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of internal communication ; increased freedom and If the Hungarians and the Hungarian constitueducation of the peasantry; the repeal of laws pre- tion be crushed, what defenders of legality and venting the free purchase and sale of landed prop-rational civil self-government will be left in cenerty : perfect equality of all religions, and the free tral and eastern Europe? The tendencies of the dom of the press. For the greater part of these objects they are still struggling.Paget's Hungary military despotism which is at present predomiand Transylvania, vol. i., p. 162.

nant, are no less levelling than those of the most

unbridled ochlocracy ; no less opposed to all free This was written ten years ago. Much had action of individuals or of corporations. But how been effected, spite of government intrigues, sub- long can this military despotism lası ? It can only sequently to that period, and previously to the be supported by numerous armies of soldiers, and diet of 1847-48. In that diet, many of the most hardly less numerous armies of paid civil funcimportant internal reforms had passed, not merely tionaries. In proportion as the number of unprothe lower, but the upper house, before February, ductive consumers increases so do not merely the 1818. These reforms, together with others con- numbers but the energies of the producers diminceived in the same spirit, obtained the sanction of ish; as the burdens become heavier, the capacity the then legitimate monarch of the country. Nor of bearing thein becomes less. This state of was the nature of these reforms more truly con- things leads to a national bankruptcy (a consumservative than the manner in which they were ef- mation from which Austria is not far distant for fected. Where vested interests were found to be the third time within the last forty years ;) to the incompatible with the welfare of the state, the most frightful social convulsions; to a

war of holders of such vested interests were indemnified Proletaires against those who still possess properfor their surrender ; and the electoral qualification ty; and to a scene of universal disorder, of which of property and intelligence, which was substituted

no man can tell the end. The people of most for that of birth, preserved a just mean between continental countries have lost the habits and tratoo wide and too narrow a suffrage. An income ditions of self-government, together with their of £10 in towns, a property equivalent to £30 chartered liberties; the Ilungarians have mainin the country, is very different from what such a tained these habits and their prescriptive rights qualification would be here; when we consider through good and evil times. In their defence that in Hungary meat is three halfpence a pound, they have poured out their blood like water, not and wheat fifteen shillings a quarter.

merely now but in bygone ages. One llungarian In Hungary we do not find one faction strug-generation has handed down to another the torch gling against another, democracy against aris- of constitutional liberty, for the benefit not merely tocracy, poverty against wealth. The whole na- of themselves, but of the world.

Such a nation tion has arisen as one man in defence of its the real conservative must wish to see, not simply constitution against revolutionary despotism, in saved from annihilation, but taking a prominent defence of its independence against foreign inva- part in the affairs of the continent; as a model sion. The newly enfranchised peasantry are not of rational government, and a guarantee for the less ardent in the national cause than those who, maintenance of order and security in the east of before the reforms, were exclusively in pos- Europe. session of the full rights of citizenship. The really independent and unembarrassed magnates, the peers of Hungary, are found aiding the same cause with their arm, their purse, or their coun The sudden death of this popular vocalist, on the sei. One Batthyany is expiating his attachment shores of the St. Lawrence--cut off by the fatal to his country in the dungeons of Laibach ; epidemic of the time, in the vigor of his age, (for he another takes the department of foreign affairs in had not completed his forty-ninth year)-is fult by Kossuth's ministry. A Karolyi raises a regi- the public as the loss of a hig!ıly-gifted artist, and ment of hussars at his own expense ; and a in society as the loss of a most excellent and amiaTeleki, of the noblest and wealthiest house in ble man. In his native country the regret occaTransylvania, is actively employed in the diplo-sioned by the news is deep and general; scarcely a matic service of his country. But above all, the single Scotch newspaper of the last week failed to country gentlemen of ancient lineage are found contribute some affectionate tribute to bis memory. where they ought to be found in such a crisis. On this side of the Tweed his career had excited a We observe that Marzibanyi, the wealthiest untitled peculiar interest; and the entertainments by which noble of Hungary, has just been sentenced by he made the national melody and song of the sister Haynau to a fine of £2,000 for his patriotism. kingdom familiar in England will not only be long It is from this class, indeed, that the men who so remembered with pleasure, but may be said to exably fill the various posts in the present govern- ercise an influence in strengthening the bonds that ment are principally taken-men well acquainted unite the countries. with the routine of administration, who are quali Mr. Wilson, though his love of music showed fied for the stations they hold at present by the itself at an early age, betook himself to its regular experience of years as magistrates in their respec- study later in life than is usual with professional tive courties, and as members of the National artists. Born in Edinburgh, and bred in the printDiet.

ing-office of Mr. Ballantyne at the famous era of

JOHN WILSON.

.

as an actor.

Scott and the Waverley Novels, he remained there does not meet here the mischievous-looking urchins ull he was turned of five-and-twenty; and it was that fill the streets of Paris ; the boys of Germany probably owing to his education for the most intel- / are more quiet and sedate in their expression, and lectual of mechanical trades that he acquired the make up for want of vivacity by a greater refineliterary tastes and habits which were conspicuous ment. You feel sure that the French lad will in his after life. When he determined to embrace play you some saucy trick at the earliest oppormusic as a profession, he commenced its study with tunity, but you know that you will love his Gercharacteristic energy, and with such success, that man rival the better the longer you know him. he is well known to have been one of the soundest As to the fairer portion of creation, who has not and best general musicians of the day. When he admired the French women? Unfortunately, the appeared on the London musical stage, his success sentiment rarely goes beyond admiration. The was immediate ; and he stood for a number of years Normandy girls, with their black hair and beetin the position of principal tenor at Covent Garden like cheeks—the girls of South France, with and Drury Lane-a position he was qualified to their flashing eyes, black hair, and pale faces, rehold by the singular beauty of his voice, his pure minding one of Spanish heroines in novels—and and unaffected style of singing, and his good sense the lively grisettes of Paris, have all been the

But English opera was falling into theme of travellers' praises. Admit that they decay; and, though he took a leading part in the captivate at the first glance—their reign is soon efforts made by some of the more eminent perform- over.—Candor will force the traveller in France ers to sustain it, the ill success of those endeavors to acknowledge that, although charmed at Havre induced him to withdraw entirely from the stage. by the rosy freshness of the damsels, he begins to This seeming misfortune turned out happily for find them coarse before he arrives at Paris. On himself, for it led him into the path suited above all finishing his tour, at Marseilles, he will find, on others to his genius and disposition. He had pre- questioning his memory, that he has seen very viously given occasional lectures at public institu- few fine women, but an infinite number of tions on the vocal music of Scotland ; and now wrinkled, withered hags, and of girls who at resolved to expand these into a regular series of twenty have the worn and jaded air of thirty entertainments, which he carried on with unflagging years spent in privation. activity, and with unabated interest on the part of A French peasant girl is a burlesque on huthe public, during the remainder of his life. manity. Imagine, if you can, a female brought

Wilson's entertainments are known to everybody. up in a dirty hut, without nutricious food, without Not only in the British metropolis, but in every the slightest education, and compelled to work corner of the island, and in America, they have day after day in the fields and at the roughest labors made all ranks familiar with Scottish melody, Scot- of men ! The writer has seen hundreds of these tish poetry, Scottish humor, and Scottish character creatures, on fete days, dancing on the village and manners. He made the lyrics of Burns, hith-greens of the South of France. Perhaps others erto almost a sealed book in England, intelligible to more prone to look on the sunny side of things would the most thorough cockney; he commanded with have been delighted with the simplicity and hearty facility all the feelings of his audience, their tender- happiness of these poor people. Many English ness and mirth, their tears and laughter; and no writers lament the gradual disappearance of the assemblage, however cold, could resist the sympa- rustic sports and pastimes of old England. These thetic influence of his enthusiasm. Much of this were probably very much like those which now effect was produced by his strong spirit of national- exist in the country districts of France. If so, ity. He was in heart and soul a Scotchman ; it the sooner they entirely disappear, the better. was his delight to inspire others with something of They can exist only where the people are in a the love for Scotland which burned within his own state of degradation, and are willing to enjoy breast; and there can be no doubt that he awakened themselves in much the same manner as Carolina kindiy feelings towards “auld Scotland" in thou- slaves at a dance after corn-husking. Indeed, after sands to whom her music, her poetry, and her peo- having seen the fetes of the French peasantry and ple, had hitherto been objects of indifference.—Spect. the frolics of Southern slaves, the writer is at

a loss which to think prove the higher state of

civilization. But to continue the comparison beFRENCH WOMEN AND GERMAN WOMEN.

tween the French and German women, so far as I

have observed the latter, they are undoubtedly Berlin, July 10, 1849. more handsome.

Never have I seen so many I wrote you last week from Paris, but you smooth and beautiful complexions in so short a see from the date of this that, in the interval, I time as since crossing the Rhine. The spiritual have added one to the population of the capital of and dreamy expression which is so characteristic Prussia. If there were nothing else to convince of the American women, and which is entirely unme of my change of locality, the pleasant chorus known in France, is frequently found here. Some that rises from some school in the neighborhood painter has said that if he wished to paint an would be a sufficient proof.—Children don't sing angel he would choose his model among the in French schools. And then what a difference American women. He might find in Germany in the personal appearance of the people! One the same expression of sweetness and purity,

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blended with intelligence. But I must stop for Rome's lips are dumb; the orphan's wail, fear of exposing myself to the charge of enthusi The mother's shriek, thou may'st not hear, asm in favor of the Dutch damsels. I will end

Above the faithless Frenchman's hail, the comparison between the French and Germans

The unsexed shaveling's cheer! by saying that, either because of the difference in Go, bind on Rome her cast-off weight, race, or in climate, or in social and political insti The double curse of crook and crown, tutions, or from all these causes together, the Though woman's scorn and manhood's hate ysical development of the latter is much more

From wall and roof flash down. perfect.

Nor heed those blood-stains on the wall

Not Tiber's flood can wash away,
From the National Era. Where in thy stately quirinal

Thy mangled viciims lay.
TO PIUS IX.*

Let the world murmur; let its cry
The cannon's brazen lips are cold,
No red shell blazes down the air,

Of horror and disgust be heard ;
And street and tower and temple old

Truth stands alone ; thy coward lie
Are silent as despair.

Is backed by lance and sword.
The Lombard stands no more at bay ;

The cannon of St. Angelo,
Rome's fresh young life has bled in vain;

And chanting priest and clanging bell, Dead in the ghastly trench are they,

And beat of drum and bugle blow,
Or, wounded, writhe in pain.

Shall greet thy coming well.
Now, while the fratricides of France

Let lips of iron and tongues of slaves
Are treading on the neck of Rome,

Fit welcome give thee : for her part,
Hider at Gaeta! seize thy chance !

Rome, frowning o'er her new-made graves, Coward and cruel, come !

Shall curse thee from her heart ! Creep now from Naples' bloody skirt ;

No wreaths of gay Campagna's flowers

Shall childhood in thy pathway fling,
Thy mummer's part was acted well,
While Rome, with steel and fire begirt,

No garlands from their ravaged bowers

Shall Terni's maidens bring.
Before thy crusade fell.
Her death-groans answered to thy prayer ;

But hateful as that tyrant old,
Thy chant, the drum and bugle-call;

The mocking witness of his crime,
Thy lights, the burning villa's glare ;

In thee shall loathing eyes behold

The Nero of our time.
Thy beads, the shell and bali !

Stand where Rome's blood was freest shed,
Let Austria clear thy way with hands
Foul from Ancona's cruel sack,

Mock Heaven with impious thanks, and call

Its curses on the patriot dead, And Naples, with his dastard bands

Its blessings on the Gaul! Of murderers, lead thee back. * The writer of these lines is no enemy of Catholics.

Or sit upon thy throne of lies, He has on more than one occasion exposed himself to the A poor, mean idol blood-besmeared, censures of his Protestant brethren by his strenuous en

Whom even its worshippers despise, deavors to procure indemnification for the owners of the Unhonored, unrevered. convent destroyed near Boston. He defended the cause of the Irish patriots long before it had become popular in Yet, Scandal of the World! from thee this country; and he was one of the first to urge the most

One needful truth mankind shall learn, liberal aid io the suffering and starving population of the Catholic island. The severity of his language finds its

That kings and priests to liberty ample apology in the reluctant confession of one of the

And God are false in turn. most eminent Ron ish priests, the eloquent and devoted Father Ventura, who thus writes from Rome in the midst Earth wearies of them, and the long of the bombardment:

Meek sufferance of the heavens doth fail : “ Not a word has been said of peace, reconciliation, or Woe for weak tyrants, when the strong pardon ; not a promise is madle to maintain public liberiies; an:I yet this ought to have been done by the Pope. The

Wake, struggle, and prevail ! last allocution of the pontit has been read. How imprudent to have male the Pope praise Austria and the King

Not vainly Roman hearts have bled of Naples, who have ever been the sworn foes of Italian

To feed the crosier and the crown, independence! How much more imprudent still to make If, roused thereby, the world shall tread him say that, of his own accord, he had appealed to the

The twin-born vampires down! powers to reestablish him on the throne which he had

J. G. W. himself abandoned! It was confessing that he wished to do lo his people what he had declared himself unwilling last year to do against the Croats and Austrian oppressors of Italy. Even the women feel this reasoning ; and now that

[VIOLENT PREACHING. they see the effects of this brutal war of four great powers against a small state, their husbands and children killed “A little child being at a sermon, and observing and woundeid, you cannot form an idea of the rage of the minister very vehement in his words and bodily these women, of the energetic sentiments that they utter, and the fury that animales them against the Pope, the gesture, cried outMother, why don't the people cardinals, and the mass of the priesthood. Rome' will let the man out of the box? Then I entreat thee probable fall, and the Pope may again enter the Eternal behave thyself well, in preaching, lest men say, City, but he will never reign over the hearts of the Ro. truly, this is Jack in a box."-Simple Cobbler's Boy,

manis.'

p. 27.

1. Charles Lamb,

Blackwood's Magazine,

481 2. Canada,

Spectator,

493 3. The Wedding Garment,

Metropolitan,

495 4. Temper: from an Old Maid's Album,

501 5. Story of a Family:-Chap. 17,

Sharpe's Magazine,

512 6. Maiden and Married Life of Mary Powell,

517 7. EUROPE: Foreign Policy; Prospects for Hungary, Examiner,

522 POETRY.–To Pius IX., 527. Short Articles. — Universal Liturgy; Borrowed Sermon, 494. — Western Eloquence

Religious Levites, 500.- Omai, the Sandwich Islander, 511.- French Protection of Scot. land, 516. Scott of Amwell ; Anson's Voyage; Poetical Magazine; Ancient Welsh Handel, 521. - John Wilson, 525. — French Women and German Women, 526.

PROSPECTUS.—This work is conducted in the spirit of now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with our twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were through a rapid process of change, to some new state of excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot compule scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are alle so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.

and Travels, will be favorite inatter for our selections ; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and very fully Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreign criticisins on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, atlairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Cominon Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement-lo Statesien, Divines, Law. the sparkling Eraminer, the judicious Athenæum, the yers, and Physicians-10 men of business and inen of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Chris- and useful to their wives and Children. We believe that tian Obserrer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-in the best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Toit's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch; and, when we ihink it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetita use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, hy "vinnowing the wheat from the from ihe new growth of the British colonies.

chaff," by providing abundantly for the imagination, and The steamship has brought Evrope, Asia and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood ; and will greatly multiply our con- History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work nections, as Merchants, Traveliers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the same time it will all narts of the world ; so that much more than ever it aspire to raise the standard of public taste.

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WASHINGTON, 27 Dec., 1846. Of all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, but this by its immense exteut and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind in we ulinost expansion of the present age.

J. Q. ADAMS

LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 279.-22 SEPTEMBER, 1849.

From the North British Review.

on the principle of combining into one narrative all The Closing Years of Dean Swift's Life; with an that had been told of Swift by witnesses, many of

Appendix containing several of his Poems hitherto whom were far from being quite faithworthy. It is unpublished, and some Remarks on Stella.

By really a curious thing to observe how accidentally W. R. Wilde, M. R. I. A., &c. 1819.

mistakes arise. How the ambiguous language of This book contains a good deal that is new to the one biographer being misunderstood by the next, public. It corrects some mistakes as to Swift ; it the whole color of the narrative becomes insensibly adds something to our means of judging of him, changed. In Swift's case, there is really little that and is, on the whole, creditable to the diligence and can be depended on in the statements of any of his the intelligence of its distinguished author. Mr. biographers which is not directly affirmed in his own Wilde is the editor of the Dublin Medical Journal, letters. and this volume is an enlargement of professional Of his early life, nothing whatever is known, exessay, published in that useful periodical, in reply cept what he has himself told. Every addition to to some inquiries addressed to him by Dr. M'Ken- his record is demonstrably false ; and every statezie of Glasgow, as to the character of the disease ment of his own, susceptible of confirmation from which clouded so many years of Dean Swift's life, external evidence, has been abundantly confirmed. and which exhibited its true character in the extinc- Swift's stern and uncompromising veracity has been tion of all mental power long before the period of tested in every conceivable way. The vanity of his his actual death.

own relatives, anxious to be supposed capable of It was impossible for Mr. Wilde to examine the adding something to what the public already knew case of Swift as a mere medical question, without of a great man, has been rebuked by accidental cirhis being ied to look into forgotten pamphlets and cumstances, disproving all that they stated about old repositories of the thousand trifles which the the dean. Mr. Deane Swift's* book is for the most interest about a great man led fanciful people to part worthless. Lord Orrery's Biography of Swift, preserve. From these sources he has revived some a book not without some interesting matter, is chiefly old recollections of Stella, and others connected with valuable as showing the sort of calumnies that preSwift, and has been fortunate enough to recover vailed during the latter years of Swift's life, and what we are inclined to think a genuine portrait of which were all reproduced in this weak and misthat lady, which is engraved for his volume. He chievous work. The book has all the appearance has been also fortunate enough to find an old alma- of having been dictated by malevolent feeling ; and nac with verses in Swift's hand-writing bound up as its author had for a while a doubtful intimacy within the same cover, and has, in this way, added with Swift, it is probable that resentment for real a few poems of no great merit, and of doubtful or imaginary slights was not unconnected with the authenticity, to the mass of Swift's works, already tone of depreciation manifested throughout. Lord too large-for each successive editor has increased Orrery was anxious to come before the public in the bulk of what he was bringing before the public, the character of an author. Without any original by every trifle, which, whether written by Swift or powers, his only course was translation or criticism. by any of his acquaintances, could by any pretence He translated Pliny's epistles, but Melmoth disbe connected with his name. The book, however, tanced him there. He then remembered that there is of great value. An obscure disease which clouded was no life of Swift, and he set about supplying with mystery much of Swift's life, which, while the want. His acquaintance with Swift, which men forbore to call it insanity, perplexed every one was the chief excuse for selecting this subject, had, of his friends with strange misgivings, and suggested however, been formed at a time when Swift was 10 himself, with painful distinctness, its inevitable scarce himself—when his temper was soured with termination, is here traced with great distinctness, disappointment and utter hopelessness, and when chiefly from such records as Swift's own letters his bodily and mental health was already greatly afford. The inferences from the statements made impaired. In fact, Lord Orrery had nothing to tell by him, from time to time, through a period of full of Swift from his own knowledge; and to niake a fifty years, are compared with those which an ex- book, there was no way open to him except to heap amination of his mortal remains, strangely exposed together whatever he could collect of hearsay among to observation a century after his death, suggested the few who then remembered “ the dean.” The to competent observers. The chief value of Mr. peculiar relation of Swift to the late ministry of Wilde's book is as a medical tract, but it incident- Queen Anne, and the part he had afterwards taken ally illustrates some of the topics of Swift's domes in Irish politics, had made him the object of hatred tic life which have been the subject of dispute ; and

* Deane Swift was a cousin of Jonathan's. He was this is of the more moment, as Scott's Life of

a son of his uncle Godwin's, one of whose four wives was Swift, an exceedingly entertaining volume, is framed co-heiress of Admiral Deane, the regicide.

34

CCLXXIX.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XXII.

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