy ; that I had righ-thrived apace. The adventure lasted him felt too much of that in my life already, (meaning full twenty years or more. Mother, and brother, Sir William Temple ;) that I expected every and sister died; and the young lady was alone in great minister who honored me with his acquaint- the world, and came over to Ireland to war with ance, if he heard or saw anything to my disad- doctors and proctors, and all the devilry of the ecvantage, would let me know in plain words, and clesiastical courts ; and when this was done, to not put me in pain to guess by the change or cold- undergo all the torment of continued litigation in ness of his countenance or behavior ; for it was the courts of common law. Poor Miss Van Homwhat I would hardly bear from a crowned head, righ! the single acknowledged comfort to which and no subject's favor was worth it ; and that I she could look was the hope of a visit from the designed to let my lord keeper and Mr. Harley dean; but the dean feared the scandal of Dublin, know the same thing, and that they might use me i and provoked the scandal which he feared by the


If so,

character of mystery which he gave to his visits. | beyond the range of our powers of belief to im-
“ If you write to me,” he says, “let some other agine, that at the time Swift wrote these letters,
direct it; and I beg you will write nothing that he had actually been married to Stella ; and it
is particular, but what may be seen : letters may must be remembered that these letters were not
be opened, and inconveniences may happen. If in the hands of the biographers, who, one after
you are in Ireland while I am there, I shall see another, have spoken of the marriage. A scene
you very seldom. It is not a place for any free- of great violence is stated to have occurred, when
dom ; but where everything is known in a week, Swift rode to Celbridge, and threw upon Vanes-
and magnified a hundred degrees.” When Swift sa’s table a letter containing one from herself to
went to Laracor, after his installation as dean, he Stella. Of this story, there is no proof whatever ;
writes to Vanessa :—"At my first coming 1 and if such a letter had existed, there is no reason
thought I should have died with discontent, and why it should not have been preserved with the
was horribly melancholy while they were install- rest which have been published from a transcript
ing me; but it begins to wear off, and change to made from a copy preserved by one of her execu-
dulness.” A year after, when the quarrels be- tors. It is intimated by Mr. Mason, in his His-
tween Bolingbroke and Harley drove Swift from tory and Antiquities of St. Patrick's," that more
court, his first letter from Letcombe is to her. Her of these letters exist between Swift and Vanessa
delight at the poem of Cadenus and Vanessa, than came to Sir Walter Scott's hands.
though it would seem it contained much calculated they would furnish an interesting addition to any
to repress her hopes of bringing the amorous dean future impression of Mr. Wilde’s book.
to the actual point of matrimony, was unbounded. Our business through this article has been, to
He promised her, in one of his letters, a second our great 'regret, destroying romance after ro-
poem; and it is a thousand pities that it was not mance; we shrink from a communication which
worked out. In a letter of a later date, when Va- yet must be made, which may account for the oc-
nessa was actually fixed on her estate at Cel-casional warmth of some of Vanessa's letters—nay,
bridge, he writes to her—“God send you through perhaps justify, in the opinion of some of our
your law and your reference ; and remember that readers, the coldness which came over the heart
riches are nine parts of ten of all that is good in of the dean. There is a passage in Crabbe's
life, and health is the tenth ; drinking coffee comes Tales of the Hall, in which the Old Bachelor
long after, and yet it is the eleventh ; but without tells the stories of his own Varinas, Stellas, Va-
the two former you cannot drink it right.' nessas, and Celias—and the casualties which
“ The best maxim I know in life, is, to drink saved him from marriage. All danger appeared
your coffee when you can, and when you cannot, to be over ; he had come to a grave time of life;
to be easy without it.” In a letter, July 5, 1721, had done with novel-reading, and given himself to
he says —"Soyez assurée, que jamais personne du the study of serious romance; he meets-
monde a été aimée, honorée, estimée, adorée, par A thin, tall, upright, serious, slender maid,
votre ami que vous. I have drank no coffee since Who in her own romantic regions strayed.
I left you, nor intend till I see you again ; there Kind were the lady's looks, her eyes were bright,
is none worth drinking but yours, if I may myself And swam, methought, in exquisite delight.
be the judge.” We suspect that in this business A lovely red suffused the virgin cheek,
of the coffee, more is meant than at first appears. And spoke more plainly than the tongue can speak;
There is throughout this correspondence with Va- Plainly all seemed to promise love and joy,
nessa an effort to give a character of coldness to Nor feared we aught ihat might our bliss destroy.
parts of each letter, as if there was a fear of the
letters falling into other hands.

What demon in his spite
We suspect, too,

To love and man could my frail mind excite, that to this fear we owe it that the strongest ex

And lead me curious on against all sense of right? pression of passion on Swift's part is expressed in There met my eye, unclosed, a closet door. French. Swift had suggested to Vanessa, in one of the letters, to use something of a cipher; and, I went, I saw—shall I describe the hoard we suspect, the whole meaning of the letters is not of precious worth in sealed deposites stored to be seen on the surface. In the letter which we Of sparkling hues ? Enough, enough, is told, have last quoted is another passage about coffee, ’T is not for man such mysteries to unfold. in which it is just possible that Vanessa's con- In that blue liquid that restrained their flame,

Thus far I dare, whene'er those orbits swam science suggested a meaning that did not enter in- As showers the sunbeams, when the crimson glow to the dean's thoughts : “Without health, you of the red rose o'erspread those cheeks of snow; will lose all desire of drinking your coffee, and I saw, but not the cause—'t was not the red become so low as to have no spirits.

Of transient blush that o'er her cheek was spread; It is impossible to read these letters and not 'T was not the lighter red that partly streaks think that Vanessa was quite justified in thinking The Katherine pear that brightened o’er her cheeks, she had won this ardent admirer. Still the word Nor scarlet blush of shamebut such disclose marriage was not mentioned. Is it not probable When first unfolded, warm the glowing hue,

The velvet petals of the Austrian rose that, as has been suggested by some of his biogra- Nor cold as rouge, but deepening on the view. phers, Swift was conscious of hereditary disease Such were those cheeks—the causes unexplored, which he feared to transmit! To us it is quite Were now detected in that secret hoard.

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