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free to give credit; the greater facility tempts the the shareholders demand a cancelling of the barman whose hopes exceed his present resources to gain, and make him refund 40,0001. ; and already enter into pledges without being forced so nicely people are exulting in the prospect of his being to calculate his means; the attempt lo enforce the actually ruined. guarantee proves so impracticably harsh, that a We cannot deem the exultation at Mr. Hudson's complementary law (the law for the “relief” of fall more moral than the adulation at his rise. It bankrupts and insolvent debtors) is necessarily is the same feeling è converso. The change of ciradded, to mitigate the severity ; and thus new cumstances which has taken place since the change elements of temptation and uncertainty are intro- in his fortunes is not so great as it seems, nor so duced; the debtor is tempted by new chances and decisive as to warrant the change of demeanor examples of escape from liabilities; the trader, towards him. People have found out that his conexperienced in bad debts, is induced to spread his trivance for raising the price of shares, and for loss over his general dealings-he makes the pocketing part of the profit was not more remarkasolvent pay for the insolvent, “ the dead pay for ble for cleverness than for honesty. But it would the living ;” but by that species of insurance he not have succeeded if the public had not made diminishes his own dread of loss, and is the more itself a party to the delusion by wilfully shutting its reckless in giving credit. The “reckless debtor” eyes to the conduct of the great juggler. Until the has an accomplice in the reckless creditor. loss began to recoil upon itself, the managing class
One fact urged in favor of restoring a greater preferred to avoid a scrutiny of the plan, lest their stringency to the law of credit throws some such tender consciences should be wounded, and they be doubts of the working of the whole system ; it is forced to condemn that which was making their said that the aggregate of the annual losses sus-property rise in the market. And even that part tained through bankruptcy and insolvency amounts of the public which was duped was a party to so to 50,000,0001., excluding insolvencies and bank- much of the misdeed as lay in ascribing to the ruptcies privately compounded—a larger sum. But maneuvrer some golden secret. of course, in the aggregato, that sum is not a net tence ought to have excited suspicion ; but the loss, since it is in great part mel by the process public preferred to endow the millionaire with the which we have mentioned, of counting an average deserts as well as the fruits of snccess; and hence of bad debts among the standing liabilities of trade; a very shallow device, in the way of buying up it is not a substantive fact, but a matter of account, shares and selling them again with a factitious an item on the credit side of the “profit and loss” Hudsonian value, became possible. account. It represents less the loss to the trader But what has Mr. Hudson lost which takes than an amount of exertion wasted ; the creditor away with it the favor of society? He is the same and debtor being equally accomplices in the waste, man that he was before ; there is not the least eviunder the operation of the laws that give a nominal dence thai he has undergone any change. If he guarantee for credit. Perhaps no small portion, had any name, it was given to him by the gratuiif not the largest portion, of that immense sum, is tous assumption of the public. There was no manimade by the credit guarantee. If such conclusions festation of ability, except the accumulation of were supported by a further investigation of the wealth ; and how little that implies, has been subject, reform should go less in the direction of learned from the sequel. The sole attribute pecupenal stringency or impracticable distinctions be- liar to him was the possession of money, and to tween classes of debtors that are mingled and dove- that people flocked like flies to a treacle-pot. The tailed with each other, than in the direction of cash is understood to be dispersed, and the people simplifying and miniinizing the credit law. disperse, like flies after the treacle has gone. The
abandonment is the same thing as the servile folFrom the Spectator.
lowing—the same motive acting è converso. They
are not to be blamed for their conduct; there was HUDSONISM. *
no law to keep them away from a Hudson, none More flings we see at Mr. Hudson! In vari- which can fasten them to him ; but if there is any ous railway companies, inquiries into Mr. Hudson's degradation, it is in the liking to do such things. peculiar system have been going on, and as each That does indeed indicate a very low order of mind. newly uncovered instance of his contrirance is exposed there is a fresh burst of indignation; as if the
From the Spectator. mere multiplication of the details could add any
ART MINISTERING TO RELIGION. thing to the gravity of the charge implied in the simple enunciation of the method by which Hudson Religion and Art, says the Bishop of London, brought about the apparent prosperity of self and are essentially connected ; a high authority, which companies. Now it is a mass of shares belonging ought to reconcile many sceptical persons to an to the Hull and Selby Railway which he is found inevitable truth. The right reverend chaplain to to have been selling to the York and North Mid- the Royal Academy speaks in a double function, land Company, on such terms that a committee of not only as a vindicator of art, but as a ruler of the
church ; and, without venturing on any doctrinal * Perhaps our readers may have noticed the same thing, by a different name, in the case of some American man: question beyond lay meddling, we are free to underagers.-LIV. AGE.
stand that the dogmas of the Protestant church do
not forbid the consideration of the subject on the stained glass tempers the brilliancy, and casts lovely broadest principles of religious feeling as well as of tints on the dark brown wood. The senses are art. On such grounds, persons who are familiar impressed with an atmosphere of solemn beauty. with the aspect of art in religious edifices cannot If one notices the details of the workmanship, it is comprehend why the usage of the English church with a sense of satisfaction at so much skilful pains should abandon that high influence to the Roman bestowed in rendering the edifice more worthy of Catholic church. It scarcely needed Mr. Ruskin its office ; so much the more has been sacrificed to to show, by“ the Lamp of Sacrifice,” that the labor the glory of God and to the effort at producing that and faculties of man are well bestowed in rendering atmosphere of solemn beauty which attunes the the house of worship worthy of its purpose, and mind to a serious and grateful adoration—a solemn that an edifice adorned with the beauty which is the happiness. The church is visited by travellers human reflex of the beauty in the creation, is more from far and near; repose in that churchyard is not fitting for the spirit of devotion than the sort of oblivion, but a restoration to nature consecrated by washhouse which is usually constructed for the the memory of love an absorption into the church purpose. A contrary impression may be created in consecrated to God. And the art which renders the mind of those who are not familiar with eccle- the handiwork of man worthy of the spot contribsiastical art, because pictures and ornaments may utes after its kind, we believe, to the spirit of devoto them, by their novelty, be matters of curiosity; tion, in the same way that natural beauty does. but it is to be remembered that the regular attend- Natural theology might as well forego the influence ants in a church must soon lose any such trivial of the mountains and the woods, the firmament and sensation, and remain open to the direct and con- the waters, as the offices of the church forego what stant influences of art.
art borrows from those great elements
the art of It is a mistake to suppose that because a church nature, the art of the church “not made with is richly dight it must be flaunting and gay. The hands." church built by Mr. Pugin for the Earl of Shrews
From the Spectator. bury, at Cheadle in Staffordshire, is very rich; but although upon a close examination you discover the MAYO ON POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS. * elaboration and richness of the ornament, the gen AFTER many years of useful and active exereral aspect on entering the fane is one of a grave tions as an anatomist and physiologist, during harmony—a "tone” in coloring and architectural which he helped to advance our knowledge of the shade analogous to the ponderous beauty of the nervous system, Herbert Mayo withdrew to Gerorgan. As you enter, a sense of solemnity strikes
much attention to animal magnetyou ; and if, penetrating the subdued shadows, you ism, and we believe to some opinions on practical descry a richer beauty, the physical sensation which medicine, which, whatever the value of the princiit produces harmonizes well with the grave and ple, were presented in an empirical way. In Mayo's grateful consolation intended by the religious offices. hands the practices of charlatanerie were stripped
These influences need not be given up to the of dishonesty and imposition, and the philosophiRoman church. Working in some respects with cal truth which might lurk under the exploits of a sinaller resources, but in a more favored spot, Lord conjurer was sought after by an ingenious but leOngley has outdone the Romish peer. About eight gitimate mode of induction. That disposition of miles from Bedford lies the parish of Warden, once mind which, when it does not succeed, we call the site of Warden Priory, celebrated for its pears. credulity, might prompt Dr. Mayo to rely too Here is a church of some age, which has been re- readily on facts insufficiently authenticated, to conpaired by Lord Ongley, the lord of the manor ; he sider an exceptional case as representing a class has brought carvings from abroad ; the windows of cases, and to assume an hypothesis as a law in are of stained glass, principally blue and red; a few deed if not in words : but the tales of the wild and pictures, copies probably of an “ Ecce Homo" and wonderful are carefully analyzed, the facts are of the “ Madonna and Child," after skilful hands, stripped of all bewildering matter, presented clearsupply, not images for worship, but objects that ly, and in the order of their importance; and if attune the mind to the spirit of sacrifice. The sim- the mystery is not satisfactorily explained, the ple but picturesque forms and arrangement of the reader is told where it lies. Extensive reading in older building suit the repairs and ornaments; Lord the curiosities of medical literature, judgment to Ongley, we have been told, was himself the princi- select those cases which strike the attention while pal workman. The church is situate on a beauti- they illustrate the principle, and a style both forful piece of rising ground, with abundant foliage cible and picturesque, render the discussions about it; the graves are adorned with flowers. attractive, if they do not support the philosophy. Exception may be taken, perhaps, to some triviali The Letters on the Truths contained in Poputies in the ornaments ; but upon the whole the lar Superstitions are based on the principle that effect is beautiful. And it harmonizes, we say, " there must be a real foundation for the belief of with the spirit of devotion—of sacrifice and conso- ages—that there can be no prevalent delusion withlation. The dark carved wood, rich and deep in
* Letters on the Truths contained in Popular Superstitone, gives a solemn air to the place; above, heav
tions. By Herbert Mayo, M. D. Published by Blackenward, the white walls rise to a fuller light; the wood.
out a corresponding truth.” Dr. Mayo's direct ob- | armature of the magnet was applied, the flames did ject is to discover what this truth is, in the notion not disappear; she saw flames still, only they were of the divining rod, the superstitious belief in vam- fainter, and their disposition was different. They pires, ghosts, and witchcraft, the recorded stories seemed now to issue from every part of the surface
of the magnet equally. of somnambulism, catalepsy, and other abnormal
It is hardly necessary to add, that these experistates of the mind, which Dr. Mayo classes togeth- ments were made in a well-darkened rooin, and that er as originating in some form of trance. A fur- none of the bystanders could discern what the senther though covert purpose is to connect the truth sitive subjects saw. contained in these beliefs or facts with the princi
Then the following experiment was made. A ple of mesmerism, and to procure for it a consid- powerful lens was so placed as that it should coneration if not a credit, which it has not yet re- were) upon a point of the wall of the room.
centrate the light of the flames (if real light they
patient at once saw the light upon the wall at the The superstition of the divining rod consists in right place. And when the inclination of the lens the belief, extensively prevalent in mining districts, was shifted so as to throw the focus in succession that some persons have the faculty of detecting on different points, the sensitive observer never failed veins of metal or underground currents of water, in pointing out the right spot. through the means of a hazel twig cut in a partic
Next, with the assistance of Herr Schuh, an opular form and held in a particular way. The de
tician in Vienna, a physical experiment was made, tection is made by the gifted unconsciously ; the these to common-eyes-invisible flames with common
which seems to remove all doubt of the identity of rod spontaneously moving in their hands when they light. A prepared daguerreotype plate was kept pass over the concealed veins or water. Dr. Mayo, in due opposition to the poles of a strong magnet for after quoting various facts and investigating the sixty-four hours in perfect darkness. At the expisubject minutely, considers that the “likeliest way ration of that time the plate was found to exhibit the of accounting for the phenomenon is to suppose
fullest influence of light upon its whole surface. that the divining-rod may become the conductor of
It is not, however, with reference to the divinsome fluid or force emanating from or disturbed in ing-rod that Dr. Mayo ascribes so much importhe body by some terrestrial agency.” He thinks tance to Von Reichenbach's discovery. that this agency is connected with the new princi-ceives that this “od force” may explain the ple which Von Reichenbach discovered in 1845, hitherto disregarded because apparently unresolvand which he denominated the od force ;" the able facts connected with trance in all its various experiments relating to which were conducted in stages, somnambulism, catalepsy, as well as the
wonders, too readily thrown aside as superstitions In general, persons in health and of a strong con- or quackery, of vampirism, witchcraft, and messtitution are totally insensible to the influence of Von merism. A selection of cases which, whatever Reichenbach's new force. But all persons, the tone else may be thought of them, possess the interest of whose health has been lowered by their mode of of the possible in the questions of vampirism and life, men of sedentary habits, clerks and the like, and women who employ their whole time in needle-trance, excite curiosity in witchcraft, ghosts, and work, whose pale complexions show the relaxed somnambulism, and pass into the strange if not the and therefore irritable state of their frames-all such, impossible in catalepsy and mesmerism. The conor nearly all, evince more or less susceptibility to clusion at which Dr. Mayo arrives is a mixture of the influence I am about to describe.
theology and assumption on a single datum. Von Reichenbach found, that persons of the classes referred to, when slow passes are made with
The world, as Socrates taught and Paley argued, the poles of a strong magnet moved slowly parallel must have been framed by a supreme intelligence ; to the surface-down the back, for instance, or down in contemplating which, our reason finds no resting the limbs-and only distant enough just not to touch place short of the belief that it is eternal and selfthe clothes, feel sensations rather unpleasant than existent. But if the divine and infi:ite mind be thus otherwise, as of a light draught of air blown upon essentially independent of matter, it is possible, nay them in the path of the magnet.
analogically probable, that the human and finite In the progress of his researches, Von Reichen- mind is not less so. While many physiological bach found that his sul ets could detect the pres- phenomena favor this view, none are known which ence of his new agent by another sense. In the contravene it. dark they saw dim flames of light issuing and waving from the poles of the magnet. The experiments I shall assume it to be proved by the above crusuggested by this discovery afford satisfactory proofs cial instance, that the mind or soul of one human of the reality of the phenomena. They were the being can be brought in the natural course of things, following. A horse-shoe magnet having been ad- and under physiological laws hereafter to be deterjusted upon a table with the poles directed upwards, mined, into immediate relation with the mind of anthe sensitive subject saw, at the distance of ten feet, other living person. the appearance of flamez issuing from it. The arma If this principle be admitted, it is adequate to ex. ture of the magnet-a bar of soft iron-was then plain all the puzzling phenomena of real ghosts and applied. Upon this the flames disappeared. They of true dreams. For example, the ghostly and inreäppeared, she said, as often as the armature was tersominal communications with which we have as removed from the magnet.
yet dealt, have been announcements of the deaths A similar experiment was made with a yet more of absent parties. Suppose our new principle sensitive subject. This person saw in the first in- brought into play ; the soul of the dying person is stance flaines as the first had done. But when the to be supposed to have come into direct communica
this way :
tion with the mind of his friend, with the effect of of the mind upon the senses, (and, as generally suggesting his present condition. If the seer be happens in such cases, by the by, of an ignorant, dreaming, the suggestion shapes a corresponding feeble, and ill-taught mind,) endows the spectral dream; if he be awake, it originates a censorial illusion. To speak figuratively, merely figuratively, appearance with the vulgarity or ineptitude which
In Dr. Mayo's theoin reference in the circulation of this partial mental distinguishes ghost stories. obituary, I will suppose that the death of a human ry, the point—whether to announce a death, or a being throws a sort of gleam through the spiritual buried-alive, or a murder—is alone the work of world, which may now and then touch with light the disembodied spirit ; the shape of the visitant, some fittingly disposed object, or even two simulta- " the habit as he lived," or the true ghostly dress, neously if chance have placed them in the right re- are the produce of memory, and the bodily state of lation; as the twin-spires of a cathedral may be
the momentarily illurninated by some far-off flash, which does not break the gloom upon the roofs below.
If rational results imply a reasonable principle, The same principle is applicable to the explana- then the “od force” is the most reasonable of the tion of the vampire-visit. The soul of the buried three hypotheses ; and it well enough accounts for man is to be supposed to be brought into communi- the churchyard ghost or the detection of murder, cation with his friend's mind. Thence follows, as a by means of the light flame visible to the highly censorial illusion, the apparition of the buried man. sensitive ; for the human form was doubtless imagPerhaps the visit may have been an instinctive effort ined by fear, or after the event, in the following to draw the attention of his friend to his living and similar stories. At the same time, this phosgrave. I beg to suggest, that it would not be an act of superstition now, but of ordinary humane phorescence may be produced independently of the precaution, if one dreamed pertinaciously of a re
" od force.” cently buried acquaintance, or saw his ghost, to take immediate steps to have the state of the body ascer- which a bad report attached : more than one who
There was a cottage in a village I could name, to tained.
had slept in it, had seen at midnight the radiant apTaken apart from its illustrations, and curtailed parition of a little child, standing on the hearthof its full proportions, Dr. Mayo's theory or hy- hearth-stone was raised, and there were found buried
At length suspicion was awakened. The pothesis may suffer from this compression in a lit- beneath it the remains of an infant. A story was erary, but not, we believe, in a logical point of now divulged how the last tenant and a female of view. Tried by the logical test, the verdict, we the village had abruptly quitted the neighborhood. think, must be “not proven,” without going fur- The ghost was real and significant enough. ther than the author's own statement of the case.
But here is a still better instance from a trustThere is not a shadow of proof of either of the worthy German work, P. Kieffer's Archives. The three hypotheses, except Von Reichenbach's "od narrative was communicated by Herr Ehrman of
Strasburg, son-in-law of the well known writer force ;” there is not a trace of connection between Pfeffel, from whom he received it. them. Dr. Mayo's theory, we have seen, rests The ghost-seer was a young candidate for orders, upon the idea of the iminateriality of the mind, eighteen years of age, of the name of Billing. He and its independence of the body under certain cir- was known to have very excitable nerves, had cumstances. The “od force” is evidently made- already experienced censorial illusions, and was parrial ; it was first discovered by the instrumentality ticularly sensitive to the presence of human remains,
which made him tremble and shudder in all his of the magnet, which is known to possess an limbs. Pfeffel, being blind, was accustomed to take occult property; and, assuming the optical experi- the arm of this young man'; and they walked thus ment on the flames to be conclusive, it establishes together in Pfeffel's garden, near Colinar. At one their materiality beyond a doubt. The difference spot in the garden, Pfeffel remarked that his combetween the two principles is therefore as wide as panion's arm gave a sudden start, as if he had rethe difference between spirit and matter.
The ceived an electric shock. Being asked what was most strainedly favorable interpretation can only their going over the same spot again, the same effect
the matter, Billing replied, “ Nothing.” But on say that we know the mind is influenced by phys- recurred. The young man, being pressed to ex: ical causes; but no proof of this influence is ad- plain the cause of his disturbance, avowed that it vanced in the cases in question, and sometimes the arose from a peculiar sensation, which he always freed spirit is evidently independent of material experienced when in the vicinity of human remains ; means of action, operating directly, mind upon that it was his impression a human body must be mind. The assumed “terrestrial agency” in the interred there ; but that if Pfeffel would return with case of the “divining-rod” is material enough, but him at night, he should be able to speak with greatthere is no proof of its analogous connection with the garden when it was dark; and as they approached
er confidence. Accordingly they went together to the “ od force," or even of its existence at all.
the spot, Billing observed a faint light over it. At There is also a deficiency in the minor logic. ten paces from it he stopped, and would go no furDr. Mayo, it seems to us, receives evidence with ther'; for he saw hovering over it, or self-supported out sufficient sisting or marshalling; and, if it in the air, its feet only a few inches from the ground, makes in his favor, with too much credulity. In a luminous female figure, nearly five feet high, with lesser matters, as well as in the essential princi- the right arm folded on her breast, the left hanging ples, he appears to deal too much in assumption and placed himself about where the figure appeared
by her side. When Pfeffel himself stepped forward Great, however, is the ingenuity with which he to be, Billing said it was now on his right hand, now explains the connection of the popular superstition on his left, now behind, now before him. When with the scientific truth ; showing how the action Pfeffel cut the air with his stick, it seemed as if it
went through and divided a light flame, which then | Hath left the parent hearth, another's tenderness to united again. The visit, repeated the next night in prove ; company with some of Pfeffel's relatives, gave the And well, methinks, old England, such grief be same result. They did not see anything. Pfeffel seemeth thee, then, unknown to the ghost-seer, had the ground When so many sons and daughters seek a home dug up; when there was found at some depih, be beyond the sea. neath a layer of quicklime, a human body in pro- Oh! had it but been granted by a wise directing gress of decomposition. The remains were removed Hand, and the earth carefully replaced. Three days after- That one and all could plenty find within their nawards, Billing, from whom this whole proceeding tive land; had been kept concealed, was again led to the spot If intercourse of “ near and dear” might last till by Pfeffel. He walked over it now without expe
death unbroken, riencing any unusual impression whatever. That last sad word of parted friends remain a word
The explanation of this mysterious phenomenon not spoken ; has been but recently arrived at. The discoveries If families were not dispersed and homes not rent of Von Reichenbach, of which I gave a sketch in asunder,the first letter, announce the principle on which it Men would not dream of Paradise as some unearthly depends. Among these discoveries is the fact that wonder. the od force makes itself visible as a dim light or wavering name to highly sensitive subjects. Such Yet wise is that directing Hand, and well the plan
is skilled; persons in the dark see flames issuing from the poles of magnets and crystals. Von Reichenbach Man must increase and multiply, and all the earth eventually discovered that the od force is distributed
be filled. universally although in varying quantities. But The Mother Land, she may not keep her offspring among the causes which excite its evolution, one of
at her breast; the most active is chemical decomposition. Then They must go forth to other lands, and, subduing happening to remember Pfeffel's ghost story, it oc
them, be blest. curred to Von Reichenbach that what Billing had Then speed ye well, poor emigrants, nor be your seen was possibly od light. To test the soundness courage faint, of this conjecture, Miss Reichel, a very sensitive Look bravely to the future joy, forget the past comsubject, was taken at night to an extensive burying plaint ! ground near Vienna, where interments take place Nor think that England spurns you—nor deem your daily, and there are many thousand graves. The
wants forgot ; result did not disappoint Von Reichenbach's expec
Believe a nobler destiny and glory in your lot. tations. Whithersoever Miss Reichel turned her Go forth, your Maker's messengers, and carry out eyes, she saw masses of flame. This appearance
his plan, manifested itself most about recent graves. About Remember that this world is his, and he created very old ones it was not visible. She described the man; appearance as resembling less bright flame than To one and all, in every grade, the appointed task fiery vapor, something between fog and flame. In is given, several instances the light extended four feet in To work, and strive, and conquer—not only earth, height above the ground. When Miss Reichel
but heaven! placed her hand on it, it seemed to her involved in a cloud of fire. When she stood in it, it came up to her throat. She expressed no alarm, being
[UTILITY OF TRIFLING OCCUPATIONS.) accustomed to the appearance.
“There is something in this strange frippery way The mystery has thus been entirely solved. For of squandering one's hours which, in one view, apit is evident that the spectral character of the lu- pears vexatiously trifling and unprofitable, yet taken minous apparition in the two instances which I have in the true light, it is certainly, upon proper occanarrated had been supplied by the seers themselves. sions, as much a part of life as more serious and So the superstition has vanished ; but, as usual, important-looking employments. One may keep it veiled a truth.
living on to equal purpose, in every variety of exOur extracts will convey an idea of the manner ternal circumstances, provided they be such as natand style of Dr. Mayo's book ; which is something urally arise from one's situation. I believe it is more than a collection of strange stories or ingen- hurt by a submission to what we are apt to deem
much oftener our pride than our virtue which is jous hypotheses. To establish his theories, is trifles. We are led to form much too magnificent what Dr. Mayo does not succeed in ; but it is dif- ideas of our own powers of action, and by this ficult to read his letters without having routine means to overlook, with a foolish contempt, the notions shaken, or without feeling that there is a proper occasions for exercising them. It is not in good deal yet to be done in the philosophy of body the study of sublime speculations, nor amidst the and soul.
pompous scenery of some imaginary theatre of action, that the heart grows wiser, or the temper more
correct. It is in the daily occurrences of mere comFrom the Anglo-Saxon. mon life, with all its mixture of folly and imperti
nence, that the proper exercise of virtue lies. . It is EMIGRANTS.
here that the temptations to vanity, to selfishness, I've seen a mother weeping because her son must to discontent, and innumerable other unwarrantable roam,
affections, arise ; and there are opportunities for To seek his fate and fortune far from his childhood's many a secret conflict with these in the most trifling home ;
hours, and it is our own fault if the business of life I've heard a father groaning when the daughter of is ever at a stand.”—Mrs. Elizabeth Carter's Lethis love
ters to Mrs. Montague, vol. i., p. 37.