contented with a reference than would thank us he there attended with respect and thankfulness; as for quotations. It is not doubtful that in every to John Young, the Greek professor, his language great school, boys and striplings, never destined is that of the liveliest gratitude. This gentleman, to achieve literary distinction of any sort, far less as a classical scholar unrivalled in Scotland, was to win the name of poet, are constantly producing besides a master of Italian literature and of music verses on a par (or all but) with what our most -an enthusiast in poetry. Nor has any teacher famous precocities have done. The talent of possessed above him the skill to inspire juvenile imitation is the best that such blossoms can ex- auditors with his own delight in the visions of hibit. The impression made on near observers genius, as well as in the anatomy of their records by the general superiority of vigor is a circum- to the minutest tint and refinement of word and stance, we repeat, of higher importance; and of syntax.

His affections were warm-no parent this impression, in the case of Campbell, the proof could have taken fonder pleasure in such a son as is abundant. In all tasks he was foremost, and he Campbell than he in such a pupil. An eminent soon surprised his teachers by the evidences of an divine, Dr. Ralph Wardlaw, tells our biographer intellectual alacrity and resourcefulness such as how freshly he remembers Young's ecstasy when never ought to be contemplated in the appointment he had to read aloud the first of Campbell's metriof exercises for a class.

cal versions from Euripides—“the big round tears The high school of Glasgow, we are informed, hung trembling in his eye." It is little to say that was at that time, and continued for many years the translations thus approved, some of which are later, in greater estimation than it can now pre- retained in his last revision of his poetry, would tend to as a classical seminary. Since then have been sure of the prize against the maturest the term for Latin has been abridged, and the competition of an English university. Nor have Greek instrnction abolished-concessions, it seems, we any doubt the professor's criticism was as influto the enlightenment of the age-in other words, ential as his applause was agreeable ; in a word, results of municipal reform. No one ever profited that from his studies under Mr. Young, Campbell more by the old system than Campbell. But, in the main formed and fixed his poetical taste-his though his health was feeble and his diligence bent for the presentation of simple, strong, and uncommon, he was no retired schoolboy. He was vivid thoughts and images within the narrowest well-beloved among his fellows, and took his share space and with the most careful delicacy of finish. in all their diversions. Of these the most favorite These exercises gave him celebrity among his was that very dangerous one of stone-bickers, which fellow-students ; and very soon—college matters Scott describes in his story of Green-breeks. In being still of primary interest, which it is scarcely these rencounters Tom Campbell appears to have to be supposed they can be in a manufacturing been often the dexterous David of the camp ; but town of 300,000 souls—his fame extended over the a grievous casualty occurred in one engagement, neighborhood; and this he turned to account in a and, though his hand had not wielded the sling, very honorable way. When he was in his sixhe would never again join the muster. This sen- teenth year, his father's distress was still further sibility of temperament showed itself in the delight deepened by failure in a lawsuit, and on the arrival the slender boy found in long holiday rambles of this overwhelming intelligence his first thought among the moors and glens of the adjoining coun- was that now he might find scholars of less mark try, especially in the picturesque ravines of the willing to pay for what help he could afford them Cart, and on the open pastoral banks of the Clyde, in his leisure hours; and he soon had as much of as yet undeepened and undyked, unstained by dyes, this employment as was not incompatible with his and unvexed of steam-fleets. The impression of own studies. The money thus earned was not for these first scenes of natural beauty is stamped with himself, but for his parents, or rather for his sisters, sad fidelity on the last sterling production of his who, unless their education were to be liberal, had

Glasgow itself, we need scarcely observe, small chances of independence. In like manner, was then very unlike the great city of our day. when the college session was over, he obtained The population was not, probably, above a sixth Young's recommendation to a lady of the Campbell of what it is now. The ground on which the clan, who wanted a tutor for her boys, and went in streets and squares inhabited by the upper classes this capacity to have been erected, was quite rural. Many a huge

the Hebrid isles, cotton-mill marks the site of a farm-house of 1790. Placed far amidst the melancholy main. The venerable cathedral and college were still the

His journey through Argyleshire and his resiprincipal features of the fine, airy, well-built old dence at Sumpal in Mull, introduced him to some town, as described by Smollett in the last and best of the wildest and grandest scenery of his native of his novels.

kingdom, which could not but give a powerful stimCampbell passed at a very early age, according ulus to his susceptible imagination.

He now made to the fashion of Scotland, from the school to the acquaintance also with some of the sterner experiadjoining university (October, 1791 ;) and he speaks

ences of life ; for though treated with kindness, he in his scanty memoranda of all those whose lectures was for the first time to judge and act for himself the flow and pith of the language, in which thoughts and in continued relations with a family not his own. sentiments, often generous, sometimes fierce and scornful, but all unmistakably Byronic, are set down in some of To our wonder, Dr. Beattie wonders that his inthe very earlist of these epistles..

quiries should have traced hardly any reminiscence


of Campbell among the Hebrideans. He found hered to during the very unusual number of six only a dim tradition that the tutor afterwards sessions, he now attended some of the philosophy known to fame was addicted to solitary rambles classes and the lectures of the then celebrated among the mountains, and rowing himself in moon- John Millar on the law of nations. Campbell's light about the loch. Some letters to college friends liberal politics are ascribed by himself in his of the time, especially to one who, from mere fer- Memoranda to the influence of this eloquent provor of affection, had walked with him great part of fessor ; bis letters, however, show that in 1794 the way across the mainland of Argyle, are inter- he had begged five shillings from his mother, and esting for their artless reflection of the eager delight walked to Edinburgh and back again, in order and unbounded trustfulness of young companion that he might attend the trials of Muir and Gership. They also indicate both the fretting under ald for sedition, and that these men seemed to new restraints, and the natural melancholy that him glorious martyrs after the noblest classical more softly clouded his thoughts; and from them pattern. Lord Cuninghame says that while he too we gather that here love first soothed and first himself and the majority of the boarders took the pained him. A charming Caroline, who paid a visit same side in fireside debates, there were a couple to his employer's family, was nothing loath to ac- of obstinate young tories in the house, who maincompany him in his walks and boatings. Sonnets tained what battle they could against the domiensued, and dreams, which had the common end-nant worship of Harmodius and Aristogeiton. ing. Dr. Beattie seems somewhat reluctant to con- The Poles, he adds, were at the same date in fess that the Hebridean exile produced also certain high honor with their future laureate and lifestanzas in honor of a “humble beauty,” a “ Maria” | long friend. All these controversies, however, of the reaping-field. Burns would never have were carried on with the greatest good humor, turned his Highland Mary into Maria, nor would and the page is enlivened with some reminiscences Campbell have done the like in the days of Lord of practical jokes out of doors, in which tories and Ullin's Daughter; but the doctor's fear is to tarnish whigs, preceptor and pupils, exhibited entire symthe romance in muslin, though the russet, by his pathy. own showing, was about as lasting wear.

Several surviving fellow-students well rememWhether either Caroline or Maria had any share ber the extreme depression of Campbell's spirits, in the matter we are not instructed; but after a few when he returned among them latterly from his months Campbell resigned his post, and felt like an tutorships. He was, in almost all respects, old emancipated prisoner when he joined a comrade for his years, and serious care had begun to fix who had also been tutorizing among the islands, and itself upon him. He was the wonder of the unithe pair were at liberty to make out “ Balclutha” versity ; session after session, Dr. Wardlaw says, -i. e. Glasgow, in their own fashion. They the other youths saw him carry off prize after walked all the way, thinking little of the hard fare prize without a grudge, and admitted that the peof a shepherd's sheiling, or even of sleeping all culiar attention he received from the professors night in their plaids under a bare cliff in October. was honorable to them. In their houses he was a “ Youth,” says Scott,“ is a fine carver and gilder;" frequent guest; and this was an enviable advanthe companion too was in his way a poet, and they tage, for most of them had students of a superior had many precious things to communicate. Camp-class-occasionally young Englishmen of birth bell's knapsack held, ainong other fruits of the sum- and fortune-domiciliated under their roofs, and mer, a complete translation of the Clouds, and two lived also on terms of hospitable familiarity with or three choruses from the Choephoræ—which the best families of the neighborhood. This was also Dr. Beattie takes to be a comedy by Aristoph- especially the case with Richardson, professor of anes !-(i. 155.)

humanity, (i. e. Latin,) who, though neither a geIn the vacations of three succeeding summers nius nor a masculine scholar, like Young, was a he lived in as many houses in the country as tu- man of taste and acquirement, enjoying much local

One of these places was Downie in Appin, reputation as one of Mackenzie's coadjutors in the where he had under his eye the whirlpool of Mirror, and the author of some essays on the Corrievreckan and other scenery embalmed in Characters of Shakspeare, besides a volume of Gertrude of Wyoming. The winter always poems—this last long dead and buried. He had found him again in Glasgow, and every experi- been tutor in the family of Cathcart, and acted as ment made him dislike more and more the position private secretary to the noble lord when ambassaof a preceptor

dor to St. Petersburg. He was now a rich elderFar from the sports and nameless joys of home.

ly bachelor, very distinguishable among his breth

ren for trimness of the outward man, suavity of One of his father's boarders and his pupils in address, and the neainess of all his domestic 1795-6 was a gentleman afterwards distinguished arrangements. He was also the only one of the at the bar of Edinburgh, and now esteemed as a more eminent professors that was a high tory ; judge-Lord Cuninghame. He was not much but no whig among them patronized the young younger than Campbell, and out of lesson-hours Tyrtæus with warmer zeal, and his good word they were equal companions. The judge de- was worth all the rest put together with the lascribes the family as stricily regulated, but cheer- dies—who readily saw merit in so comely a stripful. In addition to Young, whom Campbell ad- ling, discovered presently that he could not only


Dr. M. says,

translate Ovid to Mr. Richardson's satisfaction, but | so much that, when in his advanced life he was pen for himself a sonnet to an eyebrow; and by induced to resume that study, a very little exand by perhaps a little agitated the good gentle- ertion," says a friend of his and ours, " enabled man's ailes de pigeon by dubbing his protegé him to read the Psalms and Genesis in the origi“the Pope of Glasgow.”

nal.” But here he stopped ; he would not proIt may seem odd that, with such friends, he ceed with his friends to the theological professor ; should have found cause for the anxiety that could and Dr. Beattie intimates, about as distinctly as not conceal itself from intimate observers. But it he ever intimates anything on a delicate topic, was so; and the notes supplied to Dr. Beattie by that the reason was a disturbance of Campbell's another acute class-fellow, the Rev. Dr. John religious opinions. Muir, go far to explain the matter. After men

What were his religious principles at this stage tioning the constant eulogies of the profound of his career I have no positive evidence to show. Young” and “the elegant-minded Richardson,” He affirmed—in playful allusion to his intimacy

with the masters of that language—that he was of

the Greek church. At the age of eighteen, as This praise seemed to have impaired the links he informis us, “he became an emancipated lover of his remaining career, for in the severer studies of truth,” and entered upon a course of “free inof mathematics and philosophy ** he did not quiry” into “ the merits” of certain infidel writers excel. It seemed as if the praise he merited and of that period. At the time in question, or even received in the language classes had led him to earlier, as he acknowledged many years afterwards, form the idea that perseverance and industry were he suffered great anxiety on the subject of religion, requisite only in meaner minds. The indolence in- and spent much time in its investigation. At last cident to our fallen nature was felt and shown by his mind became settled, and he arrived at what he our youthful poet. He seldom even exercised his conceived to be “ satisfactory conclusions ;" but gift, except when roused by the prospect of gaining when brought into collision with his previous, and à prize, or by some stirring incident among the naturally strong, religious aspirations, those sophisstudents.

tries produced a discord in his mind, of which he

never seemed fully aware. His adopted “opinWithin and beyond the academic walls, he ions," however, had only a superficial hold ; they could, by efforts of brief duration, command a could never eradicate the deep-seated impressions measure and even a kind of applause unattainable which he had imbibed under his father's roof; and to his coevals; and having tasted this cup, he if, during their influence, he was at times rash or more and more shrunk from graver labor.

This unguarded in conversation, he was uniformly grave is not the place for a disquisition on different and circumspect in his writings.—Vol. i., p. 209. methods of academical discipline; there is much The doctor's language appears studiously obto be said in favor of the Scotch system, especial- scure. At what period it was that he said he was ly with reference to the temper and habits of that of the Greek church we are left to guess ; but people ; but the temptation for rhetorical ambition the extent to which he piqued himself on his Greek in the chair itself, the preponderance of public ex- lore--probably never profound—was among the hibitions, and especially the large share of honors peculiarities which the casual acquaintance of his allotted for essays in English composition, are cir- declining years smiled at; and from the contrast cumstances exceedingly dangerous for youths of which the doctor makes between the satisfactory the irritable fibre to which genius usually allies conclusions,” the adopted opinions," the occaitself. A lad who has been accustomed to this sional “rashness of conversation," on the one sort of triumph-unless he has a fund of solid side, and, on the other, the “uniform gravity and sense not often conjoined with a rapid development circumspection of his writings,” a reader may be of the imaginative sympathies—will hardly be apt to infer that Dr. Beattic alludes to the works more likely to relish the calm toil by which the by which Campbell is known to the world, and fondest self-love of youth can never dream of any the talk of which his biographer was a hearer. achievement beyond the unobtrusive solidity of Of all this we know nothing-well content to deep foundations, than a woman, who has once know that in his closing hours his language and trod the stage amidst bravos and bouquets, to find demeanor were such as his good parents could not full contentment in the duties and comforts of a have disapproved. If any unpleasant conjectures village home. Every renewed experiment, we are set afloat Dr. Beattie may thank the awkwardhave seen, increased his aversion for domestic tu- ness of his own pen. Few would have thought torship. That, however, was the only line in it wonderful that the flattered “ Pope of Glasgow" which his teachers could be of immediate use to should have shuddered, when it came near, at the him; and it was only by pursuing it that he had vision of a Geneva cloak and a moorland manse. a fair prospect in the profession which his parents · He had, however, read Johnson's Lives and had set their hearts upon. They were zealous Boswell, and caught some notions of the perilousPresbyterians -and their ambition for Thomas ness of a life without a real profession ; and was eininence in the kirk. Most of the compan- though the chronology of his various attempts is ions who supply notes for this chapter were des- hardly to be made out from these pages, where nartined for that career. With them Campbell at-rative and letters are jumbled together but not intended one course of Hebrew, and his facility in terwoven, there is evidence that he did feel his languages being very remarkable, he thus acquired way, after the kirk was dropped, as to almost every profession within his reach. He tried the hame, it is exceedingly doubtful that Campbell counting-house of a mercantile friend, whose pat- could have long endured. He very soon rejected ronage might have advanced him either at home it. The same kindness procured him a trial of or in the West Indies ; but the day-book and two other establishments ; but he could abide no ledger soon disgusted him who had not been able stool and no desk out of his own garret. to command his attention in the metaphysical or Having all but resolved to resign for the third mathematical lecture-rooms. IIe tried surgery time, he was wandering about the streets one —but was driven away by the first operation he Sunday when he met an acquaintance, one of the had to witness. Millar's rhetoric and Cuning- masters of the Glasgow High School, who rehame's society tempted him to the law ; he attend- marked his downcast air, and showed great coned a course on Heineccius, and found his curiosity cern when informed of his circumstances. This pleasantly stirred; but these were the flowers on Mr. Park was on his way to call on Dr. Anderthe threshold, and when he looked further, the son, author of some Lives of British Poets, and prospect was gloomy. If he were to fix on the honorably remembered as an active Samaritan of bar, he must remove to Edinburgh, and find the literary community. It chanced that the docmeans of subsistence there while in training. But tor's daughters had observed from their window the greatest difficulty was behind. Poor as the the schoolmaster's approach; and inquired who Scotch bar's prizes are in comparison with those his companion was- - that pale youth who looked of the South, its initiatory cost was (we suppose so woful as they parted. He told Campbell's still is) much heavier. In those days, or not long story ; and the party greatly admiring a certain afterwards, the fees amounted to £500.-Camp- "Elegy on Mull,” which he had got by heart, bell might about as rationally have contemplated requested him to bring the poet with him on his meeting a demand for £5000.

next visit. There are so few marking events in For young ambition, however, in Scotland, Campbell's life, that his biographer seems justiwhen it does not point to arms, the grand magnet fied in considering the meeting which ensued as is always the forensic gown ; and his would not of that order. Dr. Anderson, though not the readily abandon that aim. His hopes appear to first author that he conversed with, was the first have been fed on light enough diet – for example, professional author—the first man acquainted with his letters show that he indulged great expecta- “the trade.” The Edinburgh trade was just betions from an eminent physician's" promise of ginning to show signs of life-Anderson himself an introduction to an “eminent barrister," who, had already suggested and been employed in sundry he fancied, was at once to instruct him gratuitous- schemes towards that breaking up of the London ly in the learning of the robe, and unlock for him monopoly, which Constable with the Edinburgh some mysterious resources by which he might Review and Walter Scott at his back ere long efsupport himself during the novitiate. For the fectually achieved. The doctor, warmly encour5001.

—we hear of no calculation on that point ; aging Campbell as to his poetical vein, and promwe can only fancy that youth carved and gilded ising instant endeavors to procure a purchaser with unusual boldness and brilliancy. But the for some of the MS. plays from the Greek, inbusy barrister's reply to the physician, when it formed him that any man who counted on living did come, was fatal. It is no part of the Scotch by his verses would pretty certainly find himself advocate's arrangements to have legal pupils about out in his reckoning; but that if he would underhim ; he would as soon think of giving private take to do what the booksellers wanted done, there lessons in dancing ; nor has he employment for would be no lack of employment, the dullest of any assistant, except one clerk to write from his it not so bad as copying leases and wills, and by dictation—a situation which in this gentleman's which he might subsist, reserving for the Muses case was already filled. Mr. Cuninghame must such brighter hours as alone are propitious to their have quitted Glasgow before the date of this hal- worship. Here were new lights, and hopes comlucination. Its dispersion threw Campbell into paratively at least feasible. A bargain begun about despair ; but by and by—we know not how the Medea hung fire; but one for an abridgment of many months had elapsed-he recurred to the Edwards' West Indian History was forthwith conmain dream, and resolved on at all events trans- cluded—a duodecimo volume--for 201., which ferring himself to Edinburgh, and trying what sum the experiences of a copyist and a tutor had could be done on the spot. His few clothes and not taught Campbell to consider with disrespect. books, with a considerable bag of MSS., were And here it should not be omitted, that small as committed to the carrier, and for the second time his pay from the solicitors must have been, he had he walked to the capital, where he found no ac- contrived not only to live on it, but to save a few quaintance whatever except Cuninghame. This pounds. So severe at this time were his personal gentleman was now attending the chambers of a habits. writer to the Signet, as is common enough with He rejoined his friends at Glasgow in evident those meant for the bar, and his old friend and exhilaration. The abridgment advanced at a swift tutor obtained the vacant stool of a copying-clerk pace—for what will not the first glimpse of indeat the same desk where he himself was content to pendence lighten ? and having been smitten one labor. But such labor, even if the ulterior pros- evening, when on a country visit, with a young pects had been as clear as they were to Cuning- | lady's singing of an indifferent set of words, he brought down next morning the ballad of The connected with that pursuit. He had also reasoned Wounded Hussar, which found its way to the himself into the propriety of resuming the practice newspapers, was reprinted with music, encored of private teaching; and the Glasgow professors in theatres—and gave Dr. Anderson the oppor- having written in his favor to their Edinburgh tunity of introducing his name advantageously brethren, he found as much of that as there was among various circles in Edinburgh. The Hus- leisure for. The chemistry lecture much interested sar was followed by a Dirge of Wallace, which him; and whether as tutor or as fellow-student, or was never included by Campbell in any edition of as associated in the debating societies of the college, his writings, and is here reprinted from the Ga- he soon became familiar with several young men lignani copies, from which he had often petitioned since distinguished. In a letter of the time he for its removal. Excepting the close of one expatiates on the wonderful promise of Henry stanza, we see little in it beyond an echo of the Brougham, by two years his junior, predicting the then fashionable strains of Alonzo the Brave, and highest triumphs in the abstruser sciences, from the like. Alluding to the huge rusty blade shown which no more sparkling, no more golden seducat Dumbarton Castle, which if Wallace ever used tions, have ever entirely weaned that athletic it must have been used with both hands, Camp- appetite. In some memoranda of far subsequent bell has these lines :

date he mentions Francis Horner, Francis Jeffrey, For his lance was not shivered on helmet or shield—and Henry Cockburn as among his acquaintance, And the sword that was fit for archangel to wield, “ before he was known as an author." Another, Was light in his terrible hand.

whom he takes care not to mention, was John But this piece, too, had great local success; and Leyden. Meantime he gave many secret hours to he was now encouraged to think of a poem on a his poem, and by and by the MS. was submitted considerable scale. Some couplets on Hope, pro- to Dr. Anderson, who read it with great delight ; duced during his melancholy sojourn in the Heb- urged, and superintended most careful revisions ; rides, were recalled to memory, and the capabil- as chosen passages acquired what he considered ities of the subject expanded on him. He made the requisite finish, communicated them to other additions as suggestion rose and opportunity served ; friends—and finally negotiated with a Mr. Munthe most, it appears, in the same house where he dell

, whose offer of 601. for the copyright was wrote the Hussar, and no doubt conceived the accepted. The day before the first sheet was to Wallace Dirge, that of Cordale in the beautiful be sent to the printer, Anderson told Campbell vale of Leven, hard by Dumbarton.

that the only part he could not entirely approve That summer the young poet dreamt another was the very opening of the poem. The original dream. This was a magazine, to be set up in draft is now given us, and there can be no quesalliance with a few of his old intimates, but of tion that the criticism was justified. Campbell which he, the editor in fore, would not hesitate to received it with some mortification, and Anderson undertake for three fourths of the letter-press. called on him next day, rather late, to apologize Some of his letters on this scheme are most buoy- for his freedom. The poet had passed a wakeful ant. Sydney Smith said there were three things night, and was now fast asleep—but the first every man fancied he could do-farm a small prop- twenty-two lines of the Pleasures of Hope, nearly erty, drive a gig, and write an article. Every as we have them, were decipherable on the blotted clever knot of young academics fancy they could leaf by his bedside—and those beautiful lines were conduct a journal, and rule the opinion of the indeed a cup of gladness to the kind censor. Even world. On this occasion there was no publisher to the unrivalled view from the Carlton Hill over who would risk his capital.

the Frith of Forth and the Perthshire mountains, This vision was not dispersed without many a it will henceforth be an additional glory that it pang—and Glasgow had sunk with his disappoint- (and not, as hitherto reported, some Hebridian ment. He made up his mind that Edinburgh prospect) suggested the proem which it would be must be his head-quarters ; his abridgment was idle to transcribe. finished ; he had been requested by its publisher How long Campbell adhered to his medical lecto superintend the printing of some Greek text for tures we are not told by the medical biographer ; that University, and counted on further employ- but we conjecture he had not made out the session ment from the same house. His father, however, with any of them. Ere it closed, the poem was was now very feeble, and the sisters being scat- ready, and the shadows it cast before it had attered, Thomas could not bear to think of a perma- tracted considerable notice. While yet in real nent separation from the humble Penates. His obscurity he had knit a friendship, to be dissolved parents were persuaded to remove also ; and the only by death, with John Richardson, (of Fludyer approach of winter (1798) found him and them street,) then a law student—then, as ever, a together in a retired outskirt of the Canongate. It student of everything good and graceful, and who was a busy winter with him, and an anxious one will go down with the singular distinction of still ; he continued to correct Greek proofs, and having enjoyed confidential familiarity through life do other taskwork for the bookseller ; but some with three of the brightest of his age, Thomas qualms having again disturbed his vista of a purely Campbell, Walter Scott, and Joanna Baillie. It literary career, he had reverted to the idea of was through him that Campbell, shortly before the medicine, and entered himself at two of the classes appearance of his volume, was introduced to Scott.

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