these convulsions are essentially different. Our to a difference of race is really attributable to very sketch of the rights of Hungary shows that the different causes. For, if we look into the details Hungarian insurrection is an act of self-defence; of each particular rising of the various races, we and has as little to do with abstract principles or shall find that either Greek priests or officers in theories of government, as our own civil wars. the Austrian army have been the real instigators The Hungarians are contending for the ancient of the provincial revolts. For instance, in Tranindependence of their kingdom, not for an exper- sylvania, the Wallachs were instigated by Colonel imental republic. The tone of the German jour- Urban ; in the military frontier and the Banat, the nalists and pamphleteers, who maintain the cause Servians were stimulated, or rather betrayed, into of the Races versus the Majjars, is either bureau- revolt by their archbishop, Rajachich, aided by cratic or pedantic. In the one case it is the voice Stratimirovich, an Austrian officer; while Croatia of the Austrian cabinet ; in the other it is the -a name which circumstances have rendered more dream of a few literary men, who would interpret familiar to our ears—was forced into rebellion by the political phenomena of the world by one hy- another military officer, the notorious Jellachich, pothesis. But neither the venal scribe nor the who carried out his plans by packing a diet, and volunteer ethnologist can abide the test of facts, excluding from it the legal members and county or explain the inconsistencies into which their bias magistrates. We leave to the advocates of absohas betrayed them. Of so complex a question we lutism the burden of proving what rights—civil, can only find room for a brief glimpse ; but it political, or religious—the non-Majjar has not long may suffice to detect some of the incongruities in shared, and does not now share, with the Majjar. the theory of race.

The question is illustrated by the following factThe subject of races would require a volume, that, in the present government, two of the most and cannot be rendered intelligible within the limits important posts—the department of justice and that of an article. It belongs, indeed, rather from ac- of finance—are filled, respectively, by Vukovich cident than essentially to the Hungarian question. and Duschek, the former a Servian, the latter of In the first place, many of the non-Majjar races Sclavonic blood. adhere to the Majjar party; and the adherents of We append the two following anecdotes, to the Majjars form, numerically, the majority, and show that what has been ascribed to the influence comprise the most civilized portion of the nation- of race, is really attributable to Austrian or Rusalities. In the next place, what has been ascribed sian intrigue. been its principal representatives abroad ; and in that

As early as May, 1848, Danilevski, the Russian character they have done infinite mischief to the cause of consul at Belgrade, had offered the Archbishop national independence and constitutional liberty over the Rajachich and the committee of the Servian govcontinent. The chief instrument, by the use of which they were enabled to make themselves responsible for the ernment at Carlovicz 30,000 Russian auxiliaries. ruin of Italy in its recent struggle, was to ihreaten all who In return for this assistance, he merely required differed from them with the name and intervention of the the Servian people, as members of the Greek French Republic! What French intervention comes to, they are now themselves experiencing. A short time ago Church, to put themselves under the protection of we should have denounced the siege of Rome by the its imperial head. The committee declined this French as being, under all the circumstances, ihe greatest act of guilt and which the madness and blindness of proposal ; but intimated to Mayerhofer, the Austhe times bad yet engendered. But-that the leading trian consul, their intention of accepting it ultiRuss, to settle by fire and sword its differences with its mately, unless he would procure them equally own people, is, if possible, a still more unnatural offence powerful assistance from Vienna. Mayerhofer, against the civilization and independence of mankind.

accordingly, recruited openly in Turkish Servia * We subjoin the following extract from Hauffer's table, annexed to his " Map of the Austrian Possessions," on behalf of men whom the emperor had declared as the readiest mode of illustrating what we have here rebels, and against whom, at the very moment, advanced in the text. We append to the extract a sum- Austrian forces were in arms. In these disgracemary of the races who side with the Majjars :in Hungary, 930,000

ful movements there are but slight vestiges of race Wallachs “ Transylvania, 1,237,340 2,317,340 as the impelling cause of disorder. But there are “ Military Frontier, 100,000

palpable signs in them of secret promptings and

986,000 Germans “ Transylvania, 250,668 * 1,422,168 active participation on the part of Vienna and " Military Frontier, 185,500


2,220,000 2,220,000 Ruthenes

The name of Mayerhofer is connected with an

350,000 350,000 Wends

50,000 50,000 act of double-dealing, equally significant and " Croatia, Croats

660,000 " Military Frontier, 692,966

shameless, on the part of Austria. In August,

1,352,966 Servians


1848, the Hungarian government promoted Cap“ Military Frontier, 203,000 S


tain Madersbach to the rank of major, for his

gallant defence of Weisskirchen, against the Ser

8,655,474 of these there side with the Majjars—

vians, and their commander, Licutenant-Colonel Wallachs S in Hungary,

930,000 Military Frontier, 100,000


Mayerhofer, the Austrian consul at Belgrade. Germans

986,000 " Military Frontier, 185,000


Besides these who unite with the 4,855,670 Majjars, all Slovacks, All,

2,220,000 2,220,000 the Jews, to the number of 250,000, are enthusiastic on Ruthenes, All,

350,000 350,000

the same side. The Croatians also would, probably, join

them, if not kept under by the military despotism of Jel4,771,000


“ Hungary,

" Hungary,
" Hungary,

“ Hungary,

“ Hungary,

The promotion was made with the sanction, and I which contended against the Stuarts in 1640, and under the name of the emperor. A week after, threw off their yoke in 1688. But nations, like the court threw off the mask. It openly entered individuals, are members of a family; and before upon its system of reaction, and advanced this taking part in family quarrels, are bound to weigh, very same Lieutenant-Colonel Mayerhofer to the not merely the justice of the cause, but also the full rank of colonel, for his behavior in the Ser-position and resources of the litigants. A Charles vian war against the Hungarians.

XII. rushes blindly upon wars which only comBy these and similar measures the Austrian promise his throne-a William of Orange forms court displayed its own incurable duplicity, and deliberately a triple alliance. It is important, alienated from the Hapsburg dynasty the most therefore, to understand the means which Hunflourishing and loyal portion of the empire. Its gary possesses for self-defence now, and for indeinsincerity has been fitly recompensed ; and within pendent existence hereafter—as well as her rights the space of twelve months Austria and her pol- in the present struggle. icy are equally detested by the Wallachs and Ser The efforts of Hungary in the present war are vians, the Croatians and Majjars. The October a measure of her internal resources. Those efrevolution, indeed, produced great changes in the forts have excited the more surprise, because the cabinet, but none in the system of policy. The nature and extent of her resources are, in genArchduchess Sophia—"huic mulieri cuncta alia eral, so imperfectly understood. In December fuere, præter honestum animum”- beheld her son last, at a time when civil war was raging in the upon the throne ; his mayors of the palace were south of Hungary and in Transylvania, 130,000 Prince Schwartzenberg and Count Stadion ; and Austrians, moving concentrically from nine difthe accession of a boy was believed to have in- ferent quarters, passed the frontiers. Prince fused new vigor into the imperial system. On Windischgrätz left Schönbrunn, confident of rethe 7th of March, in the present year, the Charte turning with victory, and with the title of “ DeOctroyée of the new ministry confirmed the oppo- bellator Hungariæ.” The game was supposed sition of Hungary and loosened the allegiance of to be driven by his rangers into the toils, and 10 the hereditary states of Austria.

be there awaiting unconditional surrender or deOf the Charte Octroyée, Count Stadion was struction. But neither the generals nor the statesthe real author ; but he was aided in its composi- men of Hungary bated a jot of heart or hope. tion by the ex-advocate Bach, who, as well as They knew the courage, the endurance, and the Krauss, remained in the cabinet. The count is patriotic fervor of their people. Within a narequally opposed to the system of Metternich, and row circle between the Theiss, the Maros, and to the idea of constitutional freedom. His ob- the Transylvanian frontier, they speedily organstinate temper renders him consistent in these op- ized an army of nearly 200,000 men. Powderposite dislikes. In other respects he is a versatile mills, cannon-founderies, manufactories of mustheorist, but always within the range of absolut- kets, percussion-caps, and salipetre, sprang up on ism. His charter was conceived in the spirit of the instant ; and as the Croatian sulphur-mines Richelieu, and with the recklessness of Alberoni. were in the enemy's hands, their sulphur was It proclaimed the unity of the empire, accorded prepared from mundic, or sulphurate of iron. empty formularies to the people, and reserved a]] Within four months, the Austrians were driven real power for the government. But it mani- from Hungary, and so diminished in number and fested neither experience nor sagacity. And disorganized by cold, hunger, and defeat, that, but when this patent constitution satisfied no one for Russian intervention, the war would already when all the nationalities, without exception, be at an end. declared against it—when Bohemia was in a fer The defensive strength of a country depends upon ment, and even Jellachich was found protesting—its physical conformation, its artificial means of comthe count became temporarily insane.

munication and resistance, and the numbers, the The Charte Octroyée announced no new doc- temper, and organization of its inhabitants. A glance trine in the government of dependencies. In the at the map shows that Hungary, by the arrangeage of the Maccabees a similar experiment had ment of its mountains, plains, and rivers, is adapted been made by Antiochus the Great ; and it was to every species of warfare, from the guerilla to the probably not unknown to the “mighty hunter of dense battalion. Its northern bulwark, the Carpamen” himself. Its theory may be expressed in thian Mountains, extends from Presburg and the the words “ut omnis populus sit unus.The Danube to Transylvania, a space of four hundred Charte Octroyeé failed, however, from its en- English miles, broken by only three considerable countering nationalities, with some remnants or passes, Nádas, Jablonka, and Dukla, while the conmemories of freedom, and not from any reluctance tinuation of this lofty barrier is crossed by only four in its authors to copy their Syrian prototype. narrow defiles to the east and south-the approaches

We believe that sympathy with Hungary is to Bukovina, Moldavia and Wallachia. On the rapidly spreading over Europe. But above all, south the Carnian Alps, and the rivers Saave and we are confident that the spectacle of a people Danube afford a frontier almost equally impracticadefending its ancestral rights and enlarged liber- ble to an invader. The plains and hills on the west ties, must be deeply interesting to that nation towards the Styrian Mountains are less capable of


defence, being more adapted to the action of large have not been palsied by bureaucratic maxims and

Between Presburg and Pesth the rivers official routine. Hence, while the Austrian cabinet sometimes hurry in rapid torrents, and sometimes vacillates between violence and concession, and is stagnate in lakes and morasses. The internal com- at a loss when it cannot be formal, Hungary has munication by roads is very irregular. Some Hun- already produced in the various departments of war, garian counties have highways which rival English internal administration and finance, men of the stamp turnpikes, while others are advanced little beyond of Kossuth, and Görgey, Csányi, Szemere, and driftways and tracks, bad in all seasons, and nearly Duschek. During the last twenty years, indeed, impervious in autumn and winter. An invading the kingdom generally has made great progress in army, unacquainted with the country and incum- material improvement. Without the aid or even bered with baggage and artillery, will meet, there- the countenance of government, the Hungarians fore, with no ordinary difficulties. Even Austrian have constructed roads, and called into a new existofficers, whom previous command of Hungarian ence the Danube by means of steamboats, built a regiments had in some degree familiarized with the suspension bridge—" the wonder of Europe,”line of march, were baffled, in the late spring cam- from Buda over to Pesth; have opened railways, paign, by the natural or accidental impediments and, by the embankment of the Theiss and by regthey encountered.

ulating the streams of the Maros and the Sárviz, Hungary contains an area of 110,000 English acquired millions of acres for pasture or tillage. square miles, and a population of at least fourteen Within the same period the productions of agriculmillions. This extensive area is not more rernark- ture have been greatly multiplied, the culture of able for the productiveness of its soil, its favorable tobacco and oleaginous crops (rape, linseed, &c.) climate, and mineral wealth, than for the various encouraged, the breed of sheep and the quality of and generally promising character of its inhabitants. wool improved; while the settlements accorded to All the races of Hungary have, indeed, their sev-German and English artisans have introduced into eral capabilities. The Slovacks are intelligent, for the towns a fresh class of thriving and ingenious the most part, and inclined to commerce ; the Croats citizens. And all these improvements have been good soldiers, and, in the upper classes, able em- accomplished under the discouragements and drawployés; the Servian officers, in the military frontier, backs of Austrian rule, by a people possessing are many of them expert mathematicians; while the rather the substance than the symbol of wealth. ordinary characteristics of the Wallach are, an apti- For although raw materials of every kind abound in tude for growth and cultivation ; and of the Ger- Hungary, there is great scarcity of money. An mans, steadiness and industry. But the Majjar— inlet into the commercial world, by a railroad from the Hungarian proper—who has given his name to the Danube to Fiume, would relieve Hungary of its the country, is also the most prominent feature in teeming and superfluous produce, supply capital for the group of races. The genuine Majjar, like the public works or private enterprise, and open new Roman patrician, is an agriculturist, a fearless, we and eager markets for English manufactures. The had almost said a born rider, fond of field sports and Hungarian is naturally enterprising ; and the recent pastoral occupations. His figure is tall and well- abolition of feudal restrictions, accompanied by a proportioned ; his demeanor grave, and almost mel- Bill of Rights, both civil and religious, as compreancholy; his attachment to home and to his munici- hensive as their charter of 1848, will not only infuse pal and political rights ardent ; his disposition new vigor into the Majjar race, but develop and direct peaceful, and even indolent, until he is wronged or the energies of every other Hungarian nationality. oppressed—and then indomitably firm, patient, and That charter has already invigorated the Hunenterprising. Since our attention has been turned garian people. With the exception of a few magby recent events to Hungary, we have been im- nates, who preferred the attractions of a capital to pressed by the resemblance between the Hungarian their local duties and the development of their country gentleman and yeoman of the present day, country, all classes were zealous for the constituand the English gentleman and yeoman of Claren- tional party from the very commencement of the don and Lucy Hutchinson, of Walker and Vandyke. war. The invasion of Russia is not likely to win But the character of the Hungarian, like the re- them over to the Austrian cause. The Haiduk sources of his native land, is not yet fully developed. towns sent one out of every five of their whole popHis occasional indolence or haughtiness have to be ulation—more than 40,000 in number—to join the purged away by the fiery baptism of war; and his national army. It was the characteristic speech warm affections, his firm principles, his active intel- of a gray-headed old yeoman of that district to an lect, and native energy will come out the purer from Hungarian officer : “I have sent my three sons, the ordeal.

but I have kept back my best horse. I am now The customary avocations of the Hungarians in going to take him and join myself.” Meantime time of peace have tended to organize and discipline the duties of peace are fulfilled as steadily as those them for a crisis like the present. Their law pro- of war. The plough is not idle, even in the Baceedings—for like all free people they are habitually nat ; and since the military frontier was recovered litigious—their magisterial duties, and their munici- by the constitutionalists, cultivation has been acpal and county elections have given them habits of tively resumed. In the intervals of war, old men, business, and taught them to act in concert. Their women and children are seen laboring in the maize powers of adaptation, decision, and arrangement and wheat-fields, that "the cruise may not fail,

nor the staff of life be shortened” to their de- the great nations of Europe. Among those nafenders.

tions Hungary looks to England for its sympathy Of such a people it is impossible to despair ; at the present moment, and as its example for the and hope is strengthened by the characters of their future. Perhaps we cannot close this portion of present leaders. We have already contrasted the our subject better than by the following anecdote, barrenness of Austria in men and measures with for the authenticity of which we can answer. the abundance and activity of Hungary. Our limits In the year 1839, an English gentleman was will not permit even a brief sketch of the adminis- invited to the vintage of the lower house of repretrative talents of Csányi or the financial powers sentatives at Presburg. On his health being given, of Duschek. But Louis Kossuth too remarkably a popular orator of the diet, who now fills one of embodies the genius of the people and the cause, the highest and most important offices under the to be passed over in silence.

present government, observed that, “all really The warriors who, in the ninth century, crossed constitutional nations, when in their struggles for the Carpathians with Duke Arpad, bequeathed to freedom they feel inclined to despair—when they their descendants an oriental tinge of character. feel inclined to doubt for a moment whether the The Hungarian of the nineteenth century accord- goddess they worship be not a phantom, seeing the ingly combines a fervid imagination with a strong excesses committed in her name—have only to understanding, and is peculiarly alive to glowing, turn to England, their pole-star. The sight of apophthegmatic, and even mystic eloquence. The national liberty, exemplified by England, comforts speeches of Kossuth have partly an Arabian fer- and strengthens them in their struggle." vor, and partly a religious earnestness—which re But we must contemplate the reverse of this mind us of Mahommed and Cromwell. His words, prospect. If through Russian aid Austria be viceven more than his deeds, mark him as the “ man torious, the last barrier is swept away from the of the hour.” His health has been broken in the road to Constantinople. Austria herself will, from solitude of an Austrian dungeon, but his genius that time forward, need the bayonets of the czar to was matured there too ; and the union of the keep down her discontented subjects, and must sink statesman with the enthusiast imparts a personal to the level of a secondary power. Its policy will as well as historic interest to his career. Kossuth be the policy of St. Petersburg; and the dream is justly the idol of the people whose councils he of a Pansclavic empire will not end in the supdirects. To the firmest faith in his mission he pression of the “proud Majjars,” but in the readds unwearied energy, a genius for organization, duction of Eastern Europe into a Russian province. and a keen perception of the character of others. If history has meaning in it as well as words, we His wise choice of instruments and his skilful con are not predicting without sufficient warrant. cealment of his own plans until the moment of ex- Russian protection and Russian intervention have ecution, enabled him to reconquer the whole length for a century past been equally fatal. The poor of Hungary, from Debreczin to the frontier, at the ally non equitem dorso, non frænum depulit ore. very moment when the Austrian generals and “ Where is Hamath and Arphad, Sepharvaim and statesmen believed him to be a fugitive, and had Ivah ?”' was the question of the Babylonian envoy. set a price upon his head. Throughout Galicia What, with equal pertinence we may ask, have and Austria, the police were furnished with the been the fruits of Russian aid to Turkey and Permost minute instructions to look for him under sia, to Warsaw and Finland, in Asterabad and every disguise. His presence with the army was Bessarabia, and now in Moldavia and Wallachia? discredited, and his capture at Eperies was report- | To all these lands its hatred has been dangerous, ed at Vienna—at the very time that he was advanc- but its embrace deadly. Nor is Russian policy ing upon Pesth, and putting down the Servian insur- the work of a single man or a single generation. rection with an improvised force of 120,000 men. Four sovereigns of the house of Romanoff have

We have shown that the physical character of consistently walked in the same track. Yet it is Hungary is seconded by the genius of its people, not the policy of Catherine, of Paul, of Alexanand the genius of its people guided by men, both der, or of Nicholas, but of Russia. It bides its civil and military, equal to the present crisis. time ; and the purpose of the fathers is accomWhatever may be the issue of the present struggle, plished by the third or fourth generation of the the names of Kossuth, Szemere, Csányi, and Dus- children. It employs with equal readiness fraud chek, and of the generals Bem, Görgey, Klapka, or force. Muscovite Panslavism and the Greek and Damianich, are entitled to rank among the Church are as much its instruments as the gold foremost of their age. Should the result be favor of the Ural and the Cossack's lance. It proscribes able, and Hungary either maintain the indepen- at Warsaw, it bullies at Constantinople, it flatters dence of its crown, or resume, but with stronger France, and is coldly courteous to England. It guarantees, its relation with Austria, a new career has at once the versatility and fixedness which the is open for its people. A port on the Adriatic, ancients attributed to destinyohőv óvouátov an abundant and increasing produce, institutions uogon uia. Its journals and proclamations boast now unfettered, comprehensive, and tolerant, aided of its paternal sway and vigilance ; while it peoby the manly and practical temper of its inhabit-ples Siberia with the children of its victims, and ants, and their generous aspirations, must, in that fills their cities and homes with spies. It has a case, raise the Hungarians ere long to a level with vulture's scent for the tainted portion of nations,

and holds out every lure to the indolent, the venal, destinjes of our country are swayed by men who and the ambitious. Hardly ten years have elapsed inherit the principles, and some of whom bear the since England encountered in Central Asia the in- names, of the founders and champions of English trigues of Russia. The Muscovite is now “step- liberty. Lord Palmerston has twice already preping westward”—not with emissaries or proto- served the peace of Europe, while vindicating and cols, but with “ war in procinct," to subvert by its securing the rights of nations. Eastern Europe battalions that national independence by which may possibly afford him a third and more brilliant Austrian arms and arts were equally discomfited. opportunity of extending the influence, advancing Austria, however, is at present merely a stage in the welfare, and illustrating the name of England. the progress of Russia ; the road to Constantinople is as direct by Vienna as by Bucharest.

From the Edinburgh Review. Austria has been termed by statesmen, an Eu- | The History of England from the Accession of ropean necessity. And recent events have more James the Second. By THOMAS BABINGTON than ever confirmed the necessity of a strong em

MACAULAY. Vols. I. and II. Fourth edition. pire, as the barrier of central and eastern Europe ;

London : 1849. but they have not proved that Austria possesses WE

pay Mr. Macaulay no compliment, but only the essential strength and conditions of such a bar- record his good fortune, when we say, that these rier. Quite the contrary. The aggregation of two volumes are the most popular historical work her provinces is weak, the policy of her govern- that ever issued from the English press. Within ment is vacillating, and she has neither produced six months this book has run through five editions nor, apparently, promises to produce, a cabinet, or-involving an issue of about 18,000 copies ; even a single statesman, capable of reconstructing and, on the other side the Atlantic, our enterprisor sustaining the tottering work of her empire. ing and economical brothers of America have, we Should Hungary come out of the present struggle hear, re-produced it, in forms which appear infinite victorious ; should her liberal institutions contract in number, and infinitesimal in price. For the and consolidate around her the various races now best rewards of authorship he, therefore, has not disunited by Austrian misgovernment, the physi- been doomed, like many illustrious predecessors, cal, social, and political characteristics of Hungary to await the slow verdict of his own, or the tardy are well fitted for such a station. She was in justice of a succeeding generation. Fame has abformer times the advanced guard and barrier of solutely trodden on his heels. As widely as our Europe against Turkey; and the strength and ex- language has travelled—“super et Garamantas et tent of her north-eastern boundary constitute her a Indos'—these volumes have already spread the natural and most tenable frontier against Russia at reputation and opinions of their author. the present period—a period quite as critical. We feel undisguised pride in Mr. Macaulay's What the sultan was, the czar is. Her municipal unquestionable and unalloyed success. institutions are so many schools of self-government reputation and position in politics, eloquence, and and rational freedom; her military vigor is unim- literature-his unflinching steadiness as a statespaired ; and the proud title of Seminarium Hero- man, and his noble and ardent maintenance of um," is as applicable to the nation in 1849, as to those free principles of which this journal has the chivalrous supporters of Maria Theresa. Re- been so long the advocate, while they led us to lieved from the jealousies inspired by Austria, her look forward with anxiety to his promised contrisubjects would become at first united, and hereaf-bution to our national history, lead us now to reter elevated under her sway. Relieved from the joice unaffectedly at its brilliant reception. He minute, absurd, and oppressive restrictions of the has had a hearty_indeed, a triumphant-welcome Austrian custom-house, her produce would make from all sorts and classes of his countrymen. Men its way into the European markets, and the Eng- of all shades of political opinion have honored lish manufacturer find eager customers in her nu- him and themselves by the expression of their admerous and enterprising population. A rich, miration. There never, we believe, was a work, united, and intelligent people, who have proved replete, as this is, with politics, which met with their attachment to liberty by three centuries of more generous and creditable treatment from politresistance to absolutism, and who are now en- ical antagonists-never a work, abounding so gaged in an internecine struggle for their rights, much with topics of controversy, more fairly and would succeed 10 a corrupt and superannuated em- candidly criticized. If there are exceptions to this pire, which has not only long pressed heavily on remark—and, as far as we know, they are few eighteen provinces and 36,000,000 of subjects, and insignificant—they supply, probably, the only and been the causa causans of most of the mis- test of merit which was wanting-and add the ery of Italy and Germany—but which, by it recent note of disappointed jealousy to the general chorus acceptance of Russian aid, has forfeited all title to of approbation. respect or allegiance. The constitutional vitality The public, in the most cosmopolitan sense of of Hungary would be equally effective against that term, having thus so unequivocally anticipated either extreme -a Cossack ascendency or a red any decision of ours, it would be superfluous and republic.

impertinent in us to pretend now to tell our readers At such a crisis, it is a subject of congratula- what they may expect to find in volumes with tion to all lovers of constitutional freedom that the which they are already familiar. Coming, as we

His great

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