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1. Charles Lamb,
493 3. The Wedding Garment,
495 4. Temper: from an Old Maid's Album,
501 5. Story of a Family,-Chap. 17,
512 6. Maiden and Married Life of Mary Powell, (5th Article,
517 7. EUROPE: Foreign Policy; Prospects for Hungary, Examiner,
52. POETRY.—To Pius IX., 527. SHORT ARTICLES. Universal Liturgy; Borrowed Sermon, 494. - Western Eloquence
Religious Levites, 500.- Omai, the Sandwich Islander, 511.- French Protection of Scot. land, 516. - Scott of Amwell; Anson's Voyage; Poetical Magazine ; Ancient Welsb: Handel, 521. — John Wilson, 525. — French Women and German Women, 526.
Prospectus.—This work is conducted in the spirit of | now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor- of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer conuection with our twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hasiering, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were through a rapid process of change, to some new state of excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot coapuz scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Forages satisfy the wants of the American reader.
and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections ; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and ven fan. Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble acquaint our readers with the greai department of Foreign criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, atlairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirabile mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish to keep themselves informed of the saint History, and Cominon Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement-10 Statesmen, Divines. Las the sparkling Eraminer, the judicious Athenæum, the yers, and Physicians-10 men of business and mea of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attract: comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Chris- and useful to their Wives and Chiidren. Welelieve that tiun Obserrer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generat:ott: 24 and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every we!!! the best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard 257 azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in mora, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient sur from Punch; and, when we ihink it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appels use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "rinnoring the wheat from the from the new growth of the British colonies.
chaff,” by providing abundantly for the imagination, a The steamship, has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Traves into our neighborhood ; and will greatly multiply our con- History, and more solid matter, we may produce a vo nections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the same time it will all narts of the world ; so that much more than ever it aspire to raise the standard of public taste.
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WASHINGTON, 27 Dec.. 1845. Of all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, is has appeared 10 me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human 19 the utmost expansion of the present age.
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 279.-22 SEPTEMBER, 1849.
From the North British Review.
on the principle of combining into one narrative all The Closing Years of Dean Swift's Lise; with an that had been told of Swift by witnesses, many of
Appendir containing several of his Poems hitherto whom were far from being quite faithworthy. It is unpublished, and some Remarks on Stella.
By really a curious thing to observe how accidentally W. R. Wilde, M. R. I. A., &c. 1819.
mistakes arise. How the ambiguous language of This book contains a good deal that is new to the one biographer being misunderstood by the next, public. It corrects some mistakes as to Swift; it the whole color of the narrative becomes insensibly adds something to our means of judging of him, changed. In Swift's case, there is really little that and is, on the whole, creditable to the diligence and can be depended on in the statements of any of his the intelligence of its distinguished author. Mr. biographers which is not directly affirmed in his own Wilde is the editor of the Dublin Medical Journal, letters. and this volume is an enlargement of a professional Of his early life, nothing whatever is known, exessay, published in that useful periodical, in reply cept what he has himself told. Every addition to to some inquiries addressed to him by Dr. M'Ken- his record is demonstrably false ; and every statezie of Glasgow, as to the character of the disease ment of his own, susceptible of confirmation from which clouded so many years of Dean Swift's life, external evidence, has been abundantly confirmed. and which exhibited its true character in the extinc- Swift's stern and uncompromising veracity has been tion of all mental power long before the period of tested in every conceivable way. The vanity of his his actual death.
own relatives, anxious to be supposed capable of It was impossible for Mr. Wilde to examine the adding something to what the public already knew case of Swift as a mere medical question, without of a great man, has been rebuked by accidental cirhis being ind to look into forgotten pamphlets and cumstances, disproving all that they stated about old repositories of the thousand trifles which the the dean. Mr. Deane Swift’s* book is for the most interest about a great man led fanciful people to part worthless. Lord Orrery's Biography of Swift, preserve. From these sources he has revived some a book not without some interesting matter, is chiefly old recollections of Stella, and others connected with valuable as showing the sort of calumnies that preSwift, and has been fortunate enough to recover vailed during the latter years of Swift's life, and what we are inclined to think a genuine portrait of which were all reproduced in this weak and misthat lady, which is engraved for his volume. He chievous work. The book has all the appearance has been also fortunate enough to find an old alma- of having been dictated by malevolent feeling; and nac with verses in Swift's hand-writing bound up as its author had for a while a doubtful intimacy within the same cover, and has, in this way, added with Swift, it is probable that resentment for real a few poems of no great merit, and of doubtful or imaginary slights was not unconnected with the authenticity, to the mass of Swift's works, already tone of depreciation manifested throughout. Lord too large-for each successive editor has increased Orrery was anxious to come before the public in the bulk of what he was bringing before the public, the character of an author. Without any original by every trifle, which, whether written by Swift or powers, his only course was translation or criticism. by any of his acquaintances, could by any pretence He translated Pliny's epistles, but Melmoth disbe connected with his name. The book, however, tanced him there. He then remembered that there is of great value. An obscure disease which clouded was no life of Swist, and he set about supplying with mystery much of Swift's life, which, while the want. His acquaintance with Swift, which men forbore to call it insanity, perplexed every one was the chief excuse for selecting this subject, had, of his friends with strange misgivings, and suggested however, been formed at a time when Swift was 10 himself, with painful distinctness, its inevitable scarce himself—when his temper was soured with termination, is here traced with great distinctness, disappointment and utter hopelessness, and when chiefly from such records as Swift's own letters his bodily and mental health was already greatly afford. The inferences from the statements made impaired. In fact, Lord Orrery had nothing to tell by him, from time to time, through a period of full of Swift from his own knowledge; and to make a fifty years, are compared with those which an ex- book, there was no way open to him except to heap amination of his mortal remains, strangely exposed together whatever he could collect of hearsay among to observation a century after his death, suggested the few who then remembered “ the dean.” The to competent observers. The chief value of Mr. peculiar relation of Swift to the late ministry of Wilde's book is as a medical tract, but it incident- Queen Anne, and the part he had afterwards taken ally illustrates some of the topics of Swift's domes- | in Irish politics, had made him the object of hatred tic life which have been the subject of dispute ; and this is of the more moment, as Scott's Life of
* Deane Swift was a cousin of Jonathan's. He was
a son of his uncle Godwin's, one of whose four wives was Swift, an exceedingly entertaining volume, is framed co-heiress of Admiral Deane, the regicide.
and suspicion to the party, who, when Lord Orrery
By fatheridge, motheridge, wrote, possessed the whole power and patronage of
And by brotheridge, the state. The libels published against him had
To come from Gutheridge ;
But now is spoiled clean, thus a life more enduring than such things ordina
And an Irish Dean; rily have. All those were embodied in Lord Or
In this church he has put rery's work. The work became very generally
A stone of two foot, circulated, and was the text-book from which every
With a cup and a can, sir, thing calculated to lower the dean's character has
In respect to his grandsire, &c. been derived. Lord Orrery's boo was answered,
In a letter from Pope to Swift, the former telland, for the most part, shown to be utterly unworthy of credit, by Delany, a surviving friend of hero of the tale Swift's countryman. In a letter
ing a story of an Irishman to Swift, calls the Swift; but Delany's “ Observations,” we are told
from Swist to Pope, (July, 1737,) we have the by Sheridan, had but little circulation. Delany's following passage, which exhibits the sense which answer was followed by another from Deane Swift. Swift gave to the word, if at any time he called Then came a formal life by Hawkesworth; and
himself an Englishman, and which negatives Johnthen, Johnson's. We are obliged to mention these
son's ungenerous and unwarranted inferencesuccessive publications, as each materially influenced
“ Some of those who highly esteem you, and a the more modern Lives of Swift, and as every one few who know you personally, are grieved to find of them originated errors which we hope to remove. Johnson's, published in his Lives of the Poets, ilemen of this kingdom”—he is writing from
make no distinction between the English genopens with an assertion which we must notice, as Dublin—" and the savage old Irish, (who are it is calculated to effect our whole estimate of only the vulgar, and some gentlemen who live in Swift :
the Irish parts of the kingdom ;) but the English " Jonathan Swift was, according to an account said to be written by himself, the son of Jonathan colonies, who are three parts in four, are much
more civilized than many counties in England, and Swift, an attorney, and was born at Dublin on St. Andrew's day, 1667. According to his own re- and they think it very hard that an American, who
speak better English, and are much better bred ; port, as delivered by Pope to Spence, he was born is of the fifth generation from England, should be at Leicester, the son of a clergyman, who was a allowed to preserve that title, only because we minister of a parish in Her shire. During his life, the place of his birth was undetermined. He have been told by some of them that their names was contented to be called an Irishman by the three or four cousins here who were born in Por
are entered in some parish in London. I have Irish, but would occasionally call himself an Eng-tugal, whose parents took the same care, and they lishman.”
are all of them Londoners.” In a letter from Swift was wholly incapable of the deception and Pope, speaking of Rundle, then sent over as a falsehood which this narrative implies. Of him
bishop to Ireland, we find him saying to Swistself, as of others similarly circumstanced, he was
“ He will be an honor to the bishops, in the habit of speaking as of an Englishman ac- but what you will like more particularly, he will cidentally born in Ireland ; andas both his parents be a friend and benefactor to your unfriended and were English, and as no one of his progenitors was unbenefited nation.” In the dedication of the Irish, there does not seem anything unreasonable
Dunciad, where Pope brought together whatever in his stating the fact as it was.
was likely to please Swift, he does not shrink which states his birth to have been in Dublin, is
from calling Ireland his country : in his own handwriting, and is preserved in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Of the an- Whether thou choose Cervantes’ serious air, thenticity of that document, and of the truth of Or laugh and shake in Rabelais' easy chair, that statement, there can be no doubt. The
Or praise the court, or magnify mankind, sage Johnson quotes from Spence, no doubt exists
Or thy grieved country's copper chains unbind, &c. in Spence's Anecdotes; but Spence made the mis
In the fourth Drapier's letter, Swift speaks of take of confusing what Swift said of his grand- Molyneaux as “an English gentleman born here,” father, as if it had been said of his father. His i. e., in Ireland. Swift's feeling was, that no right grandfather, who was born in Leicester, was vicar of an Englishman ought to have been lost by locaof Goodrich in Herefordshire, and this Pope per- tion or by birth in Ireland. This thought, and this fectly knew, as is proved by his amusing verses alone, was what he expressed in very natural and on Swift's putting up a monument to him, and very forcible language. The mistake of his meanpresenting a cup to the church at Goodrich. Oning, for it does not appear to have been misreprea pencilled elevation of the proposed monument, sentation, has given a false coloring to every part which Swift sent to Mrs. Howard, Pope wrote of Johnson's narrative. the following lines, which are preserved with an
The first three years of Swift's life were passed endorsement in Swift's hand : “ Model of a mon- in England. His nurse, an English woman, had ument for my grandfather, with Mr. Pope's some temptation to return to her own country, and roguery:"
she took the child with her. “ At five years old JONATHAN Swift
he could read any chapter in the Bible; at six he Had the gift
was sent to school to Kilkenny, in Ireland, and at
fourteen was admitted into the University of Dub- him with deep humiliation ; and though it did not lin, where, by the ill treatment of his nearest re- lead him to leave college for three years afterlations, he was so much discouraged and sunk in wards, it probably was among his motives for taking his spirits, that he too much neglected some parts his higher degrees at Oxford. Some confusion of his academic studies, for which he had no great has arisen in examining Swift's early career, from relish by nature, and turned himself to reading the fact of a cousin of his of the same surname history and poetry, so that, when the time came for having entered college on the same day with him, taking his degree of bachelor, although he had and the college entries respecting the two being so lived with great regularity and the due observance made as to render impossible in all cases to deterof the statutes, he was stopped of his degree for mine to whom they refer. His biographer, dulness and insufficiency, and at last hardly ad- Deane Swift, has built a strange story out of the mitted, in a manner little to his credit, which is way in which Swift's degree was given. He says called in that college speciali gratia. And this that Swift himself told him that the words were discreditable mark, as I am told,” we are transcrib- misunderstood at Oxford; and that the introduction ing his own statement, “ stands upon record in of them into the testimonial given by Dublin Coltheir college registry."'*
lege, was regarded by the Oxford men as a proof The mark still exists. Swift entered college of the high regard with which Swift was honored in April, 1682, and became one of a class which in his parent university. The testimonium has had for the most part entered in the October or been since produced. It contains no such words, November previous. As far as we can ascertain, nor are such ever inserted in a document of the there was at this period but little attention paid to kind. This disposes of Mr. Deane Swift as a classics in the course of education at Dublin Uni- witness, and, in disposing of him, a good deal versity. It was ascertained, by an examination at en- of biographical rubbish is cleared away. trance, that the pupil had read some prescribed books Swift's support at school and in college was dein Latin and Greek. The temptation of a scholar- rived from an uncle, Godwin Swift. Godwin ship in the third year of his course, which was the Swist, the first of the family that came to Ireland, reward of proficiency in classics, was the sole in- was connected through one of his four wives with ducement to make him continue this study, while the Ormond family, and the duke made him his all the permanent honors and emoluments which attorney-general of the Palatinate of Tipperary. the college could bestow were given to what was Godwin,"
was an ill pleader, but then called Arts. For a period of four years edu- perhaps dextrous in the subtle parts of the law." cation was conducted by prelections on Aristotelic In the manuscript from which these words are logic, and in physics and ethics Aristotle was also taken, is an interlineation before the word “dexthe text-book. The college statutes did not allow trous” of the emphatic words, “a little too." any deviation from the course, and even the books Swift did not think of his uncle Godwin with to be used by the lecturer in instructing his pupils love. There is no trace, we believe, of any kindwere rigorously fixed by statute. It was only in ly intimacy between the family of the successful the reign of George the Third that an inconvenience, barrister and the retired student. Swift's was felt almost since the foundation of the college, was a nature not unlikely to fancy neglect, and to remedied, and power given to the governing part resent it. There can be no doubt that at all times of the body, in conjunction with the visitors, to self-will and caprice were among the orginal elemake such changes in the course of study as cir- ments of his character, and that from the first he cumstances might require. Swift was a boy of was ambitious. The appearance of wealth, and fourteen. At his school not one word of science the reality of some of the comforts of such an had been taught. The Irish schools never invaded establishment as his uncle's, must have now and the proper province of the university. He found then met the eye of the meditative boy, who little himself in a class that for six months before had thought with what real sacrifice this expenditure been exercised in the subtleties of a formal system was maintained, and how even the pittance apporaltogether new to him. There is reason, too, to tioned for his own maintenance and instruction in think that Swift's talents were of slow develop college pressed on the resources of a generous and
It is scarce possible to imagine circum- improvident man, whose very occupation in the stances in which less was likely to be learned. management of the business of others was not His tutor's attention would, in the circumstances, unlikely to be accompanied with inattention to his be given to the more advanced pupils, and it can own; at all events, the close of Godwin's career not surprise us if the neglected boy was satisfied exhibited that he had not money either for himself with formal attendance, and lived in a world of or others. His mental faculties gave way. The his own thoughts and dreams. At that time, the cause, or perhaps the consequence, of mental distest of proficiency afforded by quarterly examina
was his giving ear to some speculative tions of the students did not exist, and the logical projectors, who proposed to realize a fortune by disputations for an academic degree, which have making the worst iron in the kingdom. His latbecome a mere form, were then a serious thing. ter years were spent in a state of mental imbeciliSwift's failure seems to have been regarded by ty not unlike that which oppressed the close
of Swift's own life. Between the Swifts and the * Anecdotes of the Family of Swift by Dr. Swift. The original manuscript is lodged in the University of Dublin. 1 family of Sir William Temple there had been
some kindliness—we beleve also some obscure that it was stone-fruit. The companion of Temfamily connection. Godwin Swift was the inti-ple was not unlikely to have enjoyed the luxury mate friend of Temple, who held a high office in the of fruits ; for nowhere do we find such descripCourt of Chancery in Ireland. The mother of Jona- tions of all that could be brought to perfection in than Swift was related, or claimed to be related, England as in Sir William's essay on gardening ; to Temple's wife. The cousin of Jonathan, who and we almost think that a recollection of his acentered Dublin College on the same day with count of his apricots and peaches, and yet more of him, had made his way to Temple's, and was al-his cherries, and the delight with which he dwells on ready chaplain there, when Jonathan, now twenty-them, might have led Scott into a mistake, for which one years of age—too young to be ordained, and we do not think he has any authority. The time looking round for means of support-after a short of Swift's first illness was in 1690. In the Life visit to his mother in Leicestershire, came with of Temple, perfixed to his works,* we find that some recommendations 1o Temple, by whom he about this period Sir William used to wait on seemos to have been at once employed, probably as King William at Richmond and Windsor; and it secretary, if that word does not express a relation was no doubt in Swift's attendance on him on one more confidential than was at first established be- of these occasions that the illness occurred. Had tween them. It is probable that the statement Sir William's secretary read the essay to which given by Mr. Temple, nephew to Sir William we allude, written some five years before, or had Temple, is substantially true, that Swift was paid he heard Sir William conversing on the subject, a salary of twenty pounds a year as his amanuen- he would have been not disinclined to the use of sis. This is stated by Temple in language studi- ripe fruit, even as a part of medicinal treatment ously offensive, and manifestly colored by that of such ailments as he complained of. “I can dislike of Swift which actuated all the members say for myself at least,” says the old gentleman, of the Temple family. In fact, the regard ex-“ and all my friends, that the season of summer hibited by Sir William Temple to Swift, to whom fruits is ever the season of health with us, which he left his manuscripts, seems to have been re- I reckon from the beginning of June to the end of sented by the family. The language of solemn September; and for all sickness of the stomach courtesy, in which a distinction of rank seems to | (from which others are judged to proceed) I do have been implied even in the ordinary intercourse not think any that are like me, the most subject to between equals, gives more color to Mr. Temple's them, shall complain whenever they eat thirty or statement than the facts themselves would perhaps forty cherries before meals, or the like proportion strictly warrant. Swift's first residence with of strawberries, white figs, soft peaches, or grapes Temple was at Sheen, and there he became ac- perfectly ripe. After Michaelmas, apples; which, quainted with Esther Johnson, a child of six years with cherries, are of all others the most innocent old, the daughter of a person who was employed food, and perhaps the best physic.” In the same as housekeeper, or in some such capacity, by lady essay, we find the following passage :—"I need Gifford, the sister of Temple. This child was say nothing of apples, being so well known among destined to be known in after days, by all who us; but the best of our climate, and I believe of knew anything of Swift, as the Stella of his all others, is the golden pippin." It is said that writings. She was a general favorite, and seems the cause to which Swift referred his illness is not to have been domesticated with Lady Gifford and adequate to account for its effects. Mr. Mason's Mr. Temple as a companion to a young rela- language is—“ I apprehend such causes are quite tive of theirs, of her own age, and was educated insufficient to produce such permanent effects. by she same masters. Intimacy, friendship, af-Swift, perhaps, experienced then, for the first fection, any feeling but the passion which is called time, the symptoms of an hereditary disease, and love, is likely to have grown up between Swift, probably mistook that for the cause which was who conducted parts of her education, and his truly the consequence. Mr. Wilde who, howyoung pupil.
ever, differs from Mason as to the cause and the While with Temple, Swift first felt what Mr. nature of the disease, says—"From this period, Wilde regards as the commencement of the cere- a disease which, in all its symptoms, and by its bral disease, which only terminated with life. fatal termination, plainly appears to have been (in Swift thought it but a disease arising from indi- its commencement at least) cerebral congestion, gestion. Writing to Mrs. Howard, he says, set in and exhibited itself in well marked periodic “ About two hours before you were born, I got attacks, which year after year increased in intensity my giddiness by eating a hundred golden pippins and duration.” at a time at Richmond ; and when you were four It is plain that, in spite of Temple's gout, and years and a quarter old, having made a fine seat what his sister calls “spleen, -a favorite mediabout twenty miles further in Surrey, where I cal fiend of the day-in spite too of Swift's imused to read, there I got my deafness; and these patient spirit, little likely to endure from Temple's two friends have visited me, one or other, every relatives the slights which his position left him year since; and being old acquaintances, have without the power of effectually repelling, and now thought fit to come together.” Hawkes which from the tone and temper of resentment in worth, and other biographers of Swift, have said which they at all times speak of Swift, they that this surfeit of fruit occurred in Ireland ; Scott,
* Edition of 1814.