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“Nevertheless the executioners continued to strike, behold Muscovite nobles, of high rank and descent, and the hundred blows were counted, without a cringing under the wanton torments inflicted on complaint from the sufferer. The unfortunate them by their oppressor, and submitting to degraDaniloff had not even fainted; he got up alone, * dations to which death, one would imagine, were, when untied, and asked to have his wounds care to any free-spirited man, fifty times preferable. fully dressed.
As an example, we will cite the conduct of a "• I have need to live a short time longer,' he Prince Galitzin, who, after long exile in Geradded."
many, where he had become a convert to the RomMeanwhile Ivanowa was brought before the ish church, solicited and obtained permission to senate, and accused of high treason and of trying return to his country. This was in 1740, under to discover state secrets—a charge of Peter's in the reign of the dissolute and cruel Czarina Anne. vention. The supple senate, created by the czar, The paramours and flatterers who composed the condemned her to receive twenty-two blows of the court of that licentious princess, urged her to inknout in the presence of her accomplice Daniloff, flict on the new-made papist the same punishment already punished by the emperor's order. On the that had been suffered by the noble named Vonitday appointed for the execution, Peter stood upon zin, who had turned Jew, and had been burned the balcony of his winter-palace. Several bat- alive, or rather roasted at a slow fire. Anne talions of infantry marched past, escorting the un-refused, but promised the courtiers they should fortunate Demetrius, who, in spite of the frightful not be deprived of their sport. sufferings he still endured, walked with a steady “The same day, Galatzin, although upwards step, and with a firm and even joyful countenance. of forty years old, was ordered to take his place Surrounded by another escort, was seen the young amongst the pages ; a few days later he received a and lovely Ivanowa, half dead with terror, sup- notification, that the empress, contented with his ported on one side by a priest and on the other services, had been pleased to raise him to the digby a soldier, and letting her beautiful head fall nity of her third buffoon. "The custom of buffrom one shoulder to the other, according to the foons,' says an historian, was then in full force impulse given it by her painful progress. Even in Russia ; the empress had six, three of whom Peter's heart melted at the sight. Reëntering were of very high birth, and when they did not his apartment, he put on the ribbon of the order lend themselves with a good grace to the tomfoolof St. Andrew, threw a cloak over his shoulders, eries required of them by her or her favorites, she left the palace, sprang into a boat, and reached had them punished with the battogues.' The the opposite side of the river at the same time as empress appeared well-satisfied with the manner the mournful procession which had crossed the in which the priest fulfilled his new duties ; and bridge. Making his way through the crowd, he as he was a widower, she declared she would find dropped his cloak, took Ivanowa in his arms, and him a wife, that so valuable a subject might not imprinted a kiss upon her brow. A murmur die without posterity. They selected, for the arose amongst the people, and suddenly cries of poor wretch's bride, the most hideous and dis“ pardon” were heard.
gusting creature that could be found in the lowest “ The knights of St. Andrew then enjoyed the ranks of the populace. Anne herself arranged singular privilege that a kiss given by them to a the ceremonial of the wedding. It was in the condemned person, deprived the executioner of his depth of one of the severest winters of the cenvictim. This privilege has endured even to our tury; and, at great expense,
had a day, but not without some modification.
palace built of ice. Not only was the building “ Daniloff had recognized Peter. He ap- entirely constructed of that material, but all the proached the czar, whose every movement he furniture, including the nuptial bed, was also of had anxiously watched, stripped off his coat, and ice. In front of the palace were ice cannons, rent the bloody shirt that covered his shoulders. mounted on ice carriages.
". The man who could suffer thus,' he said, “ Anne and all her court conducted the newlyknows how to die. Czar, thy repentance comes married pair to this palace, their destined habitatoo late! Ivanowa, I go to wait for thee!' And tion. The guests were in sledges drawn by dogs drawing a concealed poniard, he stabbed himself and reindeer; the husband and wife, enclosed in twice. His death was instantaneous. Peter hur- a cage, were carried on an elephant. When, the ried back to his palace, and the stupefied crowd procession arrived near the palace, the ice-cannons slowly dispersed. Ivanowa died shortly after were fired, and not one of them burst, so intense wards in the convent to which she had been per- was the cold. Several of them were even loaded mitted to retire.”
with bullets, which pierced thick planks at a conIf we are frequently shocked, in the course of siderable distance. When everybody had entered M. Blanc's third volume, by the tyrannical and the singular edifice, the ball began. It probably brutal cruelty of the Russian sovereigns, we are did not last long. On its conclusion, Anne inalso repeatedly disgusted by the servility and pa- sisted on the bride and bridegroom being put to tient meanness of those who suffered from it. We bed in her presence; they were undressed, with
the exception of their under garments, and were * The victim is placed upon his belly (and tied down so
compelled to lie down upon the bed of ice, withthat he cannot change his position) to receive this terrible punishment, in severity inferior only to the knout. out covering of any kind. Then the company
went away, and sentinels were placed at the door | III., my master, were not dead, I should think I of the nuptial chamber, to prevent the couple from now stood before him.' The hermits paid little leaving it before the next day! But when the attention to this tale ; but some time afterwards next day came, they had to be carried out; the one of their number, who had not yet met Pugatspoor creatures were in a deplorable state, and sur-cheff, exclaimed, on beholding him, “Is not that vived their torture but a few days.”
the emperor, Peter III.?' The monks then inThis patient submission to a long series of in- duced him to attempt an imposture they had dignities on the part of a man of Galitzin's rank planned.” M. Blanc's account differs from this, and blood is incoinprehensible, and pity for his inasmuch as it asserts the resemblance to the decruel death is mingled with contempt for the funct czar to have been very slight. Whatever elderly prince who could tamely play the page, the degree of likeness, Pugatscheff declared himand caper in the garb of a court-jester. But the self the husband of Catherine II., (murdered some Russian noble of that day-and even of a later time previously, by Prince Bariatinski and by period—united the soul of a slave with the heart Alexis Orloff, the brother of Catherine's lover,) of a tyrant. To the feeble a relentless tiger, be- and thousands credited his pretensions. The Cosfore the despot or the despot's favorite he grovelled sacks of the river Yaik (afterwards changed to the like a spiritless cur. The memoirs of the eigh-Ural by Catherine, who desired to obliterate the teenth century abound in exainples of this base memory of this revolt) were just then in exceedservility. We cite one, out of many which we ingly bad humor. After patiently submitting to find recorded in an interesting Life of Catherine a great deal of oppression and ill usage, they had II. of Russia, published at Paris in 1797. Plato received orders to cut off their beards. This they Zouboff, one of Catherine's favorite lovers, had a would not do. They had relinquished, grumbling little monkey, a restless, troublesome beast, which but passive, many a fair acre of pasturage ; they everybody detested, but which everybody caressed, had furnished men for a new regiment of hussars ; by way of paying court to its master. Amongst but they rebelled outright when ordered to use a the host of ministers, military men, and ambassa- razor. The Livonian general, Traubenberg, redors, who sedulously attended the levees of the paired to Yailsk with a strong staff of barbers, and powerful favorite, was a general officer, remark- began shaving the refractory Cossacks on the pubable for the perfection and care with which his lic market-place. The patients rose in arms, hair was dressed. One day the monkey climbed massacred general, barbers, and aide-de-camps ; upon his head, and after completely destroying the recognized Pugatscheff as Peter III., and swore to symmetry of his hyacinthine locks, deliberately replace him on his throne, and to die in his dedefiled them. The officer dared not show the fence. The adventurer was near being as sucslightest discontent.
There are not wanting, cessful as the monk Otrepief. Catherine herself however, in the history of the eighteenth century, was very uneasy, although she published contemptinstances of heroism and courage to contrast with uous proclamations, and jested, in her letters to the far more numerous ones of vileness afforded by Voltaire, on the Marquis of Pugatscheff, as she the aristocracy of Russia. The dignity and for- called him. It was rather a serious subject to titude of Menzikoff-that pastry-cook's boy who joke about. The impostor defeated Russian arbecame a great minister—during his terrible ex- mies, and slew their generals ; took towns, whose ile in Siberia, are an oft-told tale. Prince Dol- governors he impaled; burned upwards of two gorouki, the same to whom Anne owed her crown, hundred and fifty villages; destroyed the commerce and whom she requited by a barbarous death, be- of Siberia ; stopped the working of the Orenberg held his son, brother and nephew broken on the mines; and poured out the blood of thirty thouwheel. When his turn came, and the execution- sand Russian subjects. At last he was taken. On ers were arranging him suitably upon the instru- his trial he showed great firmness; and, although ment of torture : “Do as you please with me,”' unable to read or write, he answered the questions he said, “and without fear of loading your con- of the tribunal with wonderful ability and intelsciences, for it is not in human power to increase ligence. He was condemned to death. Accordmy sufferings.” And he died without uttering a ing to the sentence, his hands were to be cut off complaint.
first, then his feet, then his head, and finally the But perhaps the most extraordinary instance of trunk was to be quartered. When brought upon coolness and self-command, at the moment of a the scaffold, and whilst the imperial ukase enumerviolent and cruel death, to be found in the annals ating his crimes was read, he undressed quickly of executions, is that of Pugatscheff, who, how. and in silence; but when they began to read the ever, was no nobleman, but a Cossack of humble sentence, he dexterously prevented the executioner birth, who deserted from the Russian army after from attending to it, by asking him all manner of the siege and capture of Bender by General Panim, questions--whether his axe was in good order, and fled to Poland, where he was concealed for a whether the block was not of a less size than pretime by hermits of the Greek Church. '“ Con- scribed by law, and whether he, the executioner, versing one day with his protectors,” says a had not, by chance, drank more brandy than usual, French writer already referred to, “he told them, which might make his hand unsteady. that once, during his service in General Panim's "The sentence read, the magistrate and his asarmy, a Russian officer said to him, after staring sistant left the scaffold. him very hard in the face, 'If the emperor
Peter "Now, then,' said Pugatscheff to the execu
tioner, ' let us have no mistakes ; the prescribed | knew, capable of any villainy that might serve his order must be strictly observed. So you will first ambition. Gold unlimited was placed at his dis cut off my head
posal, and promise of high reward if he discovered 66. The head first ! cried the executioner. the retreat of the princess, and lured her within
“So runs the sentence. Have a care! I Catherine's reach. Orloff set out for Italy; and have friends would make you dearly expiate an on his arriving there he took into his employ a error to my prejudice.'
Neapolitan named Ribas, a sort of spy, styling “ It was too late to call back the magistrate ; himself a naval officer, who pledged himself to and the executioner, who doubted, at last said to find out the princess, but stipulated for rank in the himself that the important affair, after all, was the Russian navy as his reward. M. Blanc asserts death of the criminal, and that there was little that he demanded to be made admiral at once ; and difference whether it took place rather sooner or that Orloff, afraid, notwithstanding the extensive rather later. He grasped his axe; Pugatscheff powers given him, to bestow so high a grade, laid his head on the block, and the next moment or compelled by the suspicions of Ribas to produce it rebounded upon the scaffold. The feet and the commission itself, wrote to Catherine, who at hands were cut off after death ; the culprit escap- once sent the required document. Whether this ing torture by his great presence of mind.” be exact or not, more than one historian mentions
It has been asserted that an order from the em- that Ribas subsequently commanded in the Black press thus humanized the cruel sentence; but this Sea as a Russian vice-admiral. When certain of is exceedingly improbable, for she was bitter his reward, Ribas, who then had spent two months against Pugatscheff, who, ignorant Cossack as he in researches, revealed the retreat of the unfortuwas, had made the modern Semiramis tremble on nate princess. With some abridgment we will her throne ; besides, it is a matter of history that, follow M. Blanc, whose narrative agrees, in all after his execution, the headsman had his tongue the main points, with the most authentic versions cut out, an` was sent to Siberia. Catherine, who of this touching and romantic history. had affected to laugh at Pugalscheff during his The princess was at Rome. Abandoned by Rad life, was so ungenerous as to calumniate him after zivil, she was reduced to the greatest penury, existdeath. “ This brigand,” she said, in one of her ing only by the aid of a woman who had been her letters quoted by M. Blanc, “ showed himself so servant, and who now served other masters. Alexis pusillanimous in his prison, that it was necessary Orloff visited her in her miserable abode, and spoko to prepare him with caution to hear his sentence at first in the tone of a devoted slave addressing his read, lest he should die of fear." It is quite cer- sovereign; he told her she was the legitimate Emtain, M. Blanc observes, that to his dying hour press of Russia ; that the entire population of that Pugatscheff inspired more fear than he felt. great empire anxiously longed for her accession ;
The misfortunes of the unhappy young Princess that if Catherine still occupied the throne, it was Tarrakanoff supply M. Blanc with material for the only because nobody knew where she (the princess) most interesting chapter in this volume of his was hidden; and that her appearance amongst her work. The Empress Elizabeth, daughter of Peter, faithful subjects would be a signal for the instant the Great, and predecessor of Peter III.— whose downfall of the usurper. Notwithstanding her marriage with the Princess of Anhalt Zerbest, af- youth, the princess mistrusted these dazzling assurterwards Catherine the Great, was brought about ances; she was even alarmed by them, and held by her-had had three children by her secret mar- herself upon her guard. Then Orloff, one of the riage with Alexis Razumoffski. The youngest of handsomest men of his time, joined the seductions these was a daughter, who was brought up in of love to those of ambition ; he feigned a violent Russia under the name of the Princess Tarrakanoff.passion for the young girl, and swore that his life When Catherine trampled the rights of Poland un- depended on his obtaining her heart and hand. The der foot, the Polish prince, Charles Radzivil, car- poor isolated girl fell unresistingly into the infamous ried off the young princess, and took her to Italy, snare spread for her inexperience; she believed and thinking to set her up at some future day as a pre- loved him. The infamous Orloff persuaded her tender to the Russian throne. Informed of this, that their marriage must be strictly private, lest Catherine confiscated his estates; and, in order to Catherine should hear of it and take precautions. live, he was compelled to sell the diamonds and In the night he brought to her house a party of other valuables he had taken with him to Italy. mercenaries, some wearing the costumes of priests These resources exhausted, Radzivil set out for of the Greek church, others magnificently attired to Poland to seek others, leaving the young princess, act as witnesses. The mockery of a marriage then in her sixteenth year, at Rome, under the enacted, the princess willingly accompanied Alexis care of a sort of governess or duenna. On reach- Orloff, whom she believed her husband, to Leghorn, ing his native country he was offered the restora- where entertainments of all sorts were given to her. tion of his property if he would bring back his The Russian squadron, at anchor off the port, was ward to Russia. He refused; but he was so base commanded by the English Admiral Greig. This as to promise that he would take no further trouble officer, either the dupe or the accomplice of Orloff, about her, and leave her to her fate. Catherine invited the princess to visit the vessels that were pardoned him, and forth with put Alexis Orloff on soon to be commanded in her name. She accepted, the scent. He was a keen bloodhound, she well, and embarked after a banquet, amidst the acclama
tions of an immense crowd ; the cannon thundered, “ But we shall be drowned !" the sky was bright, every circumstance conspired “ That is pretty certain. But without special to give her visit the appearance of a brilliant festi- orders I am not to let you leave this dungeon, under val. From her flag-bedecked galley she was hoisted pain of death. In cases of unforeseen danger I am in a splendid arm-chair on board the admiral's ves- to remain with you, and to kill you should rescue sel, where she was received with the honors due to be attempted." a crowned head. Until then Orloff had never left “ Good God! the water rises. I cannot sustain her side for an instant. Suddenly the scene changed. myself.” Orloff disappeared ; in place of the gay and smiling The Neva, overflowing its banks, floated enor. officers who an instant previously had obsequiously mous blocks of ice, upsetting everything in its pasbowed before her, the unfortunate victim saw her- sage, and inundating the adjacent country. The self surrounded by men of sinister aspect, one of water now plashed furiously against the prison whom announced to her that she was prisoner by doors; the sentinels had been carried away by the order of the Empress Catherine, and that soon she torrent, and the other soldiers on guard had taken would be brought to trial for the treason she had refuge on the upper floors. Lifted off her feet by attempted. The princess thought herself in a the icy flood which still rose higher, the unfortudream. With loud cries she summoned her hus- nate captive fell and disappeared; the jailer, who band to her aid ; her guardians laughed in her face, had water to his breast, hung his lamp against the and told her she had had a lover, but no husband, wall, and tried to succor his prisoner; but when he and that her marriage was a farce. Her despair at succeeded in raising her up, she was dead! The these terrible revelations amounted to frenzy; she possibility anticipated by his employers was realburst into sobs and reproaches, and at last swooned ized; there had been stress of circumstances, and away. They took advantage of her insensibility to the princess being dead, he was at liberty to leave put fetters on her feet and hands, and lower her the dungeon. Bearing the corpse in his arms. he into the hold. A few hours later the squadron succeeded in reaching the upper part of the prison. sailed for Russia. Notwithstanding her helpless If we may offer a hint to authors, it is our ness and entreaties, the poor girl was kept in irons opinion that this tragical anecdote will be a goduntil her arrival at St. Petersburg, when she was send to some romance-writer of costive invention, taken before the empress, who wished to see and and on the outlook for a plot. Very little ingequestion her.
nuity will suffice to spread over the prescribed Catherine was old ; the Princess Tarrakanoff quantity of foolscap the incidents we have packed was but sixteen, and of surpassing beauty ; the dis- into a page. They will dilute very handsomely parity destroyed her last chance of mercy. But as into three volumes. As to characters, the novelthere was in reality no charge against her, and as ist's work is done to his hand. Here we have the her trial might have made too much noise, Cathe- Empress Catherine, vindictive and dissolute, perrine, after a long and secret interview with her un- secuting that fair girl” the Princess Tarrakafortunate prisoner, gave orders she should be kept noff, with the assistance of Orloff, the smooth vilin the most rigorous captivity. She was confined lain, and of the sullen ruffian Ribas. The latter in one of the dungeons of a prison near the Neva. will work up into a sort of Italian Varney, and
Five years elapsed. The victim of the heartless may be dispersed to the elements by an intentional Catherine and the villain Orloff awaited death as accident, on board the ship blown up by Orloffos the only relief she could expect ; but youth, and a order, for the enlightenment of the painter Hackgood constitution struggled energetically against ert. With the exception of the dungeon-scene, torture and privations. One night, reclining on the we have given but a meagre outline of M. Blanc's straw that served her as a bed, she prayed to God narrative ; and there are a number of minor to terminate her sufferings by taking her to himself, characters that may be advantageously brought in when her attention was attracted by a low rumbling and expanded. “This event,” says M. Blanc, noise like the roll of distant thunder. She listened. referring to the kidnapping of the princess, The noise redoubled ; it became an incessant roar, " caused a strong sensation at Leghorn. Prince which each moment augmented in power. The Leopold, Grand-duke of Tuscany, complained bitpoor captive desired death, and yet she felt terror; terly of it, and would have had Alexis Orloff arshe called aloud, and implored not to be left alone. rested ; but this vile assassin of Peter III. mainA jailer came at her cries ; she asked the cause of tained that he had only executed the orders of his the noise she heard.
sovereign, who would well know how to justify “ 'Tis nothing,” replied the stupid slave ; “ the him. He was supported in this circumstance, by Neva overflowing.”
the English consul, who was his accomplice ; and “ But cannot the water reach us here?”
the grand-duke, seeing he was not likely to be the 6. It is here already.”
strongest, suffered the matter to drop.” At that moment the flood, making its way under Englishmen,” another French writer asserts, the door, poured into the dungeon, and in an instant" had been so base as to participate in Alexis captive and jailer were over the ankles in water. Orloff's plot ; but others were far from approving
“ For heaven's sake, let us leave this!” cried it. They even blushed to serve under him, and the young princess.
sent in their resignations. Admiral Elphinstone “ Not without orders; and I have received none.' was one of these. Greig was promoted in his
place.” An Italian prince, indignant, but timid ; great combined army of Italy. Poland is let a foreign consul, sold to Russian interests ; a Brit- loose. Holland probably will be neutral, and ish sailor, spurning the service of a tyrant. We Belgium if she is wise. What will Denmark do? need say no more ; for we are quite sure that be- |--Sweden and Norway ?-nay, ultra-pacific Engfore we get thus far, the corps of historical nov- land? The ardor of war gains upon Europe like elists will be handling their goose-quills.
the fire on the prairie.
A war begun without a policy. Russia has From the Spectator of 26th May.
manifestly no better policy than to act when she EUROPE-CANADA-THE FUTURE-FRANCE
may and do what she can ; France has changed AND ITS PRESIDENT.
her policy since she really entered on the path of All the tendencies of the day, throughout Eu- war; and no other nation is prepared. It is a rope, seem to be for war, hastening onward with war without a policy—a haphazard war. Such no tardy approach. Losing ground in Hungary, is the statesmanship of 1849! Of course the war Austria has invited the aid of Russia ; and the itself will evolve a policy ; perhaps no more than Emperor Nicholas instantly advances with a dec- the conflict of absolutism and republicanism. But laration that he comes to put down the spirit of at present there is nothing proposed, at least on disorder--by which he evidently means the spirit the liberal side, as the object of victory. opposed the status quo and to the rules of absolutism. That spirit includes the leaning to
The news from Canada is very unsatisfactory; constitutional monarchy which has been manifested and the private accounts are still darker than the even in the cabinet of Vienna. Nicholas regards published. Lord Elgin steadily perseveres in his himself as summoned not only by Francis Joseph course, and the governor-general has succeeded in but also by events; and he thinks the time has becoming the cockshy-general for the ultra “loyal” come for redressing the disturbed balance of party.
As the rebellion-losses bill comes to be power by putting down the spirit of free govern- regarded as an irrevocable act, the question of “ an
nexation” revives—with threats among some, with His greatest antagonist sees the advance and alarm among others; but still it is again talked of. understands it. The position of France is anom In another page we publish a letter with which alous, but by no means incompatible with a war we have been favored, written in reply to interof resistance if not aggression. Louis Napoleon rogatories from the colony. Those queries were has made a bold stroke to support moderatism, put by practised politicians in Canada ; they are and has placed an army for that purpose in Rome. answered by a politician not less conversant with It seems to have been a mistake; the Pope, who public affairs here. It will be seen that he takes is the legitimate head of moderatism in the eter- no hopeful view; he holds that English politinal city, cannot be replaced by President Bona- cians cannot understand the circumstances which parte's troops ; the soldiers fraternize with those made Lord Elgin's technical observance of theowhom they were sent to attack; and the govern- retical decorum a grand mistake in policy. This ment at Paris is fain to devise a new mission for is true while the question turns, in England, upon its army. The French army at Rome is an technical points; but it is rapidly assuming a army without a mission—that has to be filled in. more tangible form. It is true that a numerous General Oudinot's “untoward event," M. Léon party in this country would be ready to abandon Faucher's faux pas at the elections, and still all our colonies, and would be willing to begin more disastrously the aspect of irresolution and with Canada. It is true that the papers which vacant thoughts betrayed by President Bona- the writer of the letter quotes from leading jourparte's cabinet, have shaken it to pieces. At nals in the whig interest indicate that the whig this juncture, M. Joly proposes in the assembly ministers covertly head that colonial abandonment a resolution equivalent to a declaration of war party. But the country is not yet wholly posagainst Russia. General Cavaignac will not go sessed by the Manchester school ; and, however that length, but he proposes a resolution equiva- ministers may count upon a general neutrality at lent to a preparation for war. Ministers oppose present, they would find, as soon as it really came both motions, and desire to proceed to the order to a question of “dismembering the empire,” of the day; they are beaten by 459 10 53. that the English people are not in favor of a surGeneral Cavaignac's resolution is carried by 436 render to which our ministerial writers are ento 184 ! Thus, as Russia advances from the deavoring to reconcile the country. north-east, France stands to her arms.
The West Indies are not in revolt-scarcely Now what is the state of the field—that is Eu “ disaffected” in a political sense ; yet they are rope—to be occupied by these two leading forces ? fermenting with discontents of such a kind, that Germany is in a state of chaos. If France make the idea of “ annexation,” at a day not so remote her sincerity apparent, the German peoples will but that men now in office might live to see it, side with her. Hungary will accept her alliance, becomes more familiar to loyal West Indians than Turkey, Italy. France has an army at Rome, would have been thought possible till lately. which all but mutinies rather than assail her Ro
“ brethren;" she will gladly march against The Future.—Party-spirit has run high in Radetzky and Russia, and be the nucleus of a this country, and the manner of it still so far pre